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Psychological Distress in a Natural Literature Review

… By the values established in the GHQ, 64% of those interviewed who had been flooded out -- and were evaluated six months later -- had a score of 4 or more, which is taken to mean there was significant psychological distress (that is juxtaposed with 25% that showed significant psychological distress at the time of the event). In addition, one-quarter of the 983 people interviewed experienced "deterioration" in their health since the flooding (Tunstall, 368).

The question posed to those that were flooded: "As the result of the flood, did you personally experience intense fear, helplessness or horror?" More than two-fifths of those who answered that question (using the GHQ) reflected that the flood was a "possible source" of PTSD (Tunstall, 370). That said, only…. [read more]

Psychology Movie Relation a Rose Research Paper

… At this level, Emily was unable to share with other townspeople in a proper manner. Although her relation with other people appears limited, when people force her to interact socially, she appears illogical and unsuitable, yet another symptom evident among schizophrenic patients (APA, 2001). The narrator notes an episode that asserts that when the town received mailboxes, Emily refuted them to install metal numbers on her door and affix mailboxes (William, 2003). Emily refused to listen to them. Other episodes within the entire story indicate Emily complicated psychological state. Early in the short story before the level of her symptoms had become comprehensible to the reader, the narrator relates an instance in which Emily appears before the town bureaucrats, to maintain that she does not…. [read more]

Organizational Behavior (Psychology) Applied Comprehension Organizational Psychologists Term Paper

… Organizational Behavior (Psychology)

Applied Comprehension

Organizational Psychologists continually seek the creation of relevant approaches for the application of organizational psychological principles. Central to the application of Industrial Organizational psychological principles, as an emergent approach, has been the elevation of consultation psychology as a primary approach for the application of organizational psychology. Theoretically, the tension between business, clinical psychology and Industrial or Organizational Psychology has occasionally thwarted the effective application of psychological principles that could otherwise guide the successful resolution of issues between people and systems.

This paper will review the role that consultation psychological services can play in organizations, particularly as it may apply to facilitating organizational movement towards increased strategic success. As a case example, this paper will use a mental health organization to…. [read more]

Gender on Self-Esteem in China Essay

… , 2011). It sought to investigate the relationship between parental loss, a trusting relationship with caregivers, and the psychosocial adjustment of HIV-stricken children in China. The researchers gathered cross-sectional data from 755 AIDS orphans -- 296 double orphans and 459 orphans -, 466 vulnerable children with HIV-infected parents, and 404 comparison children in China. It recommends future intervention efforts to improve AIDS' orphans' psychosocial well-being by raising the quality of attachment relationship. These efforts should also help caregivers improve the quality of care by these caregivers. Further research should also be conducted on the link between a trusting relationship and internalizing symptoms, such as anxiety and depression, among HIV-infected children (Zhao et al.).

Factors to Cigarette Smoking

This study assessed the parental, behavioral and psychological…. [read more]

Psychology of Multiculturalism: Identity, Gender Term Paper

… Indeed, Hispanics and Latin Americans now hold 21 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives, and 39 seats are held by African-Americans (Saeman and Thomas, 2004).

How has psychology reacted to the cultural changes, and is the field of psychology ready for the revolutionary changes that some are calling for to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse populations (Saeman and Thomas, 2004)? Psychology is moving on a couple of fronts to meet the new challenges that multiculturalism poses for both the profession and the nation: the subject of development and embracing the multicultural challenge received increased attention beginning in 1998 and 1999 when a group of five psychologists of color envisioned a three-year "window of opportunity" to make a meaningful difference in the ethnic…. [read more]

Psychological Condition That Is Increasingly Being Article Critique

… ¶ … psychological condition that is increasingly being brought to the forefront is: gender dysphoria. This is when someone believes that they have been placed in body of the wrong sex. Where, the individual will have feelings and emotions similar to the opposite sex. As these feelings and emotions become stronger, some will often have sex change operations performed or will begin to dress like the intended sex. This has created a number of different issues, with those people suffering from these conditions, seeking out ways to help fill the obvious conflict that they are going through. In the article, He? She? Whatever!, the author examines the effect that is occurring at a California high school. Where, a beloved teacher and football coach, announced that…. [read more]

Psychology of Learning Summarize a Classic Experiment A-Level Coursework

… Psychology of Learning

Summarize a classic experiment in the Psychology of Learning.

