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Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching Article Review

… Mathematical Knowledge in Education

Differentiating Types of Mathematical Knowledge and Relevance to Education

Ball, D.L., Lubienski, S., and Mewborn, D. (2001). "Research on teaching mathematics:

The unsolved problem of teachers' mathematical knowledge." (In Handbook of Research on Teaching. New York: Macmillan).

Generally, mathematics proficiency among teachers corresponds to higher achievement in their students. While that conclusion has been supported by a substantial volume of empirical research, much less empirical research has been devoted to trying to understand how and why teacher achievement in mathematics benefits student outcomes, or what it is about mathematics, specifically, that generates this apparent relationship. Most importantly, there is a need to understand whether and to what extent teacher mathematics achievement in different aspects of mathematics matters with regard to the…. [read more]

Professional Mathematical Societies Thesis

… Mathematics

Professional Mathematical Societies

The American Mathematical Society which was founded in 1888 in order to further mathematical research and scholarship today fulfills its mission through programs and services that promote mathematical research and those uses strengthen mathematical education. It fosters awareness and appreciation of mathematics and its connections to other disciplines and to everyday life. The Society currently has over 32,000 individual members and 550 institutional members in the United States and around the world. It has programs and services for members and the mathematical community that include professional programs such as meetings and conferences, surveys, and employment services. It has publications including Mathematical Reviews, journals, and over 3,000 books in print (About the AMS, 2009).

The Mathematical Association of America is the largest…. [read more]

IT Professional Term Paper

… This is important to remember both when designing a program and conveying the applications of that program in a way that is not simply right, but understandable and memorable for people to remember, as both computer and human organizations deal with language that is context dependant. But what is the nature of this context? Organizational theory, as an addendum to this notation about human communication, additionally notes that every organization is a kind of living entity in and of itself, where employees may behave differently in context than they might alone.

Thus, a new technical system must take into consideration not only human learning variations on an individual basis, but on a collective basis, if it is a learning-oriented organization with highly educated and motivated…. [read more]

Teachers Schools and Society Research Paper

… Teachers, Schools and Society

Different ways of learning, exceptional and gifted and talented learners, student diversity, financing and governing American schools, student life in school and at home, curriculum standards and testing, and today's classroom all affect teachers, schools and society. To further explore these effects, each of these issues will be briefly described, with an explanation of the reason each poses a concern. The implications for improving each issues will also be presented.

Different Ways of Learning:

The multiple intelligences theory states that there are eight different ways individuals perceive and understand the world, solve problems and learn. These include: verbal/linguistic learners, logical/mathematical learners, visual/spatial learners, bodily/kinesthetic learners, musical/rhythmic learners, interpersonal learners, intrapersonal learners, and naturalist learners (Bakic-Miric, 2010). Oftentimes, students are a variety…. [read more]

Are There Any Obligations Science Has Towards Society? Term Paper

… ¶ … obligations science has towards society?

All human knowledge in the past and present were painstakingly acquired for the benefit of mankind. Though the ancient philosophers sought knowledge for its own sake, they also took care to see that what they gained was disseminated among the masses. Ancient inventions and discoveries, from fire, wheel and those simple things we take for granted have been given to this world by enquiring minds in the past, and these advancements have benefited society. Modern science has undergone a change in the definition and in the method it seeks to gain knowledge. The basic quality of science is that it is based on empiricism. To elaborate, science arrives at the truth of a matter considered by observation, which…. [read more]

Emotional Training the Business Society Reaction Paper

… Emotional Training

The business society in the modern day climate is presented with countless challenges as the traditional features evolve. Product quality is no longer the determinant of customer satisfaction, as salary is no longer the element to motivate and retain the employees. And the employees of today are essential. They are the most important organizational asset and this is true not only within service providing companies, but also among manufacturing and industry companies.

