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Prison Co-Culture and Its Relationship With Time Research Paper

… ¶ … Prison Co-Culture

It is highly likely that Chronemics plays a powerful role in Prison Culture.

Definition of Chronemics

The study of how time is used in non-verbal communication is called Chronemics. This discipline examines individual and cultural perceptions of time, evaluations of time, and reactions to time within set or defined situations. We don't often stop to consider time as a part of our individual inter-personal activities, but time can play a considerable role in the process of non-verbal communication. Cultural perceptions about time include expectations about punctuality on a short-time basis for social events, as well as time responsibility with longer-term events such as employment or contractual work. Not only punctuality, but also 'willingness to wait' is a part of our cultural…. [read more]

Prison System. This Discussion Essay

… References

Agnew, R. & Cullen, F.T. (2003). Criminological Theory, Past to Present. Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury Publishing Company.

Aziz, D., Levine, A.J., Sieber, K., Schulte, P., & Steenland, K. (1997). Incidence of Tuberculosis infection among New York State prisons employees. American Journal of Public Health, 87, 2012-2014

Briggs, C.S., Sundt, J.L., & Castellano, T.C. (2003). The effect of supermaximum security prisons on aggregate levels of institutional violence. Criminology, 41, 1341 -- 1376

Cheek, F. (1984). Stress management for correctional officers and their families. College Park, MD: American Correctional Association. 38

Cheek, F.E., & Miller, M. (1982). Prisoners of life: A study of occupational stress among state corrections officers. American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees. Washington D.C.

del Carmen, A. (2004). Corrections, 2e. Cincinnati:…. [read more]

Prison Systems Term Paper

… Although the prison system in the Netherlands has long been considered to be liberal, in recent years there have been drastic changes in the system. Boeij (2002) reports that there are four main reforms that have taken place including: the increase in the size of the penitentiary system, putting inmates in facilities in the region in which they live, the centralization of the prisons with the communities and closer collaboration between police, prosecutors and the jails (Boeij 2002).

Adjustment and Behaviors within prison systems

The ability of a prisoner to adjust to prison life is essential to there ability to survive within the prison system. DeRosia (1998) asserts that just as university students differ in their ability to adjust college, inmates also differ in how…. [read more]

Business Culture and Expansion Trends Research Paper

… , Mrs., Miss plus the complete name is deemed respectful; sincerity is considered the very best policy hence no overselling is required; it is considered inappropriate to speak in a loud tone as well; politics, sports, and weather condition are great conversational subjects, and could be fiercely discussed and in order to be a great conversationalist, it is important remain present and notified on crucial subjects; it is also recommended to avoid complicating New Zealand and Australia as part of one nation, as they are 2 unique nations. If you are not knowledgeable about New Zealand, hang around prior to your journey to find out about the history and culture (Trevor-Roberts et al., 2003).

c. Religion.

In New Zealand, simply over half of the populace…. [read more]

Working in United Arab Emirates Business Culture Research Paper

Likewise, locals in the UAE will be mindful of not committing the following faux-pas’s as well, as Soriano (2014) shows, when engaging in a business meeting or regular business practice:

· Never criticizing one of the powerful families of any of the seven emirates in the UAE;

· Never scheduling a business meeting or appointment during Ramadan, as this is an especially holy period for Muslims;

· Never demonstrating an attitude or air of disrespect towards the religious practices of others, but especially towards Islam, as this is the dominant religion of the state; to disrespect a religious practice of another, no matter what it is, however, is viewed as very offensive in the UAE, where everyone is expected to…. [read more]

Arab Culture Understanding Term Paper

… (Qureshi, E. 2004)

This critique also refers to one of the essential problems in his works -- the assumption that Arab culture is homogenous.

In Patai's case, his methodology was itself based on a fatally flawed set of assumptions -- most importantly, that there is one entirely homogenous Arab culture, derived from nomadic Bedouin culture. This ignores both the diversity and history of a people and civilization that extends across dozens of countries, from the Indian Ocean to the Atlantic, and the deeply rooted Arab culture of cities and agricultural communities. (ibid)

There are a host of criticisms of almost every aspect of the book. One area that has drawn wide range of criticism is the views on language. Patai says that because every noun…. [read more]

Organisational Cultures Term Paper

… Instead, many of these changes appear to have been made for but for economic reasons (Warne et al., 2002).

