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Clinical Psychology Mental Health Essay

… The clinical psychologist focuses on examinee or patient by diagnosing mental disorders and suggesting treatment while the role of forensic psychologist holds a more objective stand because his/her client is attorney or court and not the examinee. Due to the forensic setting priority is given to the precise information as compared to the perspective of examinee. As opposed to this the role of clinical psychologist is to focus on the well being of the patient or individual coming to the clinic for counselling. The clinical psychologist provides assistance to the examinee with diagnosis of mental health issue and recommending clinician for improving the examinee's mental health performance. Due to difference in the role the forensic psychologist is required to take safety measures while informing the…. [read more]

Counselling Techniques Comparison of Humanistic Capstone Project

… The importance of this visibility is in the way it helps clients accept themselves just as they are. In some instances, active listening presents the clients with proper capacities in realizing their own thoughts and attitude beyond the therapy sessions. It is however important for counselors to note that, while applying active listening, they should take care of rewording the emotional content and not focus on repeating such content word for word. This is because repeating the content verbatim may translate to, not actually, listening, an aspect known as a glib.

With reference to gestalt technique, this relates to a division of this form of counselling which focus on assisting the client put together his/her thoughts, experiences, and feelings. This is a mean of understanding…. [read more]

Clinical Psychology as a Distinct Essay

… W. (2000). The Boulder Model's fatal flaw. American Psychologist 55(2): 247-248.

Benjamin, L.T. (2005). A History of Clinical Psychology as a Profession in America. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 1(1-30)

"Brief Institutional History of Clinical and Health Psychology," (n.d.). Chapter Two in Curriculum in Clinical and Health Psychology. Retrieved online:

Fazakas-DeHoog, L. (n.d.). History of clinical psychology. Retrieved online:

Gould, S.J. (1982). A Nation of Morons. Retrieved online:

Reisman, J.M. (1976). A History of Clinical Psychology. New York: Irvington.

Richmond, R.L. (2011). Psychology: Clinical and Counseling -- and Licensure. A Guide to Psychology and its Practice. Retrieved online:

Treat, T.A. & Weesering, R. (n.d.). Clinical psychology. Retrieved online:

Watson, R.I. (1953). A brief history of clinical psychology. Psychological Bulletin 50(5):…. [read more]

Counseling Terminally Ill Essay

… Likewise, the counselor may provide counsel to a collective support group or individuals such as a spouse or parent attempting to cope with the illness and the expectation of loss of a loved one. As Daneker indicates, the quality of life during this period of time can be very much dictated by the ability of the terminally ill subject to continue to maintain some semblance of a social life. Therefore, Daneker reports, "the dying individual needs social involvement as much as he or she did before the illness (Davies et al., 1995; Parkes et al., 1996). Interventions by a counselor can facilitate the ability of friends and family to enable the dying individual to maintain a social life in the face of physical limitations "…. [read more]

Social Advocacy in Counseling PhD Model Answer

… " Indeed many of the tenets and precepts of current social justice advocates are aligned with the postmodernist philosophy, which has been associated with Marxist principles by many scholars (e.g., see Johnson, 2009; Nicholson & Seidman, 1995). This is not to suggest that social advocacy is a "communist plot" but instead is an attempt to understand how social justice advocates may instead attempt to promote certain political agendas in the name of science. There is no denying that upbringing, environment, and experience shape who we are (this has always been the fundamental psychological principle of human behavior), but social advocates may attempt to exploit this principle in terms of certain agendas. The issues of social change are tackled by political scientists, social researchers, and sociologists…. [read more]

Counseling Psychology Essay

… Freud as well as other psychologists believed that psychologists were trained to become experts in dealing with client mental problems while Rogers emphasized that clients were their own experts and it is them who knew themselves better. The contrasting views of Carl Rogers and Freud made it difficult to state that all counseling psychology relied on all the theories used to constitute its formation. However, other theories showed the relativity and similarity in their application in counseling psychology as they clearly dealt with mental problems. Frank Parsons and Clifford Beers believed in the importance of creating a friendly environment for people in the plight of dealing with the mentally ill. Frank Parsons believed in vocational guidance in the school environment. This led to the setting…. [read more]

