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Prison Overcrowding or Typically Essay

… Since most of them are poor, they fail to get even an average repute both in the society and to the criminal system. Their poor economic circumstances lead them to a life of misery, crimes and eventually towards prisons. Several efforts are now being made in order to disprove the perception of injustice in U.S.' legal system. For this purpose, there are organizations like The Sentencing Project, which is putting its efforts in order to assist at least those prisoners who never got a chance of parole even if they are juveniles. Young Blacks can take advantage of such policies who are subjected to racial inequality and injustice as they constitute a two-third part of total inmates. Also, the amount of parole can assist government…. [read more]

Prisons the American Criminal Justice Essay

… Within the prison system, overcrowding is a particularly pressing issue as it is the root of many other problems in prisons, including gangs and substance abuse. Besides these problems, overcrowding often leads to prisoners being released early and further endangering society. But this problem is not insurmountable and there are solutions to the problem of prison overcrowding. First of all society must deal with the problem of substance abuse, the lower the number of substance abusers, the lower the number of crimes associated with substance abuse. Then society must deal more effectively with those who commit crimes due to substance abuse; using treatment, not prison, in sentences. This is an effective way of relieving the problem of prison overcrowding. American society must also comes to…. [read more]

Prison Life and Recidivism Essay

… S. president. The authors in this case also note that in the past, crime studies have demonstrated that those individuals having a religious orientation are highly unlikely to be caught engaging in criminal activities. Hence when it comes to the use of religious programs as rehabilitative programs in the prison setting, the objective is to convince inmates to change their ways of living. Currently, religious programs in prison are largely voluntary. This voluntarily nature of involvement in this case is based on past court rulings deeming involvement into religious programs at the compulsory level as a violation of the First Amendment. However, it is important to note that all inmates, and not only those on special programs, have equal access to religious programs. This is…. [read more]

Prisons Are Correctional Facilities Essay

… There are some ideas when implemented can help in curbing officer corruption. These ideas can be expressed in three areas; the first step is hiring officers that have good character no matter how difficult it seems. There should be strict screening methods used so as to reduce chances of hiring potentially corrupt officers. Secondly officers have to be well trained on matters pertaining corruptions and how they can deal with such situations when they present themselves. Finally incentive programs should be well though such that they adequately cater for needs of officers and hence prevent them from any temptation of taking part in corruption dealings (White, 1999).


It is therefore very important to ensure that these challenges in prisons are addressed so that the…. [read more]

Prison Over-Crowding Prison Crowing Solutions Essay

… Treating the taxpayers (even the rich…who already pay the vast share of taxes) like piggybanks whenever a crisis comes up is simply wrong-headed and makes the problem worse in the long run. The money going through the system right now is not being spent wisely and it needs to be spent on keeping our society's miscreants away from the public.


American Water. (2013, May 1). American Water Solutions. American Water Solutions. Retrieved May 1, 2013, from

CBS Chicago. (2013, March 22). School Closing Opponents Call Mayor A Racist Liar -- CBS Chicago. CBS Chicago. Retrieved May 1, 2013, from

Kumar, S. (2011, December 28). California home to 1/3 of nation's welfare recipients | california, nation, welfare - Appeal-Democrat. Homepage: Appeal-Democrat. Retrieved May…. [read more]

Prison Overcrowding Is Indeed Ghost Writing

… Mechanisms for early release can help reduce overcrowding in prisons and also facilitate integration and social rehabilitation. Policies and legislations should be put in place to provide for possibilities of early release and parole and the conditions for the former. Early release should be structured in such a manner as to make it a part of the normal process of enforcement of the sentence. Prisoners who wish to apply for parole may be encouraged to do so by the necessary authorities.