One of the most interesting and profound experiments in all of psychology must be the Ivan Pavlov's work with the conditioning of dog's. Nearly every source surveyed makes some humorous reference to Pavlov and his dog experiments. For example, the official site of the Nobel Prize, an award that Pavlov himself won was awarded, titles an introductory section "Pavlov's drooling dogs" (Prize, 2001). His eeliest work was not dedicated on understanding behavior. Rather he worked to understand how the digestive system worked in mammals and used canines as subjects. Pavlov actually kind of stumbled on his behavioral work by noting that the dogs did not always salivate when expected. He later realized that…. [read more]

Psychology Emerging Issues in Multicultural Essay

… Psychology

Emerging Issues in Multicultural Psychology

It is apparent that the old rules in psychology have moved away from a monocultural to a multicultural basis and that these new rules recognize both an appreciation of differences as well as an understanding of the inherent ambiguity and complexity in psychological practice. One issue is the sensitivity to the impact of cultural, disability and diversity factors on the competence of a psychologist. Psychologists should not have to provide services when they lack needed knowledge and when scientific or professional knowledge has established that a certain understanding of age, gender, gender identity, race, ethnicity, culture, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, disability, language, or socioeconomic status is essential in order for effective services to be delivered. It is evident…. [read more]

Psychology Identify Essay

… Psychology

Identify and describe the four main theories of motivation. Explain arguments against three of the theories.

Motivation pushes human beings to achieve goals and fulfill tasks. Four of the more important theories are: the theory of the hierarchy of needs, the two factors theory, the incentive theory and the self-determination theory.

The theory of hierarchy of needs is when individuals are motivated to perform various actions in a particular order. This based upon their survival being the most important. To accomplish this, they have to fulfill the needs in the lower categories to include: biological, safety, affection / love, esteem and self-actualization. (Cherry, 2011)

The two factors theory holds that two constant elements (hygiene and motivators), will have an impact upon individual behavior. If…. [read more]

Psychology Criminal Behavior Term Paper

… Psychology

Criminal behavior has been the subject of interest for psychologists for a very long time. In a manner, it is quite intriguing question that what are the reasons and causes that lead a person to display criminal behavior. Many theories have been presented over the decades to answer this question. Most theories tend to focus on the factors that make a person indulge in committing crimes. While many factors are argued to be the main reasons for such criminal behavior, none can be proved with surety as behavior depends upon the way the brain and the psychology of a person works. Only the understanding of the human mind can assist psychologists greatly to investigate the structure of the mind and the way it operates…. [read more]

Psychology Chapter Essay

… The most important ones involve parents and educators, which need to be trained better in how to address the needs of young people.

Chapter 6 of Abnormal Child Psychology is about Conduct Problems. The beginning of the chapter offers case studies to help the reader understand exactly what conduct problems and conduct disorders are. Some perspectives on conduct problems also provide a social context, such as the economic and social costs. The defining features of conduct disorders, as they are outlined in the DSM, provide the necessary information for diagnostics. Related disorders like antisocial personality disorder are discussed under the rubric of conduct problems. Moreover, the authors discuss related issues such as self-esteem, learning disabilities, verbal deficits, and peer problems. Family and health-related problems are…. [read more]

Psychology the Field Essay

… [footnoteRef:8] [8: "History of Psychology," 2011. ]

Contemporary Psychology

With the great strides made in treating psychology, such as the processes mentioned above, it is important to now leave foundations behind and transition to contemporary psychology. In order to examine this aspect, the section will look at the four above-mentioned innovations in thought: biopsychology, psychopharmacology, humanistic and cognitive psychology. The first of the four, biopsychology, was discovered by Wilder Penfield who uncovered the "relationship between chemical activity in the brain and psychological phenomena" in his studies of epilepsy. Psychopharmacology, also involving biological of chemical processes, involved the development of drugs, especially during the 1950's, and contributed to a whole new way of treating psychological disorders. The first drug, for example, was called Doriden, and it…. [read more]

Psychology Master's Degree: Methodology Degree Concentration Term Paper

… Psychology Master's Degree: Methodology

Degree Concentration:
Master of Sciences in Interdisciplinary Studies with a concentration in

Degree Rationale:
By establishing a base education in Psychology that is centered in
interdisciplinary contexts, I anticipate creating a wide array of
opportunities for participation in practice, research or instruction which
can incorporate any number of scholastic subjects. For instance, though my
attention will be on issues derived from the discipline of abnormal
psychology, the courses which I intend to pursue will present me with a
greater understanding of the correlation between psychological disorders
and a host of other subjects themselves justifying a full course of study.

For instance, the relationship between psychology and morality is something
which will be of great interest as I proceed in my…. [read more]

Psychology Testing: Psychometric Emotional Intelligence (Eq) Durrenmatt Term Paper

… Psychology Testing: Psychometric Emotional Intelligence (EQ)

Durrenmatt (1996) may have had it right when he said, "Emotions have no place in business, unless you do business with them." Or perhaps, he was wrong. Only the test of time, however, will tell. At this time, nevertheless, this researcher proposes to invest time to:

Define EQ and expand on its role in today's global world.

