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Psychology as a Science Essay

… The theories should be based on empiricism, which stresses the consideration of those phenomena that can be perceived by the senses and thus interpreted.

The results on which the theory is based should be replicable by other who wishes to test the theory. Studies or theories that can be replicated with consistent findings should be accepted and those that produce conflicting or contradictory findings should be rejected. A balance between conservatism and open-mindedness should be exercised when evaluating psychological theories. At times, common sense or folk wisdom is presented in the garb of scientific theory. Theories that make tall claims of miraculous outcomes should be analyzed more rigorously and should be rejected if proved to be unscientific.


Psychology faces challenges to becoming accepted as…. [read more]

Psychology Statement of Purpose Admission Essay

… In the short-run, I also plan to gain practical experience in the clinical psychology field by working as a consultant in a medium sized hospital. In the long-run, a doctoral degree in psychology will come in handy as I seek to reach my full potential as a clinical psychologist. After attaining the said doctoral degree, I would wish to work in an outpatient mental health center. Further, I intend to acquire a teaching position in any of the nation's numerous universities offering psychology and related programs. Working in an academic setting will offer me a unique opportunity to grow as a professional while making significant contributions to the field of psychology through continued research.

In addition to being creative, I am also an effective communicator.…. [read more]

Psychology Statement of Purpose Admission Essay

… I regard myself dependable and inquisitive. I am also an active listener. These are strengths that will come in handy as I seek to identify and effectively address complex problems in practical situations. This is more so the case given that as a counselor in private practice, I will be responsible for the diagnosis of the nature of my client's problems so as to determine treatments that are not only valid but also effective. It is also important to note that in addition to being disciplined and able to perform well under pressure, I also happen to be an effective time manager. I regard these as strengths that will come in handy in my quest to complete both my M.A in general psychology and Ph.D.…. [read more]

Masters Program Application -- Counseling Psychology Reasons Essay

… Masters Program Application -- Counseling Psychology

Reasons for Interest in the Advanced Counseling Psychology Degree

The advanced Counseling Psychology degree is the most natural academic area for me to pursue now that my work schedule and parenting responsibilities allow me to further my education the way I have always intended. In my current professional occupation, I have worked for 17 years as a Registered Nurse, much of that experience directly in the mental health area. Furthering my formal education has always been a long-term goal, but my commitment to my son required more time and availability on my part than would have been possible for me to fulfill during his infancy and early childhood. I credit my partner -- she is also an RN --…. [read more]

Psychology, it Has Intended Essay

… It performs experiments on behavior to confirm or discard results by advancing precise models.

In contrast with other ways of explaining human and animal experiences and behavior, psychology tries to explain individuals' mental processes and behavior. This subject is primarily concerned with engagement of mental occurrences and behavior on a systemic level.

Psychology is inseparable from other sciences. Psychology encompasses neuroscience, ethology, biochemistry and paleontology.

"On the other hand, there is not a single natural phenomenon that may not, from a different point-of-view, become an object of psychology. A stone, a plant, a tone, a ray of light, are, as natural phenomena, objects of mineralogy, botany, physics, etc.; but in so far as they arouse in us ideas, they are at the same time objects…. [read more]

Conceptualization of Psychological Distress Psychology Essay

… They suppose that other people are talking and are afraid of madness (Hayes, 2008).

Cross-cultural and historical evidence shows how the mainstream society feared and excluded the psychologically distressed persons. In the mid-eighteenth century, it is evident that fear emerged in medical terms but moral myths animated them. At the same time, the fear of madness developed as the dread of unreason (Lebow, 2012b). As a result, the two forms of obsession, dependent on each other, advanced to reinforce each other. Longitudinal studies in remote areas of France demonstrate the persistence of exclusionary and alienating practices towards psychologically distressed despite their official and deinstitutionalization integration into the society. The rhetorical acknowledgement of such individuals in the society has not been aligned with the reality of…. [read more]

Psychology Master's Degree: Methodology Degree Concentration Term Paper

… Psychology Master's Degree: Methodology

Degree Concentration:
Master of Sciences in Interdisciplinary Studies with a concentration in

Degree Rationale:
By establishing a base education in Psychology that is centered in
interdisciplinary contexts, I anticipate creating a wide array of
opportunities for participation in practice, research or instruction which
can incorporate any number of scholastic subjects. For instance, though my
attention will be on issues derived from the discipline of abnormal
psychology, the courses which I intend to pursue will present me with a
greater understanding of the correlation between psychological disorders
and a host of other subjects themselves justifying a full course of study.

