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Psychoanalytic and Humanistic Perspectives on a Person Essay

… They also believe that individuals help in shaping the behavior of an individual. Thus, they place greater emphasis on the capacity of humans to change their circumstances and behavior because of autonomous choice and conscious reflection. For psychoanalytic psychology, early-childhood experiences and biological drives are important in shaping the personality of an individual. These forces exert influence on an individual's conscious level; they tend to be difficult to moderate or change. However, psychoanalytic therapy focuses on bringing unconscious conflicts and motivations into unconscious with the assistance of the analyst. For this reason, change can be promoted through the interaction of the analyst and the patient.

Extent to which they are co-existing

Both humanistic and psychoanalytic perspectives have a major influence psychotherapy and on psychology. They…. [read more]

Humanistic Theory in, Julie Case Study

… ¶ … Humanistic Theory

In case study, Julie is being affected by a host of different social problems that are helping contribute to her overall levels of anxiety. According to the humanistic theory, the basic challenges that are facing Julie have not been addressed. This means, that certain elements must be taken into consideration, in order for her to have a complete understanding of herself (as a person). The most notable include: her issues of intimacy, trouble getting along with others and a sense of frustration she will constantly feel. This is important, because it shows how some of her basic needs have been met such as: physiological and safety. Yet, when you move beyond these issues, the requirements of having complete self-awareness have not…. [read more]

Psychological Explanation for Ted Bundy Term Paper

… After his mother moved to Tacoma, Washington they stayed with Jack whose education, wit, suave attitude and intelligence Ted revered. He changed from an introvert to an outgoing, fun loving and attractive individual in his senior high years. The styles and attitude adopted merely reflected his Ted's efforts in cultivating an image. According to Adler's theory of organ inferiority and striving for superiority theory, it can be understood that Jack had been the stimulus towards the positive side of his personality whose presence motivated him to replicate ambitious, successful and aggressive drive to achieve perfection. And it had been during these years that Ted managed to convince his social circle through this new image which served the purpose of displacing his psychological craving for sexual…. [read more]

Personality Theories in Psychology Essay

… For Freud's patients, the goal of psychoanalysis was to help mitigate some of these feelings and reconcile some of the differences between the id and the superego. Of course, human beings were able to reconcile these competing differences before the advent of psychoanalysis. They did so in a number of ways, which Freud referred to as defense mechanisms. Defense mechanisms are subconscious ways that a person deals with the tension between the id and the superego. These defense mechanisms include: compensation, denial, displacement, fantasy, intellectualization, projection, rationalization, reaction formation, regression, repression, and sublimation (See generally Freud, 1989).

There are certainly numerous flaws in Freud's theory. First, he was working in a repressive time which did not allow him to focus more effort on uncovering the…. [read more]

Personality Psychological Perspectives in Psychology Term Paper

… These "environmental conditions" include other people apart from the individual's family, realities and experiences encountered in one's social environment, as well as the individual's responses to his/her physical environment. The behaviorist perspective is closely linked with the cognitive approach, which looks at the biological operations of the human mind, positing that the way humans "mentally represent information" leads to the formation of 'constructs' that shape personality among individuals (474). Lastly, the humanistic perspective, centers on the capacity of the individual himself/herself to make decisions and create his/her own personality. This perspective, although it takes into account the influence of the social environment, mainly acknowledges the individual's personal choice to discover and eventually realize his/her 'true self,' the kind of person s/he wants to become.

Understanding…. [read more]

Humanistic Transpersonal Term Paper

… Humanistic and Transpersonal Psychologies

Existential-Humanistic Psychology Compared with Transpersonal Psychologies

There are fundamental differences between Existential-Humanistic Psychologies and Transpersonal Psychologies. First of all, the Existential-Humanistic Psychologies do not agree on basic questions having to do with human personality and change as a result from their widely different origins. Significantly different programs of application and therapy are used by these psychologies. And they do not agree on the final goal for the human psyche. But they do agree on their basic approaches.

