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Psychological Research Descriptive and Inferential Research Paper

… A variable is then tested on the test group, while the control group remains unaffected. The results from the test group are then compared to the control group, which has not been involved in the actual testing, and the results are observed.

By using a "true experiment" design, the results are difficult to refute, but there are things that can invalidate a study. These are known as threats to internal validity, or "confounds that serve as plausible alternative explanations for a research finding." ("Threats to Internal Validity") There are a number of different threats which can serve as alternative explanations including what is referred to as a patient's history, maturation, the effects of testing on a subject, the instrumentation used, chance, attrition, and even the…. [read more]

Psychology What Are the Similarities Research Paper

… What are true experiments?

True experiments consist of more than a single purposively designed group, random assignment, and outcomes that are commonly measured. Ethnicity and sex cannot satisfy such requirements because it is impossible to manipulate them without purpose. These designs only occur when a sample is chosen in random and assigned to comparison groups and program. If the researchers can perform the experiments using random assignments, it means that the experiment programs are true designs.

How are threats to internal validity controlled by true experiments?

Bias is a menace to interior validity. It is the primary source of errors into results and measurements. Bias occurs when experimental items that are in favor of an age, ethnic group, or gender are used. Bias is a…. [read more]

Psychological Research "It Is Difficult to Turn Thesis

… ¶ … Psychological Research

"It is difficult to turn the pages of a newspaper without coming across a story that makes an important claim about human nature" (America Psychological Association, 2003, par. 1).

Often, we come across specific claims about individual behavior, nature, principles, and/or dynamics which we might find interesting. These articles often cite research studies conducted on the subject matter, and more often than not, these articles also employ technical terms widely-used in research.

As students of psychology and the social sciences, we acknowledge the importance of research in this domain. It is through research that we get to learn more about our subject matter. It is through research that we obtain information about our topic of interest, which is human behavior.

Given…. [read more]

Different Methods of Collecting Data Research Paper

… Quantitative research questions differ from qualitative research questions. While the former seek to reach objective conclusions, the latter seek to reach subjective conclusions (Bryman, 2008). In other words, the researcher seeks to understand an individual or contextual interpretations of the research phenomenon. This premise influences the character of qualitative research questions. Instead of words like cause, influence, impact, relate, and effect, qualitative research questions are formulated using words like "how" or "what." This implies that the researcher seeks to describe, identify, explore, or discover the research problem. These exploratory verbs inform the reader what the study will do. It is of particular importance to avoid starting a qualitative research question with the word "why" as this implies that researcher seeks to explain a relationship, which…. [read more]

Psychological Theories as Applied to Gerontology Research Paper

… Marketing Mix

Gerontology and psychology: Approaches to mitigating the negative aspects of aging

Youth is a temporary state: most human beings will eventually become old. Yet psychology has traditionally devoted relatively little analysis to the inevitable challenges of aging, and instead chosen to focus on childhood and adolescent development. This has changed in recent years, given the widespread aging of the worldwide population. "The number of Americans age 65 and older is projected to comprise about 20% of the nation's population by the year 2030. With a growing elderly population, greater attention has been devoted to the lives of seniors and toward ensuring the physical and mental health of individuals as they move toward later life" (Facts sheet on aging, 2001, AABT, p.1). Cognitive behavioral…. [read more]

Rick Houser's Book Counseling Questionnaire

… They are men who have improved and consummated their physical, mental, spiritual, and psychic organizations to the extreme conceivable degree. With the vision they have picked up, have contemplated, and recorded the accurate Science of the Universe. In fact, present-day science tries to get closer and closer to this Knowledge. However, that Knowledge as of recently exists. It gave us a chance to recall that that this aged Knowledge can never show signs of change any more than immaculate math can change, in any event for our present earth-cycle. Current science must be judged with all considerations of Theosophy and not the other way round because science changes with time while Theosophy like everlasting truth is constant.