In order to succeed and attain its organizational objectives as such, the economic agents strive to motivate and train their employees. The training of the employees is a process often linked to intelligence and functional skills, whereas motivation integrates incentives more focused on creating satisfaction and commitment. Both of these sets…. [read more]

Multiple Intelligences on Personal Success Essay

… This form of intelligence relates to subjects such as critical thinking, logic, abstract concepts, reasoning, pattern recognition, and aptitude with numerals. People who demonstrate excess of this form of intelligence during adolescence are traditionally social outcasts and function at lower levels of the adolescent/young adult social hierarchy. Though in the 21st century, a highly technological age, some attitudes have shifted regarding mathematical intelligence in that those who have it are more likely to get better quality jobs and more kinds of jobs are available to them. Because the 21st century is highly contingent on increased forms and uses of technology, those with logical-mathematical intelligence are really at the forefront of global society and influence the global economy.

Professionals such as software programmers, coders, hackers, computer…. [read more]

Recidivism External and Internal Factors Research Proposal

… Recidivism

External and Internal Factors

What are the external & internal factors that contribute to recidivism and what interventions are effective in minimizing the impact of factors.

Recidivism is the tendency of the offenders to reoffend, once they are through with their term, and are back in the society. This effect has elicited a lot of controversy and divided opinion, between those advocating for longer sentences in the interest of public safety, and those advocating for shorter sentences with the belief that, the longer sentence will not reduce recidivism rate. This research paper aims to summarize the topic of recidivism, as seen through the three research methods of Quantitative, Qualitative and Mixed methods and also their strengths and weaknesses. Studies done indicate that, the effect…. [read more]

SCM Basics Session Demand Management Assessment

… It will be the slowest of all the production Centers as well as be forced to carry the greatest constant load when compared to other activities.


The Production Activity Control is responsible for taking the MPS and executing it along with the MRP. It is up to the PAC to maximize the productivity of the workers and machinery as well as keep work-in-progress low and perform other duties such as directing employees and performing customer service. The control function in the PAC is of vital importance since it will essentially manage the production activities and scheduling of various work centers. Additionally, the PAC must take corrective action if the schedules do not go as planned.

Sessions 6, 7, & 8


Accounting for work-in-progress…. [read more]

Race Gender and Class Essay

… Race, Gender, And Class

The work of Coy (2009) reports that popular culture is characterized by the contemporary "sexualization of culture" which provides a description for the "current saturation of erotic imagery, particularly of women, in popular culture" and the example cited is that of "advertising and music videos." (Coy, 2009) Several themes are described in the work of Gill (2007) stated to be defined as "prevailing in contemporary mass media" and to include: (1) women can use their bodies for profit as a means to power; (2) the importance of individual choice and makeovers as a reinventions of the self; and (3) a focus on the biological differences between women and men. (Coy, 2009) All are reported as being stratified by "social factors such…. [read more]

Libraries Changing Role Research Paper

… Most believe that journals and books are still welcomed by some users. In contrast to printed journals, electronic versions cannot guarantee the permanent availability, due to publishers' policies. Therefore libraries must retain printed journals until they are sure that their e-journals can be held in perpetuity. Medical libraries may be a pioneer and extreme case to be considered. The Welch Medical Library has decided to work towards becoming completely digital by 2015. By that time all the information required by the students would be available to them in the digital form and they would not require text books to conduct their research. The library as we know it will transmute into a "knowledge centre," which will work as a repository and hub of the library's…. [read more]

Integration of Quantitative Methods in U.S. Society Term Paper

… ¶ … Integration of Quantitative Methods in U.S. Society

The American society of today is more developed than it has ever been; but it is even more pressuring than it has ever been. It for instance presents individuals and groups with numerous opportunities for growth and development, but it also presents them with countless challenges. An economic agent for instance is now able to transcend boundaries and benefit from the comparative advantage of other regions, but on the other hand, it will also face incremental competition within the domestic market. At the level of the individual, he/she is presented for instance with the opportunity of enhancing their educational attainment and improving their job prospects, but they will then have to fight the fierce competition for…. [read more]