Creating a Proposal for a Counseling Group Research Paper

… Counseling groups give members the opportunity to share experiences, discover new viewpoints, and experiment with the new behaviors in a relatively safe and supportive environment. A professional counseling service provider leads the group in its endeavor to satisfy demands of the members. This paper is a proposal that creates and illustrates a counseling group. In particular, it discusses into details the goals and objectives, evaluation plan for total group experience, logistics of group program, a comprehensive description of ten group sessions, description of group activities, and evaluation of the group. This evaluation will take into account the various copies of tests, rating forms, and questionnaires that are culturally appropriate.


Purpose and Rationale

The counseling group intends to provide members majority of which are teenagers…. [read more]

Counseling and the Helping Professions Essay

… When that happens, changes can be made -- but it is still very important to be aware of the requirements that have to be met in order to be licensed.

Local and National Organizations

There are both local and national organizations to get involved with when it comes to counseling. Often, these organizations can help a person focus on making contacts, getting his or her continuing education credits, and accessing resources needed to be successful in the profession (Constantine, 2007; Dillon, Worthington, Soth-McNett, & Schwartz, 2008). Nationally, there is the American Counseling Association, along with the American Mental Health Counselors Association, the American School Counselors Association, and many others. Both large and small organizations are available, and it depends on the person which one they…. [read more]

Counseling Skills and Their Use Term Paper

… This is not meant in the physical sense of being in the same office with the client but rather in the mental sense of understanding where the client is in his or her life at the present moment (Glancy, Regehr, & Bryant, 1998). This means that a counselor must not moralize to a client and must not judge that client for what the client has done or said (Glancy, Regehr, & Bryant, 1998). Instead, the counselor must only look at what the client sees as his or her own particular reality at that period of time and must work from there instead of trying to correct the client's perceptions about the reality that he or she has created (Glancy, Regehr, & Bryant, 1998; Marshall &…. [read more]

Psychology - Counseling the Social Research Paper

… However, intervention, according to social constructionists, is a therapeutic conversation. It is also a linguistic event, a joint search and examination through dialogue, a two-way trade of ideas in which new meanings are recurrently evolving toward the dissolving of problems. In other words, the emphasis is not to solve or eliminate the problems but to open space for conversation (Lit & Shek, 2002).

In the eyes of social constructionists, therapists are the coauthors who engage in the coauthoring process with the client together. The therapeutic conversation is believed to be a linguistic event that takes place in the interaction process. Social constructionists further maintain that no one persons understanding could override the others. There is also nonexistence of theoretically formed truths and knowledge (Lit &…. [read more]

Counseling and Personal Values Integrating Term Paper

… Transactional Analysis Theory -- This theory was given by Eric Berne. This therapy not only focuses on development of a productive life but also focuses on attaining health and independence.

Other Behavioral Theories -- The behavioral theories were mostly given by B.F. Skinner. These theories basically focus on making the clients emotionally and psychologically strong and rational.

We are familiar with all these theories, but each theory is a subject within itself. Therefore, to understand the practical approach towards this theory it is important to develop a thorough understanding of the theory.

Techniques of Counseling

Although there are different techniques of counseling available, the techniques chosen for further discussion are explained below.

Adlerian Technique

Adlerian technique had been devised from the Adlerian theory given by…. [read more]

Counseling Skills Research Paper

… The efficient therapist observes by realizing and decoding non-verbal expression. Customers on the edge of dropping out of therapy often show discontentment with therapy or the healing process by skipping sessions, coming late, unable to complete required forms and tasks, or staying mute when requested to contribute. Any incident of such actions provides an opportunity to talk about the factors for the actions and to learn from it. An excellent specialist concentrates by getting clients to talk freely about emotions, factors, and desires. Concentrating on your customer's immediate feeling, need, problems, anxiety, issue, scenario, pain, or experience is crucial regardless how appropriate it may seem in the bigger plan of therapy. Illustrating out your customer's views and presentation of a scenario is essential (Shulman, 2009).…. [read more]

Social Work With Individuals Essay

… Counselor: That must have been really scary running into one of those men.