The Transpersonal Psychologies find their similarities in their approach to the body-mind relationships and transformation. Essentially they believe that the mind controls the body and if you can put your mind at peace, the body will respond. Based on the work of Carl Jung,…. [read more]

Counselling Techniques Comparison of Humanistic Capstone Project

… The importance of this visibility is in the way it helps clients accept themselves just as they are. In some instances, active listening presents the clients with proper capacities in realizing their own thoughts and attitude beyond the therapy sessions. It is however important for counselors to note that, while applying active listening, they should take care of rewording the emotional content and not focus on repeating such content word for word. This is because repeating the content verbatim may translate to, not actually, listening, an aspect known as a glib.

With reference to gestalt technique, this relates to a division of this form of counselling which focus on assisting the client put together his/her thoughts, experiences, and feelings. This is a mean of understanding…. [read more]

Psychological Study of Personality: Psychoanalytic, Humanistic Term Paper

… ¶ … Psychological Study of Personality: Psychoanalytic, Humanistic, and Cognitive Perspectives

Psychology, as the study of the human behavior and mental processes, includes various fields of study that focus on various aspects of people's everyday lives, such as learning, memory, thinking and language, intelligence, human development, social and health psychology, and personality. The latter field of study, personality, is what interests most people because it helps people identify what kind of people they are: their feelings, sentiments, attitudes, beliefs, and possibly predict one's behavior through these factors.

Defined as the "enduring, distinctive thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize the way an individual adapts to the world," personality as a field of study in psychology is characterized according to three dominant perspectives: the psychoanalytic, humanistic, and…. [read more]

Psychology Essay

… Both positive and cognitive psychology uses the scientific technique to clarify the association that is among reasoning and behavior. Meanwhile positive psychology could couple with any other methods, cognitive psychology has lived without argument for practically four periods (Sweetland, 2009). In the 21st century, progress and technology go hand-in-hand; as a result, the formation of artificial intelligence will probable outcome in new theories concerning thought.

Theories of Psychology

There are a lot of theories in psychology that are examined for instance the theories of Gestalt psychology where he says "Humans are psychologically troubled and frequently intensely distressed by inequity, disorder, disorder, tension and battles…We are contented merely when we feel in symmetry, that is, control and in balanced." (Barnes, 2008) These two statements label the…. [read more]

How Personality Is Measured Thesis

… ¶ … personality- trait psychoanalytic/psychodynamic, humanistic, social-cognitive and biological theories, and how personality is measured. One of the common definitions for personality is "an individual's unique and relatively stable pattern of thoughts, feelings and actions."

Trait Theory- is interested in how and to what extent people differ. Trait theorists came up with a 5-factor model of personality which includes openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness and neuroticism or emotional stability. The Theory was criticized for not explaining the reasons for personality, for not identifying which characteristics last a lifetime and for not taking into account situational and environmental effects.

Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic Theory- attempts to explain individual differences by looking at the interplay between unconscious mental forces and emotions, thoughts and actions. Sigmund Freud was the father of this…. [read more]

Psychological Effects of Chronic Stress Research Paper

… Physiological Effects of Chronic Stress


Stress can cause both physical and physiological affects on a person. Prolonged chronic stress has been shown to cause a number of different illnesses and problems. There have been many studies done that have researched the effects of stress on the mind and body. The causes of stress and the effects that it has on a person's mind and body have been determined to be numerous. It has been shown that there is a definite connection between chronic stress and physical and psychological responses in the body. It has been determined that stress in small amounts is fine, but chronic stress over a long extended period of time has been shown to manifest itself in a number of different…. [read more]

Theory Critique of Psychoanalytic Therapy and Adlerian Term Paper

… ¶ … Psychoanalytic and Adlerian Therapies

Analysis of Psychoanalytic Therapy and Adlerian Therapy

Psychoanalytic Therapy

Psychotherapy focuses on the unconscious and how it influences human behavior. It claims that a person is driven by aggression and sexual impulses. It focuses mainly on the first six years of human life and how events during this time period determine later personality. Repressed conflicts from childhood lead to personality problems later in life. Anxiety is a direct result of the repression of conflicts.