When market approaches were introduced in the 1990s, the Private Finance Initiative (PFI) was implemented, as well. The PFI involved the private ownership of public capital assets.

Soon after, the New Labour Party was presented with the immediate and challenging task of dealing with an insolvent NHS. The PFI had changed the structure and organisation of the NHS.

In 1997, NHS Trusts and Health Authorities had a debt of about £1 billion. The internal market, which had been created by the Conservative government in the early 1990s, had failed to bring in the benefits expected from markets, including more consumer-led services, fewer costs, and an improved…. [read more]

Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gangs: Threat to National Security? Thesis

… ¶ … predominantly Latino Gangs, Mara Salvatrucha (aka MS-13), and the 18th Street Gang operating on the streets of communities across America. This study is significant because it will provide a snapshot in time concerning how these violent gangs operate in this country in ways that can inform and alert both civilian society and government agencies concerning optimal responses to the problem created by these gangs. Through a quantitative and qualitative analysis of documentary evidence and governmental statistics about the Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang, this study developed several conclusive findings on the negative effects of these groups in the United States. The Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang are becoming transnational criminal organizations given the fact that they originated in Central America and…. [read more]

Gender-Specific Therapy for Women Prisoners Research Proposal

… Our use of qualitative research will be used to buttress our hypothesis and narrow the question prior to studying the data quantitatively. For example, a focus group might be formed with the purpose of looking at a specific behavioral pattern based a single group or experience. The group makes judgments, remarks, and gives opinion -- all which are qualitative. We would then takes the qualitative data and uses it to form additional hypotheses and to develop a more quantitative approach to the problem. Typically, quantitative research uses larger samples that can be statistically analyzed and verified; while qualitative research uses smaller samples that may be used to generalize research. Our position will be based on time, budget, and approvals for an adequate data set (Cresswell,…. [read more]

Analyzing the Discontinuation Prisons as Primary Form of Punishment Research Paper

… ¶ … discontinuing prisons as basic forms of punishing offenders in the U.S.A.

Although getting tougher to solve crime is the currency among politicians and popular press, modern day does not support liberalism and rehabilitation as the choice correctional philosophies. The rhetoric is based on two fallacies, i.e. that we aren't sufficiently tough. This is ironical because the U.S. is widely regarded as a state where incarceration rates are higher than any other country in the Western world. The second fallacy is that there is a serious crime problem. Although crime in the U.S. is at its lowest at the moment, we continue to use the same old conservative punitive methods of yester years (Pollock, 2005). One critic clearly describes the current era as the…. [read more]

Special Population and Substance Abuse Term Paper

… Most of the paroles fail and rearrests occur within the first six months of release of inmates having substance abuse disorder. All new admissions in the U.S. prisons had staggering proportion of parole failures, from being 17% in 1991 to 35% in 2000 (Petersilia, 2000).

V- Drawbacks of not providing rehab treatments and facilities

There are a number of drawbacks related to non-provision of rehabilitation and treatment services to the substance abuse offenders. The most prominent is the re-offend rate of substance abusers and the resulting economic, social, and administrative issues being created for the state and federal government as well as counties. The U.S. has high rate of incarceration for the people involved in drug and substance abuse. It was reported in the Colombia…. [read more]

Women in Prison Major Legal Research Paper

… Women are also in a total state of dependency upon their female guards for all of their needs, which can again exacerbate the feelings of victimhood.