For instance, the relationship between psychology and morality is something
which will be of great interest as I proceed in my…. [read more]

Experimental Methodologies: Bulimia Nervosa Annotated Annotated Bibliography

… Homan, Philipp, Grob, Simona, Milos, Gabriella, Schnyder, Ulrich, and Hasler. (2013). Reduction in total plasma ghrelin levels following catecholamine depletion: Relation to bulimic and depressive symptoms. Psychoneuroendocrinology, published online 16 Jan. 2013 ahead of print, 1-8.

To better understand the relationship between mood, plasma ghrelin levels, and eating disorders, Homan and colleagues conducted a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial (RCT) to test the effects of catecholamine depletion using alpha-methyl-paratyrosine (AMPT). The experimental subjects enrolled in the study were 23 females between the ages of 19 and 39, with a clinical diagnosis of bulimia nervosa under remission for the past 6 months. Exclusion criteria included lifetime psychosis, Axis I psychiatric disorder, major medical problems, psychoactive medication within the last 6 months, pregnancy, lifetime substance abuse, current suicide…. [read more]

Organizational Psychology an Interesting Subfield Term Paper

… Organizational has now become a scientific discipline in its own right and is recognized as an invaluable tool within organizations.

Factors giving more credence to the discipline of Organizational Psychology in the 1980's and the 1990's were multiple (Christine, 2011). The 'economy was becoming increasingly globalized' (Christine, 2011). The 'demographics within the workforce were changing' (Christine, 2011). Temporary employees and contract employees were being utilized more frequently (Christine, 2011). Essentially, because of increasing awareness of the workforce and management the term "job" took on a new conception (Christine, 2011).

While Organizational Psychology was developing, so were other related disciplines such as Organizational Behavior and Social Psychology (Koppes and Pickren, No Date). Organizational Behavior is concerned with a number of factors, but what differentiates it from…. [read more]

Evolution of Cognitive Psychology Research Paper

… In his work, Wundt embraced introspection as a research methodology based on his belief that adequately trained psychologists should make observations of their experiences in similar ways to those of properly trained physicists. By using objective measures of performance like reaction time, the main focus of this psychologist was on the conscious experience that heralded the response. However, he was not concerned with the unconscious processes that are used to respond to simple stimuli i.e. The speedy information-processing operations because he regarded these factors as aspects of physiology rather than psychology (Braisby & Gellatly, n.d.).

Kulpe, the leader of Wurzburg school of introspection opposed Wundt's perspective by developing the other concept of conscious experience that could be revealed by introspection. Unlike Wundt's perspective, Kulpe stated…. [read more]

Social Psychology Differ When Applied Term Paper

… For example in the Japanese culture the employees tend to identify themselves by the companies that they belong to rather than their own individual identities (Nakane, 1970)such as, if they meet someone instead of introducing themselves by talking about their position at the firm they will say that 'they belong to ABC firm' etc. In Japanese culture more importance is given to the group identification rather than the personal attributes. However, if we talk about the behaviour of the American employees in a cultural context, for the Americans group identification is secondary while individual or personal identification is of primary importance (Johnson, 1985; Nakane, 1970)

It has been noticed that in the Japanese culture the loyalty to the company or firms that the employees work…. [read more]

Clinical Focused the Humanistic Psychology Essay

… He demonstrated his hypothesis and techniques via lecturing, teaching workshops, audiovisual recordings and live demonstrations. He developed the client-centered approach in between 1940. In the course of development of Rogerian theory, Rogers demonstrated that social learning is paramount in establishment of a good therapeutic environment. Through development of the Rogerian theory, Rogers ascertained that social transmission must be faithful enough, and requires clients to weed out their maladaptive culture through assessing their own conducts (Magnus, Kimmo & Stefano, 2007). His theory is subjective in temperament and requires psychologists to comprehend clients, their worldviews and experiences. The Rogerian theory postulates that an individual realizes his/her final potential when not blocked by environmental aspects as well as personal experiences. The objective of the Rogerian therapy is to…. [read more]