Compare questions asked in EQ tests with questions asked in IQ Tests.

Identify current tests and/or theories are available for assessing EQ.

Assess accuracy of EQ's assumptions for individuals.

Examine numerous studies testing the reliability of EQ.

This research is expected to gather and assess relevant data from literature related to EQ to determine its scope of accuracy, acceptability and availability. Determinations…. [read more]

Gender Differences in Mental Health Term Paper

… A review of literature points to three hypotheses to explain the relative predominance of mental health issues in women as compared to men. One is artifactual -- that women tend to report symptoms more than men will (Keesler, McGonagal, Swartz,, 1993). The next is biological, in that women and men differ in brain structure and function, all the way down to neurotransmitters, neuroendocrine functions and circadian rhythm stability (Kormstein, 1997). The portion of the cerebral cortex which is felt to be the center of attention and perception -- the inferior parietal lobe -- is larger on t he left side of the brain in men who do not suffer from mental illness. In men with schizophrenia, this is reversed with the lobe being larger…. [read more]

Psychological Therapy in Nigeria Term Paper

… Psychological Therapy in Nigeria person who suffers from Major Depressive Disorder has impaired quality of life and functioning at home, work and socially... women have double the risk... while rising levels of urbanization increase the risk by 40%." (Kau-nu 2007).

Prevalence of Depression in the Developing World

The World Health Organization warned that depression could become a main cause of disability and the second leading health problem in the world by the year 2020 (Acharya 2001). In 1996, Dr. Vikram Patel of the London Institute of Psychiatry conducted a study on the link among poverty, inequality and mental health in the developing world, using the Indian state of Goa as a case. He found that more than 40% of the adults receiving primary health care…. [read more]

Psychological Assessment Is a Broad Term Term Paper

… Psychological Assessment is a broad term referring to a variety of procedures and instruments psychologists use to diagnose clients and ascertain their progress in therapy. Formal testing is a common assessment tool used by psychologists, but other assessment tools include interviews, interviews with family members, demographical information, medical history, and general observations. Any number of assessment methods may be used in conjunction with one another to yield a diagnosis. Psychological assessments can yield a wealth of information regarding an individual's needs and can enhance the counselor's knowledge of how to proceed with a plan of treatment. Assessments might be conducted one-on-one with a client or via observation, as when a counselor observes the behavior of a young child in a group setting. Psychological assessments should…. [read more]

Psychological Tests and Measurements Mmpi-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Term Paper

… Psychological Tests and Measurements

Mmpi-2 (minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2)

This work is an examination of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory screening test that is used in the initiative of assessing the individual personality factors of the individual. This test is used for screening new hires by the company doing the hiring and is used for assessing effectiveness of medical and clinical treatment. The MMPI is shown in this work to be a very effective assessment method when administered by someone who is both properly trained and educated in the analysis of the data collected as a result of the test.




The objective of this work is to research and examine the MMPI-2 Personality Inventory test…. [read more]

Immigrant Experience and Its Psychological Term Paper

… This trend in immigration has and will continue to have a significant impact on all U.S. institutions, from schools to the labor force, to media and politics, to health care.

Dissertation 1

Feldman, E. (2007). Implementation of the Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools with Spanish-Speaking, Immigrant Middle-School Students. (Doctoral Dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database.

This dissertation is significant as it explores one possible treatment option for immigrant children dealing with the impact of violence in their communities. The Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS) is a community and individual program intended to lower the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and behavioral problems; strengthen peer and parental support and improve student coping skills when confronted with traumatic…. [read more]

Social Psychology: Examining the Principles Essay

… The pervasive nature of social influence can be seen through its role in the formation of social identity, collective action, social movements, the diffusion of innovations, and group productivity and cohesion among others.

"Social influence is defined as a change in an individual's thoughts, feelings, attitudes, or behaviors that results from interaction with another individual or group" (Rashotte 2006:4427). There are two forms of social influence normative and informational forms. Normative social influence is the change in an individual's thoughts, feelings, attitudes, or behaviors as a result of that individual's desire to fulfill others' expectations. Thus if we are a positive environment and socially good group, the social influence will have positive effect on our personality. For example if we belong to a group where…. [read more]

Shifting Gender Composition Article Review

… From this trend, there have been changes in the workforce composition, remuneration trends, labor demand, labor quality and a generally increased demand for women at both the school levels and the work environment after school (Pion G.,, 1996: Pp 512). It is evident that their results are reliable especially bearing that they back their assertions with data presented (ditto: Pp513).