What is of true worth to us is…. [read more]

Female Leadership in Combat Units Research Proposal

… Analyses

Descriptives would prove useful with the preliminary research. Descriptives may also lend themselves to inferential statistics. I would like to maintain the variation in the study across literature, analyses, participant sampling and other aspects. ANOVA would prove a useful analysis technique. There are many levels that the data could be analyzed. ANOVA would provide a sort of analysis within the greater analysis.


I am researching whether women should lead during combat situations. I am researching this topic because of a recent lawsuit women officers waged to see combat time and because this is a symptom of a greater cultural change that is happening in the country and in the world. Quite recently the "don't ask, don't tell" rule was overruled in the military,…. [read more]

Reducing Risky Behavior for African-American Research Proposal

… The disproportionately high HIV incidence among African-American female teens convincingly defines the term 'health disparity.' A possible intervention has been explored by Aronowitz and Agbeshie (2012) and Aronowitz and Eche (2013) using qualitative study designs. Working under the assumption that mothers are the primary sex educators for daughters, they investigated the interactions that took place between inner-city African-American mother-daughter dyads during discussions about intimate sexual issues. The goal of these studies were to define the main communication and parenting strategies employed, thereby providing valuable, culturally-sensitive information that could help clinicians reduce health disparities for African-American female youth.

Aronowitze and Agbeshie (2012) used a focus group strategy within a grounded theory study design. They limited the daughter's age to between 11- and 14-years of age, under…. [read more]

Happiness Research Paper

… Happiness

Scores of researchers have studied the link between happiness, income and educational level. The results from these studies indicate that rising income does not necessarily result in substantial rise in happiness. The relationship between happiness and income breaks down at higher income levels. Happiness refers to the mental and emotional condition or a good feeling that happens only at given times. This paper explores the link between education level, income level, culture and happiness. A sample of 50 people will be involved in the research and data will be corrected via highly structured questionnaires. The study will employ a quantitative approach with statistical analysis.


Happiness is a choice that calls for effort at all times. Life is an expedition into the very implication…. [read more]

Bmx Racers Research Term Paper

… In the event that some participants would not return the questionnaire an additional 50 randomly selected members were sent the questionnaire within three weeks of the initial mailing in order to garner the needed 100 responses. Once all questionnaires were return the results were compiled, tabulated, and presented by way of graphs, descriptive statistics, and a box and whisker plot.


The first step in analyzing the data was to calculate those descriptive statistics that were deemed valuable in describing the resulting questionnaire data. The results of the means, mode, median, and standard deviations are presented below.

Question#1: In which geographical location do you reside?

Mean Score Values

West 28 Mid-West 17 Northwest 4

South 3 Southwest 21 Southeast 20

East 3 Northeast 4

Graphic…. [read more]

Inclusion Research Daniel, L.G. and King Term Paper

… Inclusion Research

Daniel, L.G. & King, D.A. (1997). Impact of Inclusion Education on Academic Achievement, Student Behavior and Self-Esteem and Parental Attitudes. The Journal of Educational Reseaerch 91.

The title of this article gives the gist of the study, which is on inclusion and its effects on the three dimensions of academic achievement, student behavior and self-esteem, and parental attitudes. What is not included is the fourth dimension that is addressed specifically in the research, that being reports by both parents teachers of problem behaviors on the part of these students. Presumably these are included under the heading of student behavior. However, the punctuation leaves it unclear whether the researchers believe they are discussing four topics or only three and whether they are linking student…. [read more]

Examine the Field of Organizational Psychology Research Paper

… Organizational Psychology

Definition of Organizational Psychology

Organizational psychology is the study of human group and individual behavior in the vocational environment (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008). It consists of numerous subtopics such as the manner in which business and other organizations develop defining cultures, the nature of vocational motivation, the relationship between reward, performance, and performance, the elements of leadership, as well as various aspects of employee recruitment, selection, training, and retention (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).