Youth: It was. It was really scary. Before I fell asleep on the mattress, I cried for a while.

Counselor: How long did you sleep there for?

Youth: I slept there for around three hours and when I woke up it was because the dismissal bell was ringing. And I felt so depressed and so sad that I had missed so much school. And I felt like such a loser. And then I felt like I just had to get high again.

Counselor: Did you?

Youth: No, I was out of money.

In this exchange, we see the actions and feelings of a very troubled client, who has suffered quite a bit,…. [read more]

Cognitive Social Learning Theory Research Paper

… Cognitive Social Learning Theory

Social learning theories came into sight along with behavior and learning tradition. These theories were well-demonstrated by three renowned psychologists i.e. Albert Bandura, Julian Rotter and Walter Mischel. However, the three great theorists have not followed the reactive mechanical model of behavior introduced by Skinner who has viewed the individual/person as an agent or instigator of experience. Instead, they have reestablished internal cognitive variables including a person's "subjective interpretation of the environment, into the stimulus-response formula (S-R)" (Engler, 2009).

Albert Bandura was the one who developed social cognitive theory as "a versatile model of psychosocial functioning that highlights the human capacity for self-regulation" (Lent & Brown, 1996). It was a framework for the analysis of human stimulus, thinking, and act and…. [read more]

Social Influences on Behavior Human Essay

… However, in extreme cases the individual may require a diagnosis for any underlying emotional problem.

Agreeing with the Majority Group Members

In order to accomplish a task, people with diverse and complementary knowledge and skills are brought together in groups to provide input and contribute to the execution of the task. The relationships among the group members need to be based on trust, respect and cooperation to accomplish the task successfully. The group composition varies by age, experience, and skill level. These differences create sources of power and conflict in the social interactions.


A young and inexperienced member recruited into an established work group would not express disagreement or dissatisfaction with the opinion of the majority. He would give priority to conforming to the…. [read more]

Group Counseling Attitudes and Perspectives of Clients Research Paper

… Group Counseling

Attitudes and Perspectives of clients who Are Involved in Cancer Care Group Counseling

Organization of the Research

Group Counseling

Quality of Life

Group Counseling

Chapter-III Research Methodology

Grounded Theory Research

Participants sample


Attitudes and Perspectives of clients who Are Involved in Cancer Care Group Counseling

While survival rates have climbed due to advances in medical knowledge and technology, patients and survivors of cancer are often excluded from psychological studies as their illness and treatment modalities are interpreted as different from and more damaging than other types of illnesses (Radcliffe, 1996). This is due to both the physiological harm caused directly by the tumor, and the various treatment methods used to combat the tumor (i.e. surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and high dose medications that…. [read more]

Counseling Psychoanalytic Family Research Paper

… At age three the child should be at a minimum level of individuation and separation from the caregiver (Mahler, 1975). This is the state of object constancy: the formation of an internalized relatively stable sense of self and object, so that the child can bear the anxiety of separation. A decisive period here is the rapprochement phase where the infant is pulled between the need to stay close to the caretaker while being pushed to function autonomously. The failure to deal with the crises able can lead to an inability to establish a satisfactory distance in relationships.

The primary goal of psychodynamic family counseling is to move towards a more functional family unit relatively free from conflicts and inhibitions. The use of the therapeutic alliance,…. [read more]

Psychology Social Constructionism Term Paper

… ¶ … psychology a science and, if so, what kind of science it is, and should it be identified as social constructionist? Since psychologists are those who use the term "social constructionism" the most (almost exclusively it seems), it simply makes sense that psychology can be defined and identified with the term. Several characteristics embody social constructionism, and psychology meets most of these characteristics, as this paper will show. Therefore, psychology should be regarded as a social science, and should be identified with social constructionism.

The characteristics of social constructionism clearly apply to psychology. While the characteristics can be broad, taken together, they paint a compelling portrait of psychology and psychologists today, and help define and unify the psychological field. Author Vivian Burr asserts the…. [read more]

Counselling Theories Postmodern and Family Term Paper

… The relationships include those of family members, friends, neighbors, cultures, workplaces, schools, and others that may occur with larger systems of language, gender, nationality or religion.