A lack of program support

Although most prisons afford vocational training and psychological support for women to enter into the job market as productive citizens, few women prisoners take advantage of such opportunities. The reason, one study suggests, may be inadequate program design, given that most approaches to training focus on males and are the program paradigm is merely transferred to female prisons with the same approach. The employment rate of formerly incarcerated women is similar to the level of their pre-incarceration period, suggesting a failure of appropriate vocational training and social support for women inmates (Lalonde & Cho…. [read more]

Perplexing Questions About Human Psychology Term Paper

… ¶ … perplexing questions about human psychology revolves around the role of deviance. We know from empirical observation that if rats are placed in too crowded conditions, aggressive behaviors peak. When we study history, we are often amazed at the dichotomy between a species that can create such phenomenal beauty -- Beethoven, the Sistine Chapel, acts of kindness and benevolence; and such utter ugliness -- the Holocaust, Idi Amin, and Jeffrey Dahlmer. We also know, from psychological experiments, that there is a dark side within most everyone's psyche -- one that expresses itself only at certain times.

In a seminal study from 1972, for instance, Professor Phillip Zimbardo published the Stanford Prison Study and follow-up work attempting to understand the pathology of torture in greater…. [read more]

Malcolm X Family and Faith Essay

… Malcolm X

Family and Faith in the Autobiography of Malcolm X

Few figures in the Civil Rights Movement of the mid twentieth century, if any, are as controversial as Malcolm X The extreme nature of his calls to action and of the general rhetoric he employed led many of his era -- and since -- to decry him as a violent, arrogant, and erratic man who was actually counter-productive to the Civil Rights cause. He was, as measured by his own statements and admissions, as ardently anti-white as he was pro-black, and this necessarily led to social and political divisions rather than increased conciliation as advocated by the other prominent leader of the Civil Rights Movement, Martin Luther King, Jr. Yet this division is something…. [read more]

Black Films as a Reflection of the Progress of African-American Culture Essay

… Black Films as a Reflection of the Progress of African-American Society

From the first African slave to set foot on American soil, to the election of Barack Obama, there has been a tremendous metamorphosis of the African-American community's stature within the culture of the United States. Where Within Our Gates provided one of the first proverbial dips into the waters of African-American's being able to express their genuine opinions, films such as Do the Right Thing and Shaft were vibrant expressions of passion and rage that pulled no punches. This dramatic change did not happen overnight, and to illustrate this, this paper will utilize films from the black film canon that individually signify the gradual steps African-Americans took to improve their social standing in the…. [read more]

Reasoning Assessment of Issues in Ethiopia and Their Effect on U.S. Interests Research Paper

… S. Interests

It is evident that Ethiopia has been able to have strong influences on the United States. Research shows that for more than a century, Ethiopia and the United States have really enjoyed the warm government-to-government and person -to-person relationship. It is clear that those ties have been able to transcend the way of time, and the strong pledges of business and friendship have been able to go on and on over the years, unimpeded by personal changes in government.

However, the United States-Ethiopian relationship was something that was at one time established in December 1903 succeeding nine days of conferences in Ethiopia among Emperor Menelik and the administration of Ethiopia and Robert P. Skinner, a representative of President Theodore Roosevelt (Stuart Munro-Hay, 2009).…. [read more]

Canada's Relationship to the United States in Margaret Atwood's Surfacing Term Paper

… Canadian Nationalism & Margaret Atwood

Canada's Relationship to the U.S. Vis-a-Vis Margaret Atwood's Surfacing

For Americans or Europeans who are oblivious to the justifiably pessimistic feelings many Canadians have toward the U.S. In particular and Western attitudes in general, reading Margaret Atwood's book Surfacing should serve as enlightenment. And if readers rationalize that Atwood's work is fictional so it probably isn't representative of how Canadians truly feel about their neighbors to the south - those readers would be, at some level wrong. Indeed, Atwood's is a critically acclaimed and brilliant novel which weaves Canadian nationalism themes, universal feministic themes - and strong ecological consciousness - into an appealing dramatic tapestry of drama and conflict. Meantime, this paper's task is to flush out metaphors deep in…. [read more]

Gnome Liberation Front Term Paper

… Gnome Liberation Front

The plight of gnomes is a cause of great concern to an organization of gnome thieves who call themselves Front de Liberation des Nains de Jardin (FLNJ)- Gnome Liberation Front (GLF). This paper is devoted to the discussion of the agenda of the GLF, its goals and the probability that it's actions are a form of culture jamming thus giving it a deeper, more significant perspective.