There is available empirical data indicating that crowded prisons are stressful and create conditions contrary to any aim at rehabilitation. This has increased efforts of finding ways of reducing the overcrowding. A lot of effort has been directed towards making changes to the design…. [read more]

Prison Overcrowding Term Paper

… Prison Overcrowding: Empirical Analysis of Alternatives to Mandatory Sentencing and Community Sanctions

Theoretical Approaches

History Incarceration and Prison Overcrowding

Who's in Prison

Reasons for Overcrowding

This study focuses on exploring the relationship between prison overcrowding and adaptation of the situational environment in which crime occurs. Specifically the researcher will explore whether a reduction in incarceration of non-violent offenders combined with provisions for more rehabilitation and community support within at risk communities may contribute to reduced incarceration rates, better flow and reduced overcrowding. To achieve these goals the researcher proposes a triangular approach that will combine multiple research methods. The author hypothesizes that adaptations to the incarceration approach including use of more community sanctions and introduction of more rehabilitation programs within communities, combined with shorter terms…. [read more]

Prison Overcrowding Research Paper

… By first reducing the rate at which individuals are incarcerated, policymakers can give prison administrators and officials the room in which to experiment with alternative forms of incarceration and control. As it stands, prisons are so overcrowded that administrators have largely been operating in crisis mode, and any institutional reforms have been in response to a current emergency, rather than born out of careful planning; this is not to say that recent reforms have been ill-informed or misguided, but rather to acknowledge that there is a substantial difference between long-term planning and crisis management. In other words, by reducing the rate of incarceration legislatively and then beginning the process of institutional reform, corrections administrators and officers could go from stacking sandbags to building an actual…. [read more]

Prison Overcrowding Term Paper

… Prison Overcrowding

Prisoners' rights

Allegations of abuse

Prison overcrowding

Exploding jail populations

Soaring costs

Pressure on correctional facilities

Effects of overcrowding

Competition for limited resources


Higher rates of illness

Increased likelihood of recidivism

Higher suicide rates

Prison Litigation

New prison construction

Convert other facilities to prisons

Economic development

Mandatory sentencing

Fills prison cells


Reducing prison population

Incarceration of drug users

Serious urban crime down

Publicity up

Makes up most prison population

Losing drug war

Incarceration of mentally impaired

Prisons used as hospitals

Prisons as local shelters

Elimination of parole boards

Emphasis on punishment not rehabilitation

Literacy of prisoners

Educational programs in prison

Reduce recidivism

Enable prisons to find jobs when released

Difficulties of programs

Stress practical applications

Creates more tolerable and humane conditions…. [read more]

Prison Crowding and Violence on Staff Term Paper

… Prison Overcrowding and Its Relationship to Violence on Prison Staff Members

The debate on whether prison works or not is futile. What matters is that prison is allowed to take its proper place in the criminal justice system, one of excellent last resort, properly equipped and able to cope with those who really need to be there. -- Juliet Lyon, 2002

The epigraph above is reflective of a growing sentiment among American taxpayers that it does not take a smart person to recognize that the criminal justice system is broken, but that it is going to take some smart people to fix it. Today, the United States incarcerates more of its citizens than any other nation in the world, and the nation's prison facilities are…. [read more]

Prison Inmates Term Paper

… Prison Inmates

Jail or imprisonment is the most common way of penalizing a person if he/she had committed a crime. Prisoners serve a certain number of day, months or years inside the prison, depending on the intensity of the crimes that they had committed. Prisoners are therefore believed to be paying their "dues" to the country by spending a not-so-comfortable life inside the prison cells. But there are some issues that are continuously arising regarding the miserable life of the most prisoners. Included in these issues is the continuously rising number of rape cases, inside the prison cells and prison over crowding, to name a few.

These problems cause turmoil in the society. Many are now asking whether the lives of the prison inmates can…. [read more]

Overcrowding in Prisons: Impacts Research Paper

… And conversely, when those African-American men are released from overcrowded prisons (in certain cases some inmates are released prior to the time they were sentenced for because they were not convicted of violent crimes and judges have ordered prisons to reduce crammed facilities), the "vast majority will return to the same communities" (smith, 388). This in turn puts "additional strain on already scarce resources" in the communities they came from and want to return to.