8th Grade Science Literature Review Essay

… These demonstration examples have been tested with metrics and there exist hands-on demonstrations with simple manipulations and characterizable hypotheses (Campbell 2011). In the development of a unit on the concept of gas physical properties and their relationships, a core set of assessment and then review will be implemented. The basic evaluation will be tested by administering worksheets initially to challenge the understanding of student comprehension of gas physical properties. These worksheets will be provided with only minimal context in the 8th grade science curriculum as an initial set of examples after reading the chapter. Following this worksheet, a detailed set of instructions regarding volume, the examples of weight and temperature performed with visual demonstrations of boiling and mass, and finally a hands-on experiment with a…. [read more]

What Is Policy Analysis? Professional Writing

… ¶ … American Consumer Service Index (ACSI) is the U.S. instrument that measures consumer satisfaction with goods and services. It is the only consistent, national, cross-industry measure that has been proved repeatedly reliable in results as evidenced by consistent research findings that show that ACSI data often predicts stock market performance (e.g. Fornell et al. *), consequently causing the Federal government, in 1999, to select it as the national metric for measuring consumer satisfaction. Over 55 Federal divisions have used it to measure citizen's satisfaction with more than 110 services, organizations, and programs and it is used annually with more than 200 companies and in 43 industries.

The Index was created by the University of Michigan in partnership with the American Society for Quality (ASQ)…. [read more]

Positive Outcome in the Educational Term Paper

… Third, there is a growing awareness that rapid technological change and our nation's economic competativeness will compel workers to adapt existing skills and learn new ones to optimize performance.

As noted, interest in thinking and problem solving has been renewed, but traditional approaches to teaching these skills have met with very mixed results (Nickerson, Perkins, & Smith, 1986). It now appears that the efficacy of these efforts was determined by at least three interrelated factors: First, instructional designers often failed to appreciate the importance of domain-specific knowledge in effective thinking and problem solving (Chi, Glaser, & Farr, 1988). Programs that emphasize the use of generic reasoning and problem-solving heuristics may be theoretically general across situations, but they usually lack power in any specific situation (Anderson,…. [read more]

Music Education or Cross Platform Development Term Paper

… Music Education or Cross Platform Development

Pitch is commonly mistaken for being a term which is analogous to frequency; however, pitch is actually based on perception. Pitch is the human perception of the frequency of a musical note. (Heresiarch 2005) While pitch is related to the frequency, or physical rate of vibration in a sound wave, it is distinctly different.

The current standardized relationship between pitch and frequency is that the note a above middle C. sounds like a 440 Hz tone. In a musical context, the exact frequency of a note is far less important than its relationship to other notes. Numerous systems exist for defining the relationship between notes in a scale, usually involving a fixed frequency ratio between successive notes. The chromatic…. [read more]

Math Achievement in African-American Boys Versus Their White Counterparts Term Paper

… math achievement African-American vs. white American



The objective of this work is to focus on mathematical achievement in African-American boys vs. their white counterparts. Addressed will be risk factors such as family income, mother's education, single-parent households, primary language non-English, etc. The theoretical framework will focus on the work of Vygotsky and one other theorist as to how they would tie into the main topic.

The disparities in the educational attainment of African-American and White American males is clearly noted in previous research study however, the precise factors or elements that cause African-American males to underachieve in mathematics is not known. The work of Moody states that three theoretical proposals exist that attempt to provide an…. [read more]

Schools Have Been Facing Tremendous Challenges Essay

… ¶ … schools have been facing tremendous challenges when it comes to curriculum. This is because there has been the focus at the state and federal levels to increase accountability. Yet, at the same time, many officials are trying to provide educators with a certain amount of flexibility in reaching predetermined objectives. (Fuller, 1962) ("Massillon City Schools," 2012)

As a result, there has been a shift in the kinds of tools that educators' are using to deal with these challenges. To fully understand how this can be achieved requires looking at the way state standards can be augmented with differential instruction. This will be accomplished by focusing on: the strategies, techniques and methods that will be utilized. Once this takes place, is when we provide…. [read more]

Aspects of Mathematics Teaching and Learning in Primary School Education Research Paper