Evolution of the Discipline

The first major use of organizational psychology was the application of its principles to the recruitment, task-assignment, and training of soldiers in the United States in connection with its entry into World War I in 1918 (George & Jones, 2008; Robbins & Judge, 2009). In between…. [read more]

How Has Richmond VA Been Impacted by the Recession Research Proposal

… ¶ … Richmond VA been impacted by the Recession

At issue here is the recession, and what it is doing to the town of Richmond, Virginia. Like many big cities and little towns throughout the country today, Richmond is suffering. it's difficult for people to pay their mortgages, and businesses are going under. Some of this is happening because of what are called 'intertemporal choices.' Intertemporal choices are things that have benefits and costs that are not immediate. They are spread out over time, and they are important. Often times, these are fairly common choices such as whether to have children, or which house to buy. Obviously, these are choices that have long-term implications.

Children are a lifetime investment, and a house is often a…. [read more]

RN Risk Prevention Policy Research Proposal

… Purpose

The purpose of the research investigation on lateral violence in a practice setting is to contribute to the professional dialogue on policy in the healthcare workplace. Outcomes to the study will provide valuable insights into the practical and policy spheres of clinical practice, as well as hospital safety programs in adherence to national standards of compliance. From a theoretical perspective, the study proposes to further recent queries in common law nations on the 'duty to a standard of reasonable care' as acknowledged within U.S. Federal law, and in other nations like Canada, that offer distinct interpretations to institutional and professional liability.

Patient care models also offer a site of investigation on the topic of violence, and disclosure. Lateral violence or peer-to-peer abuse also affects…. [read more]

Effects of Technology on Personal Relationships Dissertation

… ¶ … Technology on Personal Relationships

The rate at which information is shared in today's world is very different than just a few years ago. More and more, individuals, particularly college students are living both in the "real" world and in the virtual world provided by the internet, Facebook and other social media sites. There is a concern, raised by some, that because of the use of advanced technology, young people are no longer engaging in traditional forms of social capital or interpersonal engagement. The following study seeks to examine the impact social media has on the development of mature interpersonal relationships. Participants for the study will be college students at a designated college or university who will voluntarily participate in the study. Through the…. [read more]

Using Statistical Information in Hospital Setting Essay

… We count the number of patients who come through intake each day, as well as the number of times they have been admitted or committed for care, in order to record trends in their individual behavior, as well as to track intake in comparison to the facility's capacity. Finally, the administration of pills and other medication is carefully recorded using nominal measurements.

Ordinal: The use of satisfaction surveys is essential in assessing the quality of care and comfort our patients have experienced, and this technique relies upon ordinal measurement. For example, every patient who is checking out after an extended stay at College Hospital is asked to provide answers about their experience using a basic 1-10 scale, with questions about interaction with staff, symptom treatment,…. [read more]

Parent Connect Zangle Term Paper

… Zangle or Parent Connect is a system that allows the parent to check on the status of their child's grades as well as what is due and when an assignment is due. The purpose is to increase parental involvement and to reap the benefits that have long been assumed for increased parental involvement. This software is in use in several school districts today and is being considered by many more. What is needed is an examination of the software, what it does and how, and an assessment of how effective it has been in those situations where it is being used. Thus, a research project is to be designed to gather that sort of data and to set standards by which the software can be…. [read more]

Military Retiree Benefits Did the Government Keep Its Promise Thesis

… ¶ … military retirees are entitled to the sheer enormity and the scope of the endeavor are so gigantic that it borders on the overwhelming. The United States government has a plethora of benefits that encompass the health, welfare and continued treatment of medical issues involving the service men and women throughout the Armed Forces. There are also numerous retirement benefits, for instance members of the U.S. military receive various health benefits, retirement and Social Security incentives and significant Cost of Living Adjustments. These benefits, among numerous others are part of an attractive package that military recruiters utilize to attract young men and women to serve in the armed forces.

The largest benefit of all is the G.I. Bill which provides for educational expenses for…. [read more]

Therapeutic Massage on Elderly Term Paper

… Geriatric massage is a form of massage designed to meet the specific needs of the elderly population. It involves the use of hands to manipulate the soft tissues of the body to improve blood circulation, relieve pain, and increase range of motion. Active or passive movement of the joints may also be part of geriatric massage (Tran, 2003).