In other words, the PIC has a recent legacy of overcrowding, and in the process the PIC "exploits African-American men by extracting their labor" below fair market wages, and then by returning them to their communities where socioeconomic resources are already depleted (Smith, 389). On page 389 the authors use…. [read more]

Prison Overcrowding in America's Prison the Nature Essay

… Prison Overcrowding

Overcrowding in America's Prison

The nature of America's prison system is such that rehabilitation and corrective incarceration typically are secondary to the importance of penal justice and isolation from society. In reality though, this is an approach which should be reserved only for those offenders who are sufficiently violent and dangerous enough to warrant lifelong separation from society. For many others, the goal of seeing them returned to society is often done great detriment by the simultaneous failure of prison to distinguish between violent and nonviolent criminals and the tendency of prisons to incubate something of a networking atmosphere for all types of criminals.

These are conditions which feed into a discussion on the relative state of overcrowding in the nation's jails, contributing…. [read more]

Overhaul of Our Prison System Term Paper

… We might assume that at least juveniles would far better, but Louisiana prison officials had to be ordered to report abuse, to install video cameras and to investigate allegations of violence (Staff writers, PAGE). In the California juvenile system, more than ten assaults of one kind or another occur every day (Broder & Almelda, PAGE). We can incarcerate children and youth, but we apparently cannot protect them afterwards.

Some of California's youth facilities are particularly counter-productive to allowing a young person to reform into a productive and contributing young adult. At the facility in Whittier, CA, those who cause trouble can leave their cells only for education or counseling, and these services are provided in steel cages (Broder & Almelda, PAGE). According to Broder and…. [read more]

Prison Funding Finding Funds Essay

… The effects of taxation on a population to provide more prison funding are clear, however, at least in California: taxation leads to new governments with lower taxes, generally speaking (Skelton, 2011). One of the primary reasons that the California Prison System is experiencing funding problems is that for the past several decades the prison system and the laws that lead to incarceration have been expanding at a much faster rate than taxation, and measures are continually passed to spend more while explicitly refusing to raise taxes (Skelton, 2011). This has led to a growth not only in the absolute costs of running the prison system, but also in the proportion of the state's budget that must be devoted to the system, while the system's ability…. [read more]

Prisons in Modern Turkey Term Paper

… Prisons in Modern Turkey

When performing a simple Google search about the prisons in Turkey, one can find an astonishing amount of links taking you to human rights organizations sites. Reports to or about the Turkish government describe the bad, inssuficient, inappropriate (and name whatever synonim you can think of) detention facilities - they all seem applicable to the Turkish conditions of imprisonment. Complaints, abuses, death tolls and hunger strikes, riots and counter-actions, humiliation and fear are the main words associated with the Turkish prison.

In order to understand and evaluate the situation, even as a remote researcher of the phenomenon, one must first consider the modern history of Turkey, the social and political changes this country has gone through in the last century, particulalry…. [read more]

Problems of Overcrowding in America's Jails and Prisons Including Plausible Solutions Term Paper

… Overcrowding in American Jails

When Chief of Corrections Statistics Program Allen Beck (2001) testified that prison facilities were less crowded today than they were in the last decade, his report elicited a debate on the definitions of capacity and overcrowding in American prisons and jails (Trovillion 2005). In the opinion of Richard Stalder of the Department of Public Safety and Corrections in Louisiana and as president of the Association of State Correctional Administrators, overcrowding is having more prisons than what resources can support. Another national expert, Vincent Nathan, said that an architect designs a prison for a certain number of people or occupants until the political aspect of capacity enters the picture. When two persons occupy a cell intended for only one, the capacity doubles.…. [read more]

Prison Overcrowding and Its Effect Term Paper

… A psychologist notes, "As a group of prison researchers summarized in the 1980s, as the problem was just beginning to take shape, 'crowding in prisons is a major source of administrative problems and adversely affects inmate health, behavior, and morale'" (Haney, 2006, p. 2). While that may seem to be a trivial worry with all the other ills facing the criminal justice system regarding prison overcrowding, it can be an extremely dangerous situation for prison personnel. Haney continues, "Among other things, we know that prison overcrowding increases negative affect among prisoners, elevates their blood pressure, and leads to greater numbers of prisoner illness complaints" (Haney, 2006, p. 3). That leads to rising health care costs throughout the prison system, and California has experienced this phenomenon…. [read more]

Building a New Jail Term Paper

… Jail

Memo: To the County Board of Supervisors of the County of Utopia

Re: Overcrowding and building new jail

What type of jail should we build?