Self-Conception Social Psychology Conceptualization Term Paper

… Since the human being has that constant sense of self in their lives, the emotional events therefore normally involve the complex self. It is worth noting though that there are some emotional events that do not need complex evaluation of self for instance fear at the sight of danger or joy upon receiving a call of having won lottery. However, taking into account the ever-present nature of the self, the winner of the lottery is bound to reappraise their win and make corresponding self-evaluation and come with conclusions like they are good in picking the numbers or tag some lucky number to an event in their daily lives hence creating some self-esteem out of the joy turning it into pride (a self-conscious emotion).

Taking the…. [read more]

Sociology Evolutionary Psychology Article Review

… Finally, we conclude by suggesting that mismatches between our evolved emotional responses and the novel modern environments in which they currently operate often lead to outcomes we can legitimately view as suboptimal.

They spend the article elaborating upon this main set or intersection of ideas and theories. Cultural messages throughout time have sent mixed messages about emotions. Evolutionary psychology can help explain how the paradox evolved and why all the advice regarding emotions is valid, not just half or some. They argue within the context of evolutionary psychology that humans have to embrace the paradoxical nature of emotions and learn how to sometimes let emotions take over and sometimes attempt to control them, yet always value and appreciate their validity. This article indirectly is a…. [read more]

Humanistic Psychology Critique of Mainstream Term Paper

… Humanistic Psychology

Critique of Mainstream Psychology

Humanistic and transcendental perspectives of psychology have been making inroads into psychology to alter the assumptions and practices of mainstream psychology. The humanistic perspective highlights the primacy of human experiences in forming any assumptions and theories of the human mind whereas the transcendental perspective encourages psychologists to consider peak experiences and higher states of consciousness (Walsh & Vaughan, 1980, pp. 15-16) that cannot be explained in terms of animal instincts or motivations but are instead inspired by spiritual or intrinsic values. This paper identifies and discusses some of the weaknesses of mainstream psychology in the light of the claims of humanistic and transcendental psychology.

Misconceptions about Human Nature

Bugental (1963) stated that "A true psychology of human beings is…. [read more]

Sit-Down With an Experience Psychologist Term Paper

… This can lead to a quandary when trying to talk to the person in therapy because it's more of a relationship issue and/or a problem the other person has rather than something that is wrong with the person in the office. Even so, she said that it's still possible to gently nudge someone in the seemingly right direction without giving the "that person is full of it" speech. It usually holds much better if the "patient" figures it out on their own.

The other ethical things she brought up were more general and were by no means specific to what she's seen or heard in her own practice. She does feel that no one should be forced (knowingly or unknowingly) to take medication without their…. [read more]

Psychology the Link Between Personality Research Paper

… The chemicals then trickle over to the adjacent neuron, sometimes causing it to let off. This fundamental process of neurotransmission is carried out many by the ten billion or so neurons in the brain. A number of neurons are so lively that they let off as many as one hundred times per second, necessitating devices to uphold these elevated rates. The vesicles have a fundamental role in this progression because they allow neurons to let off when ready. Neurons utilize the vesicles to bundle the chemicals and move them in ahead of time so that they can let loose as soon as an electrical impulse is present. Since the release sites are not near the cell center, the vesicles must reprocess close by in order…. [read more]

Psychology - Intro to Forensics Psych Discussion Discussion Chapter

… Psychology - Intro to Forensics Psych Discussion Post

Psychology has contributed to the legal system in a plethora of ways. This statement is particularly true when one considers the role that forensic psychology has played in determining certain aspects of the law and of legal procedures. Due to the fact that the very definition of the term forensic psychology explicitly indicates a relationship between the formal scientific field of psychology and the law (Huss, 2001), it is not surprising to note the role that forensic psychology -- and by extension psychology in general -- has played in affecting legal processes in most developed countries today.