To summarize this review of the literature, there are many consequences of the death of a spouse for which the newly widowed should prepare themselves. The most threatening and the ones with the most potential for harm are depression and loneliness. The loneliness was defined as needing a companion for everyday activities as well as just being there (Parkes, 1998). Hence, the hunger a widow feels…. [read more]

Brain Drain of Health Professionals Thesis

… The 'brain drain', also referred to as 'talent flow' (Hooks et al., 2005) and the 'Diaspora' (Bryant and Law, 2004), is the flow of skilled human capital out of a country at a considerable rate. Africa is faced with this growing problem (Mutizwa-Mangiza, 1996; Bloom & Standing, 2001) and has witnessed decades of wasted development potential, however it has also been experienced in other nations throughout history e.g. USA and Europe and is currently happening in Ireland. This migration has been blamed for worsening the human capital crisis in Africa (Wadda, 2000). The continent has suffered and continues to suffer problems of extreme poverty and lack of both human and institutional capacity. There has been massive influx of emigration from Zimbabwe since the late 90's…. [read more]

Supply Chain Management Hypothesis Thesis

… It requires the total dedication from organization within which it SCM implementation is being planned. SCM "expands the scope of the organization being managed beyond the enterprise level to include interorganizational relationships." (Strader et al., 1999)

Supply chain depends heavily on the relationships that organizations can develop and sustain through personal interactions and using the latest technology. Earlier studies in SCM focused on identifying the supply chain network (SCN) developed by organizations. Later, studies focused on supply chain demands, supply chain operation and information sharing. In the present organizational environment, competitive advantages are not just single company or organization-based. Rather, they are supply chain based. (Muralidharan et al., 2002)

There are many independent models within the SCM methodology. Each of these deserve discussion. Some of…. [read more]

Industrial / Organizational Psychology: Human Interaction and Motivation Essay

… Organizational Use of Industrial/Organizational Psychology

There is much application of I/Q psychology within organizational and industrial setting, as well as universities that do employ (to be as writers, teachers, administrators, consultants, mentors) approximately 40% of I/Q psychologists in a research capacity. When using I/Q psychology, the same roles can be filled by the psychologists as researchers, though they may as well be involved in job analysis, find a solution to the problems of the organization, get opinion of the employees through discussion or survey, come up with employee related system as well as training programs, and develop psychological tests that can be applied to the work environment.

Moreover, in I/Q psychologists practice, there is evaluation of whichever aspect of work environment or its systems together…. [read more]

Strategies for Reducing Prejudice Peer-Reviewed Journal

… Prejudice, Behaviorism and Effective Combative Strategies

Developing and maintaining smooth race relations is something important to society and something crucial in the professional health care arena. Having a strong rapport and understanding with people from all walks of life is crucial as a professional health care provider and as a citizen. However, while some racist attitudes are overt, others are more concealed. Regardless of the type, they all require an effective approach to combat these destructive tendencies.

The study, "Effectiveness of Role-playing and Anti-Racist teaching in Reducing Student Prejudice" by McGregor, attempted to examine the impact of behavioral instruction through acting out scenarios and formal lessons on tolerance and the damages caused by bias. According to McGregor, Meta-analysis was the key strategy used to mesh…. [read more]

Tobacco Control and Stress Reduction Term Paper

… For a survey intended to be relatively encompassing of an entire locality, this is particularly problematic. While it may be true that the data is characteristic of the programs overall, there is a clear bias in favor of a certain 'type' of company and therefore a certain 'type' of employee. Another consideration in evaluating data according to Fitzpatrick (2004) is the value of the accomplishments chronicled in the data. While assessing the existence of anti-smoking programs in the workplace may be useful, there was no data gathered regarding efficacy or the degree to which such guidelines were enforced.