Postmodern Counseling Theory

Postmodern counselors suggest that it is hard, and at times impossible to establish the nature of healthy psychology, particularly because there is no measurement of mental health. In addition, postmodern approaches have several origins. In the postmodern context, whereby there are several themes such as art, architecture, and music, "deconstruction" is central in all themes. It means to regard the "givens," which most are taken for granted as correct, and keenly examining the usefulness from the addicts perspective. Prior studies suggest that many actors often question the idea of transference.

The argument question is appropriate for…. [read more]

Counseling Scenario of Mario Case Study

… ¶ … counseling scenario of Mario who is an illegal immigrant struggling with loneliness and lack of peer. Mario is also possibly struggling with alcohol addiction. In counseling Mario, the counselor needs to identify the types of personal information they need to collect in the first session and how this information is important for this case. The counselor also needs to examine his or her personal biases and limitations that may prevent them from handling the case effectively. The next step is for the counselor to set goals for the counseling and choose the applicable therapeutic approach. Lastly, the counselor needs to know how to measure the progress and success of the counseling. The paper examines these four steps in detail as concerned with Mario's…. [read more]

Counseling in Line With Narrative Essay

… For example, the counselor points out that Helen's mother was happy with her life story, which places pressure on Helen to be happy for her life story. When she does not feel happy with her life story, it is mainly because she is comparing hers with her mother's rather than appreciating and valuing her own life story. In fact, the counselor weaves in cultural and social context, to add depth to the narrative. He offers Helen insight into gender roles and norms that might be conflicting with her self-concept. The counselor comments on the way Nagging Dissatisfaction is fueled and encouraged by a society that stigmatizes "stay at home moms."

Externalization allows the counselor to root for the protagonist, and thereby shows Helen how to…. [read more]

Counseling African Women UK Essay

… Among these is the fact that many minority women experience levels of depression and anxiety that could have been started by way of early childhood parenting trauma or exploitations, including sexual exploitation. Counselors need to begin examining this consistency of histories and need to take care in reviewing what it might mean for individuals and their families or other close relationships. A lack of support services that are sensitive to this cultural reality may be part of the problem.

A second issue Wallcraft notes are that those who suffer from prolonged episodes of these types of emotional conditions and who are also blocked from educational, economic and other forms of advancement, may well find themselves in government programs or even prisons where they cannot get…. [read more]

Organizational Psychology Businesses and Organizations Essay

… In 1973, Organizational was added, creating the Division of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP History, 2012). The purposes of the field of industrial and organizational psychology have remained relatively the same, and the field continues to grow and evolve at the present.

Organizational psychology is closely related to two fields: social psychology and organizational behavior. Organizational psychology combines research and practice methods from social psychology and organizational behavior, as it focuses on both the emotional and motivational side of work (Landy, & Conte, 2009). Similar to organizational psychology, social psychology studies how an individual's behaviors, feelings, and thoughts are influenced and affected by the presence of others. Organizational psychology focuses these concerns into the workplace setting, and also addresses such areas as attitudes, fairness, motivation,…. [read more]

Counseling the Importance of Professional Term Paper

… Counseling

The Importance of Professional Counseling

Professional counselors play an essential role in helping individuals achieve their full potential. Experts in any one of a number of fields from education to career to personal growth, today's professional counselors provide services that are distinct from those offered by psychologists and social workers. Making use of the principals of mental health, psychology, and human development counselors apply strategies of cognitive, affective, and behavioral strategies that enable their clients to overcome their problems and reach their goals. (Sheeley, 2002) Professional counselors differ from other mental health professionals in that they work directly with those needing help by giving advice that is narrowly tailored to their specific needs and problems. Counseling, unlike psychology, is not about uncovering and remedying…. [read more]

Counseling Master Questionnaire Questionnaire

… Additionally, the importance of theory is apparent because research does not place itself in a theoretical approach. Theory also offers substantial interpretive map of the territory it aims to explain. Into the bargain, theory also makes it possible to make various observations from productive links (McLeod, 2003, p. 179).

