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Prejudice Police and the LGBT Community Research Paper

… At the first stop -- the Forum -- I was deeply moved the stories the gay police officers told; the forum was confidential and some of the officers admitted that they were still in the closet because they feared reprisal. I was saddened by these confessions and felt that in the 21st century we should not be condemning others or acting prejudicial in any way. Touring the District I saw that the LGBTQ community was no different from any other community (they were more flamboyant clothing -- but residents were neither more nor less friendly than in any other place). At the bar, I felt some discomfort as I had never really been around drag queens before -- and one person asked if I was…. [read more]

Assessment for Training of the Metropolitan Police Department Term Paper

… ¶ … Training of the Metropolitan Police Department

Context of the Problem

Brief History of the District of Columbia Metropolitan Area Police/

Community Relations since World War II

Major Problems Preventing Positive Relations between Communities and District of Columbia

Metropolitan Area Police Force

Can Training Programs Enhance Community

Relations for the District of Columbia Metropolitan

Area Police Force?

What Training Modules Can be Used to Enhance Relations between Surrounding Communities and the District of Columbia Metropolitan Area Police


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations



Context of the Problem

The issue of poor training has weighed heavily on the District of Columbia Metropolitan Police Department over the last few years. This issue hinders the necessary trust and…. [read more]

Adoption Gay Term Paper

… Gay Adoption

Adoption is an important social and legal process whereby children without parents are placed in homes and given full status as members of a family. Adoption goes beyond the sort of temporary placement that is common in foster homes and is seen to serve the needs of the children, to benefit the adoptive parents, and to strengthen society. Adoption for many people stands as the only viable option they have to become parents because they cannot conceive on their own, and yet there are usually far more children in need of adoptive parents than there are parents. Some children are harder to place than others, usually because they are older, and adoptive parents prefer small children as a rule. Children who have certain…. [read more]

Gay and Lesbian Torture in Iraq and the International Human Rights Violations Term Paper

… Torture and Abuse of Gays and Lesbians in U.S. Occupied Iraq

The United States has always presented itself as a model of fairness and equality. A champion of human rights around the world, the American government is a signatory to wide range of treaties that guarantee equal protection and treatment for persons of diverse races, religions, creeds, and ethnic groups. The American government condemns gender bias, age discrimination, and prejudice against the physically and mentally disabled. So, when George W. Bush's original justification for the invasion of Iraq i.e. "anticipatory self-defense" collapsed, the President quickly substituted the idea of human rights. Yet, the new Iraq that is emerging after five years of often bloody U.S. occupation can hardly be described as a humanitarian paradise. Numerous…. [read more]

Being Gay in Turkey Essay

… ¶ … Gay in Turkey

Turkey has a predominant Muslim population with the total population being over 12 million. The country has inherited the culture of both Asia and Europe but with Islamization, the Muslim way of life is the recognized way of life in Turkey. In the west there are fears of Turkey's legacies, on many issues. These include human rights, woman rights and gays. In 2004, Erik Jan Zurcher (2004) commented that the inability to integrate Muslims into the EU state and assertiveness of the new generation of Muslims and recent development of terrorism have created a controversy by itself. Thus when Turkey was granted a candidate membership in 1999 into the European Union, and the post 9/11 attack on the U.S. changed…. [read more]

Gay/Lesbian Studies - Discrimination in the Workplace Term Paper

… Gay/Lesbian Studies - Discrimination in the Workplace

An Analysis of Discrimination against Gays and Lesbians in the American Workplace Today

While many people today may not remember a time and place where minorities and women were discriminated against openly in the American workplace, the time was not in fact so long ago. Indeed, it is reasonable to maintain that such discriminatory practices remain firmly in place in some form or another in many regions of the country, but the wholesale practice is no longer the status quo and there are laws on the books designed to prevent it. Notwithstanding the U.S. Army's well-known wink-wink nudge-nudge policy of "Don't ask, don't tell," even fewer people, though, may realize the obstacles and challenges that have historically been…. [read more]

Drugs at a Friend's House Essay

… Moreover, it may be that in the culture of the owner of the small market, such gifts are not only acceptable but expected and in the interests of advancing good will of the department towards the police department, it might behoove the officer to accept it. Most departments do allow officers to use a certain amount of discretion and common sense. This means that officers can accept "articles of negligible value'" or "social courtesies which promote good public relations" (Berry 1991). Thus, in this once instance, I would accept the gift but tell the man that in general it is not department policy to accept gifts and tell him it would be not necessary in the future, much as the thought was appreciated.