Psychoanalysts believe that unconscious motives, along with unresolved conflicts, lead to maladaptive behavior. Therefore, a psychoanalyst believes that to develop a normal personality, a person must go through five psychosexual stages successfully: Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, and Genital. Psychoanalysis focuses on early childhood, postulating that…. [read more]

Relationship Between Personality and Transformational Leadership Essay

… ¶ … Personality and Transformational Leadership

Most of the time, it is really not that difficult for some people to easily recognize differences of the other people. Others' working ways can be totally different from one's own. At times they can even be annoying. A lot of the time their subordinates can experience their leaders as very adverse and others can undergo the same leaders one of the best that they have ever seen. Vice versa, it can also be said about leaders and it is true: some subordinates are looked at as better and some as worse. Some portion of this mutual recognition is because of the personality. Recognizing the differences of personality difference is much calmer than accepting and understanding them. The emphasis…. [read more]

Psychotherapy for Psychopathy Research Paper

… That is to say that had Kuklinski been raised in a different environment absent unpredictable violence and unreliable adults, he may not have developed such a high degree of callous, remorseless behavior. Indeed, Kuklinski could have pursued work that would have enabled him to channel his psychopathic personality traits in socially acceptable ways, such as soldiering, policing, prizefighting, or a similar occupation.

C. Applying the theory. You have two options for this task.

Option 2: Select a task from the three below and provide your own response.

1. You are asked to prepare a report for the courts outlining the key factors that should be taken into account when considering sentencing a defendant with antisocial/psychopathic traits. Consider here information that the courts should consider with…. [read more]

Counseling Psychoanalytic Family Research Paper

… At age three the child should be at a minimum level of individuation and separation from the caregiver (Mahler, 1975). This is the state of object constancy: the formation of an internalized relatively stable sense of self and object, so that the child can bear the anxiety of separation. A decisive period here is the rapprochement phase where the infant is pulled between the need to stay close to the caretaker while being pushed to function autonomously. The failure to deal with the crises able can lead to an inability to establish a satisfactory distance in relationships.

The primary goal of psychodynamic family counseling is to move towards a more functional family unit relatively free from conflicts and inhibitions. The use of the therapeutic alliance,…. [read more]

Human Memory Literature Review Chapter

… Another intriguing aspect of Conway & Pleydell-Pearce's research about human memory and autobiographical memories is not just that autobiographical memories exist, but how they believe them to function. They contend that autobiographical memories are constantly present, yet are "activated" by events or occurrences in our present lives that trigger these memories, as well as their influence.

A fundamental premise of our approach is that autobiographical memories are transitory dynamic mental constructions generated from an underlying knowledge base. This knowledge base, or regions of it, is minutely sensitive to cues, and patterns of activation constantly arise and dissipate over the indexes of autobiographical memory knowledge structures. Such endogenous patterns of activation may not coalesce into "memories," nor do they necessarily or even usually enter into consciousness;…. [read more]

Socio-Cultural Perspective "The Sociocultural Essay

… We also learn sets of principals from social interactions, such as what is right and wrong. Social interactions play a big part in how we see the world around us. They play a very big part of what we learn as right and wrong, what is valuable, what we believe, morals, and what is important to us. But, the social cognitive perspective ignores the cultural aspects that also play a big part of who we are.

Culture has symbolic dimensions of identity, what is meaningful and important, and who we are in life. It shapes our perceptions and interpretations of the world. Culture places our boundaries for us. It tells us what is normal, appropriate, and expected. Culture gives us our understanding of relationships and…. [read more]

Group Addiction TX Theory Selection Term Paper

… For strict behaviorists addiction or compulsion are simply a terms for an operantly conditioned behavior. Other compulsive behaviors follow the same line of reasoning. The inability to refrain from using a drug or engaging in a compulsion merely indicates that a sufficient history of reinforcement has been acquired to drive a high rate of the behavior. Therefore, physical dependence, as in the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria, is neither sufficient nor necessary to result in a diagnosis of an addiction (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). Physical dependence is just a result of the overuse of certain drugs according to this view (McAuliffe & Gordon, 1980).