11) What are the conclusions of McLeod in relation to the critical issues of counseling research?

McLeod (2003) recognizes there are significant issues that may challenge counselors who conduct counseling research. However, he suggests that counseling research occupies an important role in the service of practice. Additionally, it is hard to predict how perfect counseling research may look like. Owing to the fact that counseling and psychotherapy are disciplinary processes that borrow from diverse disciplines, each…. [read more]

Psychology - Counseling Intro to Guidance/Counseling Core Thesis

… Psychology - Counseling

Intro to Guidance/Counseling Core Assessment

Introduction to guidance and counseling core assessment

Review of key concepts and theories pertaining to counseling.

Empathic understanding: Empathic understanding involves seeing the world from the client's perspective, although not necessarily validating the external reality of what the client feels. For example, if a man feels his wife does not understand him, the therapist will validate that the man feels this way, not that his wife is actually cruel or heartless.

Unconditional positive regard: In Rogerian (person or client-centered) therapy, the counselor gives unconditional positive regard (acceptance) to the client to help the client achieve a sense of self-worth that is not contingent upon outside factors. For example, a student whose self-worth is entirely contingent upon his…. [read more]

Psychology Master's Degree: Methodology Degree Concentration Term Paper

… Psychology Master's Degree: Methodology

Degree Concentration:
Master of Sciences in Interdisciplinary Studies with a concentration in

Degree Rationale:
By establishing a base education in Psychology that is centered in
interdisciplinary contexts, I anticipate creating a wide array of
opportunities for participation in practice, research or instruction which
can incorporate any number of scholastic subjects. For instance, though my
attention will be on issues derived from the discipline of abnormal
psychology, the courses which I intend to pursue will present me with a
greater understanding of the correlation between psychological disorders
and a host of other subjects themselves justifying a full course of study.

For instance, the relationship between psychology and morality is something
which will be of great interest as I proceed in my…. [read more]

Counseling: Its Philosophy, Nature Term Paper

… Erik Erikson's theory of socioemotional development is an example of a counseling theory that seeks to objectively identify the subjective nature of human behavior by identifying an individual's socio-emotional development through different stages. Erikson's socio-emotional development theory can be used by the counselor in order to understand whether the client or patient is undergoing the normative process of socio-emotional maturity or not. In effect, this theory acted as the counselor's reference in knowing the behavior that a 'normal' individual should be undergoing; when this behavior is not observed, then it is the counselor's duty to intervene and aid the individual to achieve a the normative socio-emotional development for his/her age.

Alfred Adler's individual psychology theory is another useful theory in counseling because it tries to…. [read more]

Counseling Several People Term Paper

… They then established her guilty of violating an APA ethics standard as she kept on working with the wife after the husband declined to attend sessions, and approved her. The finding was rejected on appeal, but not before she expended a great amount of time and money fighting a fundamentally thoughtless complaint.

Dykstra advocates that psychologists walk out from APA while they have the opportunity. Many members have the same opinion as her's. Leonard Holmes who wrote "Resign from APA while you can" was a member of APA from 1978 till 2002. He stopped paying APA dues in 2003 for the reason that he conflicted with the level of dues and the way that they exhausted his money. When APA paid 2.2 million dollars to…. [read more]

Counseling Developmental Issues Case Study

… Counseling Case Study

Developmental Issues of Potential Concerns

Relationship Intimacy, Communication, and Fulfillment

Psychodynamic Perspective

The subject clearly expresses a lack of intimacy, communication, and fulfillment in his primary intimate partnership with his wife. He indicates that he has little contact with his relatives and is dissatisfied with his marital relationship which he describes as lacking emotional intimacy. From a psychodynamic perspective, the counselor would want to understand whether this dissatisfaction and lack of emotional intimacy (from the subject's point-of-view) is attributable to classical psychodynamic conflicts relating to repressed negative emotional reaction to early emotional rejection, the repetition compulsion as regards rejection of emotionally intimate relationships, projection of negative self-concept, and other classic concepts outlined in great detail by Freud (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).

From…. [read more]

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