Psychology has the potential to play a dominant role in the actual criminal trial of an individual who has been…. [read more]

According to Psychology Term Paper

… Psychology

Although the Wizard of Oz is not expressly a film about human psychology, its colorful cast of characters lends itself well to the application of multiple theories and issues in psychology. With films such as Analyze This! And a Beautiful Mind, it would seem odd to focus on a film that avoids direct addressing of psychology themes. However, the Wizard of Oz, with enough creative interpretation, can offer an even richer understanding of how the concepts of psychology such as those outlined in the Ciccarelli (2011) text. The Wizard of Oz is about a young woman, Dorothy, who lives with her elder aunt and uncle in Kansas and her dog Toto. An old woman in town threatens to kill Toto because he occasionally runs…. [read more]

Psychology Criminal Behavior Term Paper

… Psychology

Criminal behavior has been the subject of interest for psychologists for a very long time. In a manner, it is quite intriguing question that what are the reasons and causes that lead a person to display criminal behavior. Many theories have been presented over the decades to answer this question. Most theories tend to focus on the factors that make a person indulge in committing crimes. While many factors are argued to be the main reasons for such criminal behavior, none can be proved with surety as behavior depends upon the way the brain and the psychology of a person works. Only the understanding of the human mind can assist psychologists greatly to investigate the structure of the mind and the way it operates…. [read more]

Psychology: Identification With a Group Term Paper

… When people are too close to one another - either physically or emotionally - they lack personal space and this makes them distinctly uncomfortable because people are "wired" to have space that belongs only to them (Tajfel & Turner, 1979). However, if one allows those people to expand their personal space beyond what the majority of people need to survive and be comfortable, those people then begin to develop a territory. If that territory is later challenged - through physical or mental ways - the person may fight back and attempt to hold that territory, even though it is much more than the person actually needs (Tajfel & Turner, 1986).

People understand the need to develop a territory in some instances (like sales, for example)…. [read more]

Psychology Assessment Multiple Choice Questions in Light Assessment

… Psychology Assessment

Multiple Choice Questions

In light of problems posed by the concept of drive, Premack, one of Skinner's followers, proposes that we consider reinforcement:

In terms of the power of discriminative stimuli.

Responses that are intermittently rather than continuously reinforced are:

All of the above.

Skinner's attitude toward the theory of natural selection seemed basically:


Skinner argued that internal events such as thoughts:

Should only be studied if they can be observed and measured.

According to the text, the most basic difference between Skinner and the developmentalists has to do with:

The source of developmental change-inner or outer.

The text considers research on televised aggression as:

Supporting some theorists but not others.

In Bandura's theory, direct reinforcements primarily affect:

D. Performances rather than…. [read more]

Psychology Veterans Military Members Research Paper

… Once all of the basic information is gathered and analyzed the next step would be to design both a pre-deployment and return service list. This would entail determining what the top needs are before leaving and once getting back and matching these up with services or support groups that either already exist or that could be started. The key would be to get the word out that these programs exist and are available to be utilized.

The implementation of this plan has several things that could stand in its way. The first is that of getting the word out. This type of program will not work if people don't know it exists and take advantage of it. A second obstacle would be getting people to…. [read more]

Psychology Testing: Psychometric Emotional Intelligence (Eq) Durrenmatt Term Paper

… Psychology Testing: Psychometric Emotional Intelligence (EQ)

Durrenmatt (1996) may have had it right when he said, "Emotions have no place in business, unless you do business with them." Or perhaps, he was wrong. Only the test of time, however, will tell. At this time, nevertheless, this researcher proposes to invest time to:

Define EQ and expand on its role in today's global world.

Compare questions asked in EQ tests with questions asked in IQ Tests.

Identify current tests and/or theories are available for assessing EQ.

Assess accuracy of EQ's assumptions for individuals.

Examine numerous studies testing the reliability of EQ.