Scenario 3…. [read more]

Homeless and Runaway Young People Term Paper

… The fundamental objective of child welfare services is to protect children from harm, care for them and provide for their best interests. When a family fails or becomes unwilling to provide these, the state comes in to fill in the function during a child or young person's developmental years. State laws guarantee this provision and the protection of the civil rights of the young. While some local child welfare agencies and workers have taken steps to respond to the needs of these youth, the majority have remained indifferent or even oblivious to the reality of gay youth in their care and, instead, exhibit abusive and hostile attitudes towards them who are the very object of their care (Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund 2002). There…. [read more]

Discrimination in Law Enforcement: Lethal Essay

… (Olivero and Rodrigo)

If many police officers really are afraid of homosexual people and believe them to be unlawful and dangerous people, then there are severe problems with the way officers not only view, but also treat gays and lesbians. The same people who are supposed to be catching hate crime offenders, maybe be harboring their same anti-gay stereotypes and prejudices. Officer Bevilaqua may not have consciously wanted to harm Alexander Gray simply because he was gay, but he may have made the immediate connection between homosexuals and dangerous criminal behavior. This fear could have caused him to make a different decision for handling the situation than he would have made if he hadn't known Gray's sexual orientation. Bevilaqua believed he was doing his duty…. [read more]

Hate Crimes Incidents Occur Nationally Term Paper

… This indicates a connection between national stress and hate crimes, but not necessarily an overall sustained growth in hate crimes. Where growth is evident is in the facts that in 2001 about 19.1% of hate crimes were religiously biased (HRC, 2002) and in 2002 about 19% were religiously biased (CFPA) whereas from 1997-1999 only 14% of hate crimes were inspired by religion. (NCJRS) Of course, racial bias continues to be the cause for about half of all hate crimes, and sexual orientation or gender identity prejudice continues to be the cause for between 17-20% of hate crimes. (NCJRS)

Race has always been the primary target of hate crimes, with religious and sexual identity coming in second and third, respectively. The significant changes here are that…. [read more]

Laramie Project Matthew Shepard Essay

… " Another said he was kind of asking for it, and that "he flaunted it." The message one takes away from these comments is that before this incident it was okay to be gay in Laramie, so long as nobody knew you were gay.

Governor Jim Geringer's statement also alludes to an underlying sense of denial. After hundreds of people asked Congress to pass a federal law banning hate crimes he cautioned, "I would like to urge the people of Wyoming against overreacting in a way that gives one group special rights over others. We will wait and see if the vicious beating and torture of Matthew Shepard was motivated by hate" (Kaufman).

To further exacerbate the problem the religious leaders of the community and…. [read more]

Civil Rights for LGBT Gay Essay

… The constitutional bans have made it more difficult for SSM advocates to achieve their desired policy change, but in the vast majority of these 27 states, the odds that either the legislature or the courts would have legalized SSM were pretty low from the start (Keck, 2009).

Direct democracy has resulted in very different outcomes in gay relationship rights contests in the United States and Switzerland. In the United States, direct democracy increasingly impeded pro-gay relationship rights legislation; in Switzerland direct democracy has promoted pro-gay relationship rights legislation. Direct democracy, unlike representative democracy, occurs when citizens vote on the laws themselves. In the United States these contests usually only occur at the state or local level of government when citizens are given the chance to…. [read more]

Individual Right Term Paper

… Their concentration seemed to be on the colored people, gays and youngsters. The question was whether it was constitutional to permit video and audio surveillance of legal activity, movement and association. These certainly are troubling questions. In Louisiana, there is an explicit right to privacy in the constitution. The question will always be the criteria for placing of the cameras, monitoring of the equipment and analysis of the video. (Tilley, 1999)