Behaviorists offer many different techniques that can applied to group counseling. Typically contingency management (CM) techniques are applicable behavioral for group counseling…. [read more]

Post-Modern to Contemporary Psychology Research Paper

… Post-Modern to Contemporary Psych

Psychology: Post-modern to Contemporary

From its foundation as a separate science from philosophy and biology, psychology has been a dynamic and ever evolving discipline with ongoing debate as to how to explain and describe behavior and the human mind. Many attribute the beginning of psychology as a separate discipline to German physiologist Wilhelm Wundt, during the mid-1800's, with his study of human consciousness. Since that time, there have been a number of theories and schools of thought that have served to shape contemporary psychology, and to inform many related fields such as Criminal Justice. Whereas psychologists and philosophers of the past utilized various methods such as logic and observation to define, study, and draw conclusions regarding thought and behavior, modern day…. [read more]

Abraham Maslow and His Contributions Term Paper

… They have a well-developed sense of humor that tends not to be hostile to others.

They are creative. (Hergenhahn, 2000 p.512)

It is also very important to Maslow that perfection is not a characteristic of his subject as they also exhibit some of the base examples of human failings that people generally lower on the developmental chain exhibit. (Hergenhahn, 2000 p.511) The characteristic of these people were according to Maslow the outgrowth of the reaching of their potential based on their needs having been met at each stage of his hierarchy.

According to Maslow's theories the compartmentalization of nearly every human drive or behavior may occur through the hierarchy yet he wishes to make clear that many can cross over into needs bases that are…. [read more]

Psychology Developmental Stages Using Freud Term Paper

… The research Hartson and Payne (2007) suggests that after crossing the age of one year the child enters in the second stage starting from one year up to three years. Liberaceand other children at this stage experience that the needs changed. As a result the learning of autonomy vs. shame and doubt is experienced by the child. The children are also likely to experience the command for fulfilling their own needs and desires. It is also noted that it is the early age where the child experiences the ability to take self-care and understand the meanings of self-esteem and self-confidence.

Middle Childhood:

The middle age of a child is relatively different from previous stages, so was the life of Liberace. The learning and development process…. [read more]

Dream Content as Therapy: Ego vs. Repression Dissertation

… For example: a parent has repeating nightmares, and the child "dreams his dreams " because the child is in a psychic resonance with the parent. The child's dreams end when the parent's does. Four, it might be a repetition of a past traumatic event in current lifetime. For example: a person might dream of a recent rape, a childhood assault or a wartime battle. This type of nightmare is so deeply etched in the psyche that it can require heavy use of behavioral dream-work techniques to modify the content and emotional intensity.

A fifth factor could be that the dream is a depiction of a past or probable life. For example: a client might dream the last events prior to a violent…. [read more]

Ego Psychology Theorists Term Paper

… When you are becoming older, you begin to acquire more and more principles. (Psychology of Behavior)

The distinctive mold of psychological and behavioral characteristics that differentiates each of us from everyone else is the Personality. The distinctiveness of the individual Personality is comparatively constant and lasting, frequently developed in childhood and influence the way we think, act, feel and behave. The study of personality involves five major methods with their own way of evaluating personality. These are Psychodynamic, Humanistic, Behavioral, Trait and Bio-psychological theories. Psychodynamic theories highlight the relationship of Unconscious mental processes in shaping human thinking, conduct and feelings. It is a Conflict approach that presumes that contrasting forces within an individual are continuously disagreeing. According to humanistic theorist Carl Rogers, the 'Self' is…. [read more]

Teaching Adults by Griff Foley Thesis

… Teaching Adults by Griff Foley

How does Foley's perspective on teaching compare with your own understanding of teaching adults?