The Gnome Liberation Front first came to scene in mid-90's in France where they served to liberate gnomes from the harsh treatment they were subjected to. The organization has spread all over Europe having their members instated in France, Belgium, Turkey and so on. The organization became dormant when a French court fined…. [read more]

Anatomy of an Aesthete Term Paper

… .. But if we add to these self-confessed mentors most of the other great English poets, and to these Homer and the Greeks, and Dante ... No academic ear is needed to detect this; echo follows echo as in a musical comedy. 'The true artist is known,' said Wilde in one of his reviews, 'by the use he makes of what he annexes; and he annexes everything. ' So our poet modestly lived up to his maxim

It is as if Wilde is saying that greatness in the arts is impossible without the examples of the Classical past. He recognized this, as did the other great authors of his time, and even of long before. Homer was only the earliest in a long tradition. "The…. [read more]

SOPA Stop Online Piracy Act Essay

… Creating this environment is good for the music industry because even though they usually sell singles and not albums, the money is still there. These industries need to adapt and morph for the new economy, not resist the future by proposing SOPA.

In conclusion, the Stop Online Piracy Act and its counterparts have created a tremendous amount of uncertainty in the world over American intentions and control over the Internet. The protection of American Intellectual Property rights will come at a cost, American politicians will be going against the First Amendment of the Constitution of the United States, which states that all Americans have the freedom of speech. To change the Internet to restrict Americans is against the idea of what the Internet has meant…. [read more]

Philosophical Perspective Action: I Decided to Attend Essay

… Philosophical Perspective

Action: I decided to attend college, and obtain my undergraduate degree.

Risk: First, there is the opportunity cost of the income I could earn at a full-time job. I will be less financially stable when I am in college and potentially a greater burden on my parents if I emerge after four years, in debt, and unable to support myself.

Justification: Even if the economy is uncertain at present, in the long-term I am likely to get a better job if I attend college.

Defense or Foundational Knowledge: I want a job that is emotionally satisfying. Going to college and obtaining a degree is likely to get me a job that is better-paying and also more meaningful and intellectually challenging, than if I…. [read more]

Evolution of the Female Figure in Arthurian Research Paper

… Evolution of the female figure in Arthurian literature is characterized foremost by stagnancy and a narrowness of personage. While Arthurian authors are gifted at describing many of the female characters in vivid, memorable terms that make many of them seem like ethereal goddesses; a one dimensionality persists in their character, regardless of whether they are considered morally good or morally bankrupt according to the codes of the Arthurian realm. The female characters created demonstrate how in Arthurian literature heroism belongs chiefly to men, and that beauty, or more aptly flawed beauty, is a trait most immediately connected to women as medieval literature often uses a lady's beauty as a means of confirming that she has a strong moral character (Schaus, 79). The reverse is also…. [read more]

Juveniles Since Biblical Times Term Paper

… Social Forces, Vol. 75, No. 4, Jun 1997. 1,239-69 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina

Akers, R.L. (1973). Law and Control in Society. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Bartol, C., & Bartol, A. (2005). Criminal Behavior: A Psychosocial Approach. (7th Ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall

Juvenile justice panel (2009) Retrieved from:

McCord, J. And Conway, P. (2010). 'Patterns of Juvenile Delinquency and Co-Offending'. In: Waring R, Weisburd D, editors. Crime and Social Organization. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers; 2002. p. 15-30

Puzzanchera, C. (2010) U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Juvenile Arrests 2008

1 I.K. Ben-Amos, Adolescence and Youth in Early Modern English Society (New Haven, 1994).

2. Hugh Cunningham, Children and Childhood in Western Society…. [read more]

How Bosnians Assimilated into St. Louis Society Dissertation

… [15: Krogstad & Radford (2017), p. 3.]