The technology for recognition has also to be chosen. The safeguards against the abuse of these records have also to be decided. The storage of the records in the database has also to be analyzed. The parameters for scanning, magnification and recording of sound up to the level of a whisper also has to…. [read more]

Hate Groups Research Proposal

… ¶ … groups the Ku Klux Klan (KKK), the Black Liberation Army (BLA), Army of God (AOG), and Earth Liberation Front (ELF) and establish that these groups are, in fact, terror organizations. The KKK and BLA organizations can be described as "hate" groups, because their messages include hatred and violence.

The AOG and ELF do not preach hate in the same manner as the KKK and BLA, but also qualify as terrorist organizations because of their chosen strategies for the pursuit of their missions and goals. The primary difference between them is that the AOG and ELF front organizations are terrorists only in their chosen strategies and tactics to achieve underlying goal that are legal in and of themselves whereas the KKK and BLA are…. [read more]

Strategic Diversity Management Term Paper

… The workforce of America is changing and that too, rapidly. As an increased number of people from the minorities group and women join the workforce, the companies that manage diversity immaculately will be the ones who will be successful in the cut-throat competition of the coming years. Initially, the way to deal with diversity was to wait for people to conceal or get used to their cultural differences so that they could gel with the culture of the companies' dominant employees.

The fresh way is to take care of diversity as a positive feature that brings a comprehensive range of perspectives and analytical skills to the organization. When the diversity is managed perfectly, employees do not feel the pressure to assimilate or hide their differences.…. [read more]

Hate Crimes the Definition Term Paper

… Hate Crimes

The definition of a hate crime, according to the United States Department of Justice (Office of Justice Programs), is a crime in which the offender is "…motivated by specific characteristics of the victim, including the victim's race, ethnicity, religion, or sexual orientation" ( The hate crime might be a crime against property, or a violent act against an individual, but in most cases the perpetrator shows evidence that "hate [against the race, ethnicity, religion or sexual orientation of a person] prompted" his or her actions (

Hate Crime Statistics

The Office of Justice Programs reports that only 44% of hate crimes in the U.S. are actually reported to the police, and more than 80% of hate crimes are associated with violent crimes (such…. [read more]

Public AIDS Policy Term Paper

… The reference to 'cancer' is ironic, because, although many AIDS sufferers were blamed for contracting the ailment through sexual practices, individuals such as a grandmother who smoked and contracts lung cancer, or a man who has a heart attack after eating unhealthy foods for many years, are often not similarly blamed for their ailments, nor is the contribution of personal behavior in cancer and heart disease seen as a reason that more public funds should not be diverted to curtailing the epidemic.

One of the most controversial allegations of Shilt's book is that one of the leading AIDS researchers, Dr. Gallo did not truly care about researching potential cures or methods of limiting the ailment until he felt he would be rewarded financially and with…. [read more]

Grant Funded Program: Victims of Violent Crime Services for Underserved Populations Capstone Project

… The Advocates of Color Network along with LGBTQQ Advisory Council Committee have presently undertaken initiatives that along with feedback have managed to identify the following gaps:

Direct service and systems that are specific to individual cultures need to be developed.

Dominations that tie and weaken violence against women realities need to be connected.

Services that are specific to cultures and languages must be integrated in community-based marital violence programs.

Colored people, LGBTQQ and similar groups and/or organizations need to be identified.