When reviewing this important decision, it is first important to remember the general definition of what a jail is, in comparison to other correctional facilities. According to the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, jails, unlike prisons, are locally rather than state or federally operated institutions (in contrast to prisons) and tend to serve a population of inmates that is smaller, less violent, and designated for a shorter term of incarceration. Also, jails serve a wider variety of the incarcerated population, including the innocent as well as the guilty, and persons held for a merely temporary basis. Jails may confine…. [read more]

Privatization of Prisons Essay

… For determining this, there is a need for an analysis to be made that would assess the relative cost effectiveness of the private prisons as compared to the public ones. Where many studies have been conducted to do, there are many problems that exist to compare the issues that are there pertaining to level of security, definitions of service, accounting methods and measurement of costs. Moreover, one will not find enough research that has been done on the prisons and that is peer-reviewed and often it happens that these researches are being directly funded by the private prison industry itself and therefore the conclusions of these studies are doubtful.

Private-public relationship

Public private partnership that can also be referred to as P3 is now being…. [read more]

Prevention of Suicide in Jails and Prisons Essay

… Often, when a prisoner is predisposed to two or more risk factors, they have higher risks of committing suicide. Prisoners are often more likely to commit suicide if they show the warning signs of suicide earlier discussed. Other situations that may lead them to commit suicide include receiving bad news about their family, friends or relatives, marital problems, conflict with inmates they are together with, or tension about their sentences or court hearings and sexual coercion Gunn, Maden, & Swinton, 1991.

Under these circumstances, inmates have often been known to cause suicide.

Why are prison officials obligated to address the problem of prisoner suicide?

Despite prisoners or inmates being stripped off their freedom, they are still entitled to other fundamental rights. They have the right…. [read more]

Classification in Prison Classification Systems Term Paper

… The rules and regulations of the parole have undergone drastic alterations. However the way the parole functions is still very similar to the way it used to function in the past.

Paroles are virtually not practiced in a federal system .Generally speaking; most offenders are not considered for a parole in a federal system. This is true for any offense that has taken place after November 1 of 1987.On the other hand at the state level parole has altered dramatically .Local agencies over see the whole procedure and many people have seen parole as option under this system.

Duties of a Parole Officer

Parole officers are required to;

Oversee the release of an offender under parole.

Draft any paper work demanded by the board.

Carry…. [read more]

Prison Architecture Criminal Justice Essay

… The effectiveness of the Auburn approach depended on a regime of brutal punishments for breaches of regulations, especially the rule of silence, and therefore required a large staff. Its communal labor programs permitted a broad range of potentially profitable industrial activities. The method and form of Pennsylvania-styled prisons led to smaller staffs but a very narrow range of labor programs (Johnson, 2011).

Since 1960 many prisons and jails have been replaced by new institutions. Electronic and building technologies such as video and audio surveillance, automated entry systems and tempered steel and other high-strength materials, provide the security once guaranteed by walls and high staffing ratios. Many institutions offer vocational, recreational, psychological and socialization programs. Modern-day prisons are increasingly run in a business like fashion and…. [read more]

Overcrowding in the U.S. Prison Systems Capstone Project

… ¶ … laws that have been changed over the last twenty or so years to reflect a "tough on crime" mentality in both the climate and culture of society and in the climate and culture of the political. The California Three Strikes Law in short is a culmination of a tough on crime mentality in both the political and cultural sentiment of our nation. The law is a concrete demand for a sentimental ideation that the U.S. needs tougher sentencing and the reduction of discretion with regard to criminal violations. The law itself demands that individuals convicted of a serious crime then have two additional "chances" before they are given a minimum mandatory sentence of 25 years to life. The California law, which 22 states…. [read more]

Overcrowding in the Prison System Term Paper

… Overcrowding in the prison system is a serious problem faced in nations around the globe. Both developed and developing nations are experiencing prisons that are filled to up to 300% of their capacity. In the United States the prison population more than quadrupled between the years of 1978 and 2001 (Marciniak 10). As a result of this overcrowding, there is increased incidents of violence, a rampant spread of disease in and out of the prison, poorer security in place than if appropriate inmate levels were maintained, higher rates of recidivism, and unhygienic living conditions for inmates. With resources stretched beyond capacity, important resocialization and reintegration programs become a low priority in the system ("Addressing Prison").