This research is expected to gather and assess relevant data from literature related to EQ to determine its scope of accuracy, acceptability and availability. Determinations…. [read more]

Psychology's Rodney Dangerfield Problem Discussion Chapter

… Psychology's Rodney Dangerfield Problem

The essence of psychology's Rodney Dangerfield problem is that this particular academic discipline and science incurs a definite lack of respect as compared to that of other sciences. The public view of psychology and of those who practice it is not on par with its view of other scientific disciplines, such as physics or chemistry, which are generally viewed as being more substantiated in hard facts and official scientific processes and methodologies. Psychology, however, is generally viewed as being a lot more subjective and given to individual interpretation. As a result, psychological findings and conclusions are a lot more likely to be received with skepticism, cynicism, and in some instances, frivolity (Stanovich, 1997, p. 15).

There are several factors that can…. [read more]

MS Forensics Psychology Specialization in Mental Health Essay

… M.S. Forensics Psychology - Specialization in Mental Health

Personal/Professional Goals

My professional goal is to become a lead forensics psychologist. Therefore, I am interested in attending graduate school because I plan to pursue a PhD in clinical psychology. My ultimate goal is to become a profiler, so that I can play an integral role in the carrying out of criminal investigations by being the foremost subject matter expert on the cases I work on.

Academic Experience

I earned my bachelor's degree [YOU MAY WANT to STATE in WHICH AREA of STUDY] from Ashford University, and completed my coursework from June 2009 to June of 2012 with a 3.70 grade point average. My graduate school GPA thus far is 3.50. One of the reasons I decided…. [read more]

Freud and Positive Psychology Term Paper

… Within this simple statement of defense is a clear ideation of positive psychology. The individual must look inside him or herself and seek out a better way of behaving that might make him or her happier in the long run. Just because someone might have urges to do something socially unacceptable does not make him or her bad or unhappy but acting on that urge could change other's opinion of him or her and could ultimately make him or her unhappy. Changing that urge to a behavior that is more socially acceptable would then seem the best possible outcome as even though the individual did not get to do what he or she wanted he or she got the satisfaction of knowing he or she…. [read more]

Cognitive and Affective Psychology Essay

… Cognitive and Affective Psychology

According to Eysenck and Keane (2005, p. 1), cognitive psychology focuses upon how the human faculties make sense of th einvrionment, as well as the processes involved in making decisions regarding appropriate responses to the environment. The specific processes involved in cognitive psychology include attention, perception, learning, memory, language, problem solving, reasoning and thinking.

According to the authors, there are four major approaches to human cognition (Eysenck & Keane, 2005, p. 3): experimental cognitive psychology; cognitive neuropsychology; computational cognitive science; and cognitive neuroscience.

Affective psychology concerns human emotion and the effect of this upon behavior; in other words, the outward expression of inner feelings. According to Brett et al. (2003), many professionals regard the affective domain as including three subcomponents: feeling,…. [read more]

Examine the Field of Organizational Psychology Research Paper

… Organizational Psychology

Definition of Organizational Psychology

Organizational psychology is the study of human group and individual behavior in the vocational environment (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008). It consists of numerous subtopics such as the manner in which business and other organizations develop defining cultures, the nature of vocational motivation, the relationship between reward, performance, and performance, the elements of leadership, as well as various aspects of employee recruitment, selection, training, and retention (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).

Evolution of the Discipline

The first major use of organizational psychology was the application of its principles to the recruitment, task-assignment, and training of soldiers in the United States in connection with its entry into World War I in 1918 (George & Jones, 2008; Robbins & Judge, 2009). In between…. [read more]

Psychology (Personality) Hypo-Egoic Self-Regulation: Exercising Self-Control Term Paper

… Psychology (Personality)

Hypo-egoic self-regulation: Exercising self-control by diminishing the influence of the self" by M. Leary, C. Adams and E. Tate

In this article by Leary et. al., the concept of hypo-egoic self-regulation was developed through an integration of different components that ultimately make self-regulation possible. In developing the concept of hypo-egoic self-regulation, the authors posited that "hypo-egoic states may be facilitated by intentionally and consciously taking steps that will reduce the degree to which one's behavior is under deliberate executive control." This was the main thesis of the study, stated as an objective wherein the authors would like "to examine occasions on which people relinquish deliberate, conscious control over their own behavior so that they will respond more naturally, spontaneously, or automatically" (1804).

In…. [read more]

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