The stress reduction survey offers more complete information -- it contains both quantitative and qualitative measures. The subjects were asked to record both pre and post-intervention scores…. [read more]

Memory Has Been Separated Term Paper

… (Rutger's University Memory Disorders Project, 2011, p.1) The organization of long-term memory is such that it is not difficult to reach a stored item and this can be accomplished through various routes. The example stated is as follows:

" the concept "umbrella" may be retrieved by seeing an umbrella, experiencing a rainstorm, hearing the words to the song "Let a smile be your umbrella," and so on. Retrieval of an item also facilitates other related items: so that retrieving information about a cat can lead to retrieval of information about dogs, lions, specific instances of cats (Grandmother's tabby), the Cheshire Cat from Alice in Wonderland, and so on." (Rutger's University Memory Disorders Project, 2011, p.1)

Long-term memories are classified in several ways by their content.…. [read more]

Penis Term Paper

… 33.


Standard Error






Determination - r2




Critical 2-sided T-value (5%)


Critical 1-sided T-value (5%)


Degrees of Freedom




Question #3: Men can get yeast infections by?

Pearson Product Moment Correlation - Ungrouped Data


Variable Y

Variable X





Standard Error






Determination - r2




Critical 2-sided T-value (5%)


Critical 1-sided T-value (5%)


Degrees of Freedom




Question #4: Is there an adequate amount of sperm in pre-cum for impregnation?

Pearson Product Moment Correlation - Ungrouped Data


Variable Y

Variable X





Standard Error






Determination - r2


T-Test…. [read more]

Conselling Master Questionnaire Questionnaire

… 26)

The primary objective of statistics is to make inferences concerning a population. In so doing, there is a need to explain or offer information concerning the sample, which will major in a given study. Descriptive statistics come in, and assist in describing the sample on which the study will take place. In addition, descriptive statistics first offer substantial information concerning the sample to major in the study. Statistics associated with descriptive statistics shown on the normal curve are identified as the measures of central tendency. Additionally, researchers have described descriptive statistics as an effort to summarize the gathered data comprehensively.

13) Explain the purpose and meaning of "Pearson" (Hauser, 2009 p. 30)

In statistics, "Pearson" in full Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient is the measure…. [read more]

Metaphysics Versus Psychology Dissertation


Metaphysics and Psychology have historically been at odds with one another in what is an unnatural although real separation from a somewhat new science and its mother science. Although many believe that psychology and metaphysics are actually joined together the view of many in these two areas of study are adamant that the two are opposed to one another. Indeed it is just this debate which will be examined during the course of this study reported herein.

Metaphysics is the mother science of psychology and was first established as such in ancient times by such as Aristotle, Plato and others. Metaphysics is of the nature that conducts an examination of reality and the relationship that exists between the physical world and other…. [read more]

Gance-Cleveland, B. ). "Qualitative Evaluation Term Paper

… Gance-Cleveland, B. (2004). "Qualitative Evaluation of a School-Based Support Group for Adolescents With an Addicted Parent." Nursing Research. 53 (8): 379-86.

What data was collected in this study? How was the data analyzed? This study was qualitatively based and focused on multi-cultural students from middle and lower-class economic backgrounds. Data was collected from students, administrators, and group cofaciliators. Focus group and survey results were tabulated and analyzed using standard ethnographic methods.

Summarize the results of the study in your own words -- remember that results are the findings based on analysis of the data. Findings from the study validated goals of support groups in risk populations of students with at least one addictive parent or caregiver in the household. Because children in these situations often…. [read more]

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Article Critique

… ¶ … post traumatic stress disorder has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because of shifts in conventional thinking about the lasting impact it is having on everyone. In the case of children, they are increasingly vulnerable from how they are interpreting past events and the way it affects their ability to deal with a variety of issues. These challenges are particularly complex, as they will make it more difficult for them to learn the best techniques for socially interacting with others. (Dorrepaal, 2012)

In the article, Stabilizing Group Treatment for Complex Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Related to Child Abuse Based on Psycho Education and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Multi-Site Randomized Controlled Trial, Dorrepaal (2012) is seeking to understand these difficulties. This is…. [read more]

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