… ¶ … Mathematics Teaching and Learning in Primary School Education

Technology and Mathematics education (technology as a whole or individual aspects of technology e.g. use of calculators, smart board, web quests, laptops, data projectors, calculators, Web 2 activities) or The Australian Government has taken a strict action to fortify the primary education standards so as to fully explore and utilize the Australia's future i.e. youth. We believe that the aptitude for innovation is very much dependent upon the comprehension, skills development and grooming attitudes in our young people. This will require encouragement of both students and teachers to take an extra step and revise the old thought processing levels so as to incorporate the new set of brain storming linage required to excel in the…. [read more]

Intelligence Testing Few Concepts Research Paper

… S. soldiers during World War I). Tests such as the earliest versions of the Stanford-Binet "measured only two domains: linguistic/verbal and spatial/mathematical reasoning, revealing the bias that human intelligence resides only in these two areas. Gardner wryly maintains that this narrow concept of intelligence befits the attributes of a 'law professor' and not much else" (Helding 2009). The general factor of intelligence theory does not account for the social need for individuals with a wide range of abilities in a society. It devalues the gifts of many intelligent individuals whose strengths do not lie in the domains prioritized in intelligence tests.

Critics of Gardner's theory state that it is too broad, and virtually anything can be designated as 'an intelligence' under his rubric, including "emotional…. [read more]

Mathematics in Digital Photography Research Paper

… Compression technology is the primary driver behind the vast expansion of digital photography. Compression allows large amounts of data to be stored in a relatively small area so that more intricate details of the photo can be accurately reconstructed.

Compression is a complicated process that involves several steps. The first step is to convert red, green, and blue color channels to Y, Cb, and Cr channels while partitioning blocks into size 8x8 pixels. For a JPEG image, the compression relies on the Discrete Cosine Transformation, which is exemplified by the equation: C = UBU^T, where B. is one of the 8x8 blocks and U. is a special 8x8 matrix. Applying certain methods of encoding enables compression of about 70% in most instances, or even more…. [read more]

How Math Explains the World Term Paper

… ¶ … Math Explains the World

The title of James Stein's book, How Math Explains the World, is, perhaps, a bit deceptive. The reader who is expecting simplified explanations of complex mathematical principles will be disappointed. Although Stein has simplified many concepts, they will still be challenging for the reader who struggled with math in high school or who took only the minimum requirements in college. Math does explain the world, from understanding how a Ponzi scheme works to predicting the occurrence of a lunar eclipse. Most people do not, in their daily lives, use math the way Stein does in his role as writer and university mathematics professor. Everyone, however, is the beneficiary of the mathematical discoveries that have been made and applied through…. [read more]

Precedent Years Article Review

… I chose this article primarily for its ability to combine why children with disabilities have trouble learning, with rational solutions. Math education, particularly in the global environment in which educators operate in, requires unique solutions. These solutions must be grounded in applications that benefit the student and the overall classroom at large. Through proper research, math education can not only be more effective, but enjoyable their students. I read this article because it provides a framework by which educators can become more effective in their practice. Through first understanding why student with disabilities are unable to learn, can solutions be implemented. These solutions, as mentioned above, will significantly improve students overall productivity. Aspects such as a multi-sensory approach, use of extensive practice, offering meaningful feedback,…. [read more]

Classroom Behavior Management Policies Research Paper

… Classroom Behavior Management Policies

Title suggestions:

Bridging the Gap Between Systems Theory and Elementary Classroom Management

An Evolution: Systems Theory and Classroom Management


Systems Theory by the Three B's

Robert Freed Bales


Living systems theory

Social entropy theory

Entropy management in organizations


Ludwig von Bertalanffy

The concept of the whole

GST and integrative studies

Science and society

The importance of the individual

A Comparison of the Three B's




Theoretical similarities


Annotated Bibliography

Classroom management definition and challenges

Strategies and methods

Techniques and training

Self-efficacy and beliefs

Culturally responsive classrooms

Evidence-based strategies

Theory -- and model-based strategies

Comparison to Bertalaffny

Top recommended classroom management strategy





Sociology and the study of social systems has taken many…. [read more]