Figure 3. Percentages of Americans supporting refugee acceptance: 1958-1999

Source: Pew Research Center, 2017

It is reasonable to posit that the American general public’s acceptance levels for refugees, even from Islamic countries, would be far higher if more people knew about the significant successes that have been experienced by the Bosnian refugee community in St. Louis. For instance, Bhaba and Mirga emphasize that:

Although the U.S. reaction to developments in the Czech Republic provides an interesting case study regarding the evolution of U.S. policy and the relationship between U.S. and European approaches, the Balkans would provide multiple additional and equally illuminating chapters. The U.S. role in Dayton or…. [read more]

Antenatal Education Systematic Review Dissertation

… However, recently, studies have shown an increase in knowledge as a result of these antenatal education classes. These studies have also highlighted the importance of using a wide range of techniques in the classes to improve the health and well-being of the pregnant mother Su et al., 2007a ()

The impact of antenatal education classes on maternal emotional states as one of the psychological well-being factors is an important consideration in understanding the effect of these classes Schachman et al., 2004.

Maternal emotions can influence the health and social well-being of the mother and the baby thus is important in both the behavioral and psychological well-being of the fetus and the mother as well Malata et al., 2007.

One important question to understand is the…. [read more]

Phoenix Program Term Paper

… ¶ … Phoenix Program Lessons to Iraq

Scope and Significance


The Phoenix Program in Vietnam

Lessons Learned from Phoenix

Applications for Iraq

Selected Bibliography


It is not at all unusual to hear popular comparisons made between the Vietnam War and the current war in Iraq and though most experts see only a casual relationship still others see a comparison that is not only valid but is applicable to the utilization of historical Vietnam tactics and lessons learned from them to formulate reasonable resolutions to the Iraq War. In a collection of essays analyzing the similarities and differences of the Vietnam and Iraq Wars, ed. David Ryan demonstrates that the two wars are very similar in public sentiment…. [read more]

Metonyms in Dickens Essay

… Metonymics in "Little Dorit"

Metonymy is a literary term that is used to describe a concept that is not called by its own name, but rather by something symbolically associated with it that has a deeper, metaphorical meaning. For example, the words "white coat" could be utilized to infer a doctor or medical professional or the city "Washington" could refer to a governmental decision, as in "Washington's policy of…." Metonymy works in literary prose by the association between two concepts -- metaphor by the similarity. Typically, use of metonymy presupposes that the speaker or author wishes to transfer the archetypal qualities of one item into the other, all without a large explanation of those qualities. For example, the American stock system is referred to by…. [read more]

Shadow Collective Archetypes Term Paper

… ¶ … Collective Cultural Shadow and Confrontation with the Archetypal

During the 1960s, a musical group called Jefferson Airplane created a popular song called White Rabbit, based on the Lewis Carroll children's fantasy Alice in Wonderland. In the book, Alice follows a white rabbit down a rabbit hole into a world that is bizarre, where she has an adventure of encountering strange and fascinating characters. In the rock song by Jefferson Airplane, "One pill makes you larger and one makes you small, and the ones that your mother gives you don't do anything at all... Go ask Alice when she's ten feet tall.... Call Alice when she was just small." The rock song and the children's story, decades apart in time, are nonetheless reflective of…. [read more]

Britain, Australia Term Paper

… In 1785 the Parliamentary Committee enquiring into the Transportation Act of 1784 commented, with reference to transportation to America, that "the old system of Transporting to America, answered every good Purpose which could be expected from it - That it tended directly to reclaim the Objects on which it was inflicted, and to render them good Citizens... That the Colonies seem to have been sensible of the beneficial Consequences of this Practice." In the case of the Australian penal colonies drawing workers from the ranks of the convicts was not only a matter of policy, it was also a necessity, given that no other suitable workforce existed:

Governor Phillip [the first governor of Botany Bay] accordingly had to find all his overseers from among the…. [read more]

Pelican Bay State Prison: War Zone Essay

… An individual's inability to graduate is caused by the lack of family assistance as needed. Family assistance helps extremely, but when families break, the children suffer most. When the kid is affected with the broken family, he/she will seek support from another source. The support that a kid discovers most of the time is not a good form of assistance. There are groups like big sisters and big brothers who can help a kid in a good way. Unfortunately, they may end up looking for support in gangs and may eventually be initiated into the system. Society is the prime influence on who becomes a criminal because it is not able to reach out to the youngsters that do not have family support (Decker, Alarid…. [read more]

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