Factors in Prison Overcrowding:

As noted, almost every country in…. [read more]

Overcrowding in the U.S. Prison System Capstone Project

… Santos Reyes is sentenced to 26 to life in prison for cheating on a driver's license test. This petty, victimless crime is Reyes' third strike, coming 10 after his second strike, a robbery in which no one was harmed. The case attracts worldwide attention and focuses public scorn on California's Three Strikes Law for incarcerating felons on minor charges.

Voters in California pass Proposition 36, which scales back the Three Strikes Law by offering mandatory drug treatment for offenders convicted of drug possession on their third offense.

The Supreme Court upholds California's Three Strikes Law on appeal from conviction in Ewing v. California. On the same day, the Supreme Court upholds a similar challenge to the Three Strikes Law in Lockyer v. Andrade. The Supreme…. [read more]

Dangers of Overcrowding in American Research Paper

… The research reports from these correctional houses show that the cases of suicide are most prevalent in the crowded jails. This is further related to the mental health of the prisoners. In the crowded facilities, the mental health of the inmates cannot be efficiently monitored as the population of inmates outweighs that of the staff and professionals who attend to them. Consequently, this leaves the prisoners in position of despair leading to the thoughts of committing suicide. Therefore, the effects of overcrowding on the mental health of the inmates are clearly evident. The danger is a threat to the lives of the inmates. A mentally stressed inmate can commit murder, and also commit suicide.

The issue of drugs and drug trafficking is posing a challenge…. [read more]

Public Policy Alternatives to Improve the Nation's Prison Overcrowding Dilemma Term Paper

… Public Policy Alternatives to Improve the Nation's Prison Overcrowding Dilemma

There are more individuals per capita incarcerated in the United States than in any comparative democracy that is an industrialized nation anywhere in the world. The sentences imposed on offenders in the U.S. are longer and the U.S. is one of the last nations on earth to practice capital punishment or what is commonly known as "the death penalty." Increasingly individuals are being locked up male and female and both adult and child. Collateral impacts from incarcerations of this enormity are costly to society both in monetary as well as in social terms. The findings of this study are simply that there exists alternative measures of punishment that are more cost efficient and more conducive…. [read more]

Proper Management of Prisons in Developing Countries With the Help of International Organizations Essay

… In Brazil, resource scarcity within various justice system levels amounts to prison overcrowding. For instance, while Brazilian prisons cannot accommodate as many prisoners as those in developed parts of the globe, shortages of judges and police are credited for surging prison populations. The personnel shortages translate into an increase of remand prisoners and pre-trial detainees who are mostly the vast majority of prison populations (Friedman & Parenti, 2013).

While it is not excusable for such inhumane conditions that Brazil prisoners live in, such circumstances need to be placed within the contexts of extensive deprivation across the continent. The fact that poverty is a likened norm for many Brazil, it is clear that the poor living conditions are reflected in life behind prison bars. International organizations…. [read more]

Prison Overcrowding Annotated Bibliography

… As such, he interweaves the different penal policies that have contributed to the overcrowding of prisoners in New Zealand. The analysis raises psychological concerns associated with isolation in the shades of confinement, deprivation, and captivity created by the criminal justice system. The use of the historical analysis to show the development of the prison systems in New Zealand forms its strength. The book is important for the study because it provides an understanding of historical factors that have played a part in contributing to overcrowding in the New Zealand prisons.

Great Britain. (2005). Rehabilitation of prisoners: First report of session 2004-05. London: Stationery Office.

The report examines the effectiveness of strategies such as rehabilitation in reducing overcrowding in prisons and re-offending among the victims of…. [read more]

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