Williams Case Settlement Mr. Governor Term Paper

… We are all aware that the state's budget crisis is a very real problem so educational budget cuts may in deed be required. The budget deficit's impact on our schools, with a focus on our poorest schools in the state should be a priority for all of our states citizens. Although no money has been appropriated to the budget as of yet due to state's fiscal situation, your legislation team must be prepared to set an example in order to equalize district funding. Your team must establish incentives that help create and pass educational funding initiatives. Of course these are ambitious proposals and it will take a concerted effort from us all to create such drastic change but in the long run it will benefit…. [read more]

Mathematics Z-Model Framework in Middle School Thesis

… This unique framework has 4 domains, and while this study investigates the Z-model's use in the mathematics curriculum, this framework is focused on improving and enhancing students' achievement in any course of study.

The four domains involved in the Z-model create a comprehensive educational understanding and framework for use in improving educational progress. They are:

  1. Brain development, and efforts in the classroom which can enhance/promote brain development.

  2. How project-based learning can be utilized in order to fully engage the student in the learning community.

  3. Data-Driven instruction (the second half of the breadth - vs. - depth debate). The students must be held accountable to learn a specific knowledge base of facts, figures, and formulae. Without objective measurement of the educational progress,…. [read more]

Popularized Social and Cultural Trends Thesis

… But even this assumption has given way to other kinds of considerations as new forms of affordable, interactive technologies are finding favor across socio-economic, gender, racial and other classes (Morrissey and Manning, 2000). The fact is that access to new forms of learning is being seen by students and teachers alike as a very desirable way to learn more than what schools have to offer. (See

A related problem is connected to the cost factors for governments as they struggle to pay for American and other national educational directives and systems. Continuing and/or nonstop learning through programs in communities is expensive. It requires large amounts of time and money as well as psychic energy, and these resources are becoming difficult for individuals and governments…. [read more]

Risk Management and Analysis Process and Policy Before Technology Research Proposal

… ¶ … released by the FBI and the Computer Security Institute (CSI), over 70% of all attacks on sensitive data and resources reported by organizations occurred from within the organization itself. Implementing an internal security policy appears to be just as important as an external strategy. The objective of this report is to highlight the necessity of internal processes and policy alongside technology when managing and mitigating risk. The author narrates the problems of security from the unseen forces in an individual that influence thought, behavior and personality. Once organizations truly understand the psychology behind the motivations of software engineers and developers, risk analysis and risk management strategies will become more efficient. The research contained in this report establishes that there is some connection between…. [read more]

Existence of an Individual Term Paper

… ¶ … existence of an individual which determine the destiny and future course of life. The choices one makes come to define the road ahead. They can be a mirror image of the personal background or the result of external pressures. My choice to pursue doctoral studies at UC Santa Cruz is part of the former category. Indeed, in most cases, the passion for a certain area of study remains so often a mere hobby or aspirations. However, there are also few lucky persons, among which I dare to include myself, which have had the possibility to follow up on their passion and dream of transforming the subject of their strongest preoccupation into the field of a lifetime job. From this point-of-view, I see the…. [read more]

Emotional Intelligence: Issues in Theoretical Construct Term Paper

… Emotional Intelligence: Issues in Theoretical Construct and Measurement

Business Administration)

This dissertation proposal examines the relationship that exist between the role of 'emotional intelligence' and 'effective leadership and job success.' In the terms of conceptual definition, Peter Salovey of Yale University and John Mayer at the University of New Hampshire view emotional intelligence as a set of skills hypothesized to contribute to the accurate interpretation and expression of emotion in oneself and others; also the effective regulation of emotion, and the use of feelings to motivate, plan and achieve success. The better known Daniel Goleman has popularized emotional intelligence to a more vast audience outside the world of academia. The definition applied to 'emotional intelligence' by Goleman is 'the ability to rein in emotional impulse,…. [read more]

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