Also, the West Virginia Group Against Marital Violence Advocates of Color Network advanced and disseminated a statewide survey to communities of color in order to: elucidate marital violence, recognize community resources and hurdles, and to offer commendations on how best to rise marital violence…. [read more]

Hate Bias Crime in New Jersey Term Paper

… Hate/Bias Crimes in New Jersey

Cross burning is one of the hate crimes that occur in the state of New Jersey on the regular basis. Cross burning can, in fact be traced back in history right up to the time of the infamous 'Ku Klux Clan', which was a group of people who were dedicated totally to the perpetration of hate and bias related crimes on minorities, mostly African-Americans living peacefully in that state. According to an eyewitness of the cross burning carried out outside an African-American's house in new Jersey, "Few things can chill free expression and association to the bone like night-riders outside the door, and a fiery cross in the yard." (O Say! Can you see: Free expression by the light of…. [read more]

Ethics in Research an Error in Human Discussion Chapter

… Ethics in Research

An error in human inquiry

Eyewitness testimony is frequently presented in criminal court cases, but it can be extremely unreliable. This unreliability is compounded when witnesses must identify persons of groups other than their own or when their experience is clouded because of exterior circumstances such as a lack of visibility or a heated, pressured moment. This was noteworthy in one 1984 case in which a Caucasian woman was raped and identified an African-American man out of a lineup of photographs within four or five minutes. "Police asked Thompson-Cannino to help draw a composite of her rapist. Later, she was shown a photo array with six photos. She initially chose two pictures from the array, one of which depicted [Ronald] Cotton," an…. [read more]

Same Sex Marriages Term Paper

… " But the intelligible moral structure of marriage surely relates to more than procreation, and surely a loving and mutually beneficial relationship between same sex couples is again, more legitimately moral than an abusive heterosexual relationship? In short, the existence of a martial bond in legal terms is no guarantee of moral legitimacy for either same-sex or heterosexual couples. Rather, the legal bond of matrimony is merely recognition of the beginnings of an attempt of the couple to make such a moral bond and to enter into a social framework of unity. (George, 2003, p. A8)

Recently, an authority as high as the Supreme Court of the United States stated that gays "are entitled to respect for their private lives," according Justice Anthony Kennedy. Under…. [read more]

African American Literature Term Paper

… Describing a naming ritual, Haley has the father walking through a village to his wife. "Moving to his wife's side, he lifted up the infant and, as all watched, whispered three times into his son's ear the name he had chosen for him. It was the first time the name had ever been spoken as this child's name, for Omoro's people felt that each human being should be the first to know who he was" (Haley, p.3). This ritual shows the involvement of both parents in the child's rearing; not only with the selection of name, but also with their involvement in the community. Moreover, it highlights the importance of naming to parents, which brings to mind the fact that so many African-Americans carry surnames…. [read more]

Diversity and Crime Term Paper

… Losing Matthew Shepard

The book Losing Matt Shepard (Loffreda, 2000) tells the story of the murder of a young gay man in Laramie, Wyoming, the trial, and its effect on the country. The author begins the book with a bald statement of the facts of the murder, contrasting the beauty of the locale with the horror of what took place there when two men tied Matthew Shepard to a fence, beat him with a gun, and left him tied there to die. The case is not a completely unique incident, as horrible as it was, for anti-gay violence in the country takes place virtually every day. This case was seen as especially egregious and caused many to question what sort of country this is becoming,…. [read more]

Hate Crimes Differ From Ordinary Term Paper

… Hate crimes differ from ordinary crimes from many points-of-view. For instance, one point of differentiation is the impact they have upon the victim and the larger group to which the victim belongs to. An example has been provided in "Attorney General's Civil Rights Commission on Hate Crimes" by mentioning the Jewish and Filipino communities throughout U.S. that were strongly impacted by the attack on the West Valley Jewish Community Center and the slaying of Joseph Ileto in the San Fernando Valley in the summer of 1999. Another community greatly impacted by the murders of Matthew Shepherd in Wyoming and Gary Matson and Winfield Mowder, was the gay community. According to many authors, hate crimes affect not only the victim but also all the members of…. [read more]

Solutions to Hate Crimes Begin in the Classroom Essay

… When a student voices homophobic views, she tries to help them question "…the sources of their feelings" and points out that bigoted thoughts "…can provide an environment that nurtures hate crimes" (110). She requires that all students "…take measure of their own biases" by giving the Implicit Association Tests (110). This is a bold, intelligent approach.