In the past, most of the articles and papers and books that were written about teaching were about young children, or teenagers - perhaps some people up to college age. That is not the same thing as adult learners, because many of them learn things quite differently than young children, and they often have to work harder to remember the same things. The issue of formal classroom learning is one that has been misunderstood for many years. There are individuals who study it and discuss how significant it is, and there are others that see it issues with it as some kind of made-up problem that…. [read more]

Person-Centered Therapy Today a Sign Term Paper

… One thing they found was that he used non-expert language. You could say Rogers spoke in a caring, supportive way as a friend and equal, not as an authority. As he put it himself in On Becoming a Person (1961): "I have found that the more that I can be genuine in the relationship, the more helpful it will be. This means that I need to be aware of my own feelings, in so far as possible, rather than presenting an outward facade of one attitude, while actually holding another attitude at a deeper or unconscious level" (p. 33). He avoided giving advice, and several times during the interview with Gloria commented on the difficulty of her problem. In the beginning she presented the problem…. [read more]

Psychologists Are Addressing? Journal

… ¶ … psychologists are addressing?

Both psychologists are addressing the ethical issues involved in using animals for experimental psychological research.

* What is psychologist a's point-of-view? Psychologist B's?

Psychologist a believes that research animals are rarely treated inhumanely, and the important contributions to scientific research gleaned from their use far outweigh any risks to the animals. Psychologist B, on the other hand, sees much more harm than benefit from using research animals, and believes the animals are regularly subjected to mistreatment.

* What factors might be influencing psychologist a's point-of-view?

A may be influenced by the fact that she has personal experience with the benefits of animal research with respect to biofeedback techniques used to treat high blood pressure. She also may be influenced by…. [read more]

Martin Luther King a Dreamer Term Paper

… Martin Luther King


Martin Luther King, Jr.


Martin Luther King, Jr. was born on January 15, 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia to Reverend Martin Luther King, Sr. And Alberta Williams (Brown, 2010). His siblings are Christine and the late Reverend Alfred Daniel Williams. He studied at the Yonge Street Elementary School in Atlanta, the David T. Howard Elementary School, the Atlanta University Laboratory School and the Booker T. Washington High School. Because of high scores at the college entrance examinations, he advanced to Morehouse College without first graduating from Booker T. Washington, skipping 9th to 12th grades. He was 15 when he enrolled at Morehouse College. He completed a B.A. degree in Sociology. Afterwards, he enrolled at the Crozer Theological…. [read more]

Developmental History of Positive Psychology Research Paper

… Positive Psychology

The History and Development of Positive Psychology: An Overview of Perspectives and Theories

As the medical and even the human sciences go, psychology is still a relative newcomer to the real of academic scholarship and real-world practice. Surgeries and other investigations into the workings of the human body -- methods of determining the sources of illnesses and attempts at treating these illnesses, as well as simply understanding the functioning of a body and its organs in a state of health -- are older than civilization itself, and were in many ways quite refined before the concept of psychology had solidified. Other somewhat subjective "soft" or human sciences developed quite rapidly in the eighteenth and especially the nineteenth centuries, with sociology, economics, and political…. [read more]

Gordon Willard Allport Research Paper

… The fact that everyone has these feelings supports the idea that one trait may be dominant in one situation and another in another situation (Allport, 1937a).

In order to connect the traits and dispositions in order to make them work together, Allport developed the concept of the proprium. The proprium is the integrating aspect of personality that other psychologists have referred to as the "self," "ego" and "style of life" (Chaplin & Krawiec, 1968). Propriate comes from the word proprium, which is Allport's name for that essential concept, the self. He had reviewed hundreds of definitions for that concept and came to feel that, in order to more scientific, it would be necessary to dispense with the common word self and substitute something else.

Allport…. [read more]

Therapeutic Models Psychodynamic and Person-Centered Essay

… Hence, the client-centered therapist is expected to maintain a positive tone and general attitude towards the client despite the personal disliking about client's various actions.

Because the person-centered counselor puts so much focus on genuine and on being led by the client, they therapist tend to ignore the boundaries of time and technique as would a psychodynamic therapist. If they judged it appropriate, a person-centered counselor might diverge considerably from orthodox counseling techniques. Another important concept attached to this therapy is Empathy which means understanding what the client means and what he or she is going through. This entails therapist's ability to understanding what the client means and has gone through or going through (by having an accurate estimation) by being sensitive to client's feelings…. [read more]

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