Criminology Professor Eric Hickey (Cal State Fresno) suggests that law enforcement needs to do a better job of " infiltrating" extremist groups so they can be monitored before they lash out with violence based on their hatred (based race, gender, sexual orientation, and religion) (Hickey, 2009). Authorities know these hate groups because they use the Internet and hold public rallies; hence, "watchfulness and adherence to the rule of law"…. [read more]

Bystander Reporting Behavior of Violent Incidents: Reasons Term Paper

… Bystander Reporting Behavior of Violent Incidents: Reasons for Failing to Report, Student Self-Efficacy and Barriers to Reporting

Threats of Violence and Violence in U.S. Schools

The work of Fein et al. (2002) entitled: "Threat Assessment in Schools: A Guide to Managing Threatening Situations and to Creating Safe School Climates," a publication of the United States Secret Service and the United States Department of Education relates that since 1999 both of these organizations have been working in coordination in order to gain a better understanding and to "ultimately help prevent school shootings in America." (Fein, et al., 2002) Fein et al. states that most students in the U.S. "will complete their schooling without ever being touched by peer violence. Nevertheless, recent school attacks carried out by…. [read more]

Children Being Raised by Stepparents That Are Not of the Same Race or Culture Term Paper

… Children Raised by Stepparents

Of Different Race Or Culture

This work in research investigates the inherent problems that exist in families characterized by parents and stepparents of a biracial union, or of a union that is characterized by diversity in terms of ethnicity, cultural, or religious differences or the diverse households headed by lesbian or gay parents. The conceptual framework of this research is the socio-cultural theory of Tharp and the Spheres of Influence as proposed in the work of Epstein. The literature review in this work notes that there is very little subject matter in this area and this study concludes that longitudinal research is critically needed in this subject area for the purpose of gaining an understanding of the challenges faced by these…. [read more]

Discrimination Against High-Risk Sex Offenders Research Paper

… Discrimination Against High Risk Sex Offenders

Even when denoting truly violent offenders, demonization of any class of individual as being beyond redemption and/or devoid of humanity proves not only destructive, but wrong.

Contemporary laws, albeit, routinely brand any transgressor of under-age sex rules as a "sexual predator," even when no violence or force is alleged, and even if the young person is an only a few days from the age of consent. Most sexual contact between adults and minors occurs among family and friends. Without doubt, however, children deserve to be protected from sexual abuser...period. Not acknowledging sexual predators are also human, however, stigmatizes these individuals amdcontinues to cover of the roots of such crimes. These type negative actions also hinder/prevent individuals, previously branded as…. [read more]

Hate Crimes Term Paper

… Hate Crimes

"A hate crime is a criminal offense committed against persons, property, or society that is motivated, in whole or in part, by an offender's bias against an individual's or a group's race, religion, ethnic/national origin, gender, age, disability or sexual orientation. (Definition developed at the 1998 IACP Summit on Hate Crime in America)." (Turner, 2008).

Legal definitions of hate crimes vary by jurisdiction.

"The federal definition of hate crimes addresses civil rights violations under 18 U.S.C. Section 245." (Turner, 2008).

State definitions of hate crimes vary.

Some local governmental units, such as counties or cities, also have hate crime legislation.

Hate crime legislation generally does not create a new crime, but provides for enhanced penalties for existing crimes, such as assault, vandalism, etc.,…. [read more]

Hip Hop Feminism Term Paper

… Hypocrisies in Contemporary Hip-Hop Culture

Prevalent Themes in Hip-Hop Culture and Art

Certain images have been hallmarks of Hip-Hop culture even before its inception, dating back to the earlier rap genre of the 1980s and early 1990s (Price, 2006). Specifically, the accumulation of wealth, the ostentatious display of high-profile vehicles, clothing, and jewelry have been (and continue to be) featured prominently in the themes expressed in the art form. The extreme sexualization and exploitation of women and the depiction of their roles as subordinate figures or even as acquisitions associated with the success of male artists are other elements of Hip-Hop art and culture (Price, 2006).

To the extent education is referenced at all in Hip-Hop art, it is almost always portrayed negatively as a…. [read more]

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