Having taken a historical perspective that develops to the recent times, the researchers have successfully convinced any critical reader of the thoroughness in the research process and reliability of the date. The use of specific examples like the schools and university intakes of students in the line of psychology, the numerical data presented in the pages 514 and 515

work to clarify the…. [read more]

My Expectations of Psychology Essay

… ¶ … Expectations of Psychology

Prior to attending my General Psychology I class, I had no tangible understanding of psychology, nor did I have any expectations. At the time I enrolled for the course, my only exposure to psychology was what I witnessed on such television shows as the Sopranos. One of the characters on the show, Tony, would see a psychiatrist, and their interaction was my only introduction to psychology. My high school did not offer any psychology courses and I did not have any formal opportunities to learn about psychology until I was in college. After my first week of attending General Psychology I classes, my expectations shifted from zero, and unsure, to an overwhelming feeling. I was not aware of the depth…. [read more]

Behavior? Prejudice and Social Psychology Essay

… Thus, we all tend to fulfill our psychological need of belongingness and distinction that is reflected in the amount of influence that we absorb from societal factors such as peers, parents, figures of authority, and other factors that shape behavior.


As quoted by renowned researcher Milgram, "Psychiatrists predicted that only a pathological fringe of about one in a thousand would administer the highest shock on the board" (Milgram, 1973; Pg. 62). With such popularly held notions and general perceptions regarding individual's behavior, Milgram refuted that we only act morally in given situations and held true that obedience to authority plays an important role in shaping behavior of individuals. The self-argued plausible explanation individuals such as Adolph Eichmann after committing crimes, provide is that they…. [read more]

Psychological Testing Movement Term Paper

… ¶ … Psychological Testing Movement: History and Controversies

Science and technology have had a profound effect on the world, and will likely continue to do so for many years to come. With the current and recent past being focused upon scientific discoveries and scientific categorization of both biological and psychological scientific classifications there has been a great deal of emphasis on naming and categorizing phenomena, even when the phenomena is in-concrete and difficult to name or categorize. The emphasis on science has proliferated every field of research and psychology is no exception to that rule. Over the last fifty or so years there has been countless attempts to scientifically categorize intelligence. Intelligence is intangible but outward expressions of it seem to be capable of categorization…. [read more]

Psychology Treatment Thesis

… 29).

A crisis in mental health care funding is approaching rapidly given that the Baby Boomer generation will retire over the next twenty years and expenditures for older Americans with major psychiatric disorders will double. There will also be a serious lack of mental health services, providers and funding. About 20% of all adults over age 55 have major mental illnesses such as depression and dementia, although these are often under-reported and under-diagnosed (Bartels et al., 2010, p. 261). Medicare and Medicaid expenditures for nursing homes, outpatient and inpatient services, pharmacy and emergency room visits always "increase with advancing age" especially for those age 85 and over requiring "acute and long-term care." These expenses increase further for patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, although elderly…. [read more]

Self and Social Psychology Research Paper

… The persuading Self desires to evoke harmony between the message and the audience Self. This is the basic concept behind the power of persuasion and all persuasive techniques: the establishment of harmony between message and audience.

Obedience and Conformity -- What factors lead us to be obedient and to conform?

Obedience and conformity are modes of behavior and belief which are influenced by the way the Self perceives both itself and Others. As the Self comes to identify itself with a particular group or creed or ideology, it may make an effort to conform to that group's behavioral norms and/or sense of identity. The Self is more likely to obey the tenets of a belief system or the laws of a State when it identifies…. [read more]

Social Psychology Is the Branch Essay

… However, social psychologists rely much more heavy on experimental research methodologies, whereas sociologists rely more heavily on correlational research methods (Myers, 2012).

As stated above social psychology is and empirically driven specialty of psychology. Social psychologists are heavily driven by research. Social psychologists develop hypotheses, propose theories that can be tested by these hypotheses, and make predictions about how people will behave in a given context. Social psychologists are very involved with following the scientific method in order to develop their theories and test their hypotheses (Myers, 2012).

Because social psychology is theory driven social psychologists rely heavily on research to test their theories. In general there are two basic subdivisions of research: correlational studies that are often conducted in natural settings and experimental studies…. [read more]

Psychology Social Constructionism Term Paper

… ¶ … psychology a science and, if so, what kind of science it is, and should it be identified as social constructionist? Since psychologists are those who use the term "social constructionism" the most (almost exclusively it seems), it simply makes sense that psychology can be defined and identified with the term. Several characteristics embody social constructionism, and psychology meets most of these characteristics, as this paper will show. Therefore, psychology should be regarded as a social science, and should be identified with social constructionism.

The characteristics of social constructionism clearly apply to psychology. While the characteristics can be broad, taken together, they paint a compelling portrait of psychology and psychologists today, and help define and unify the psychological field. Author Vivian Burr asserts the…. [read more]

Physiological Psychology Essay

… Psychology -- Laughter & Humor

How Humor Makes You Friendlier, Sexier

The article chosen for this assignment was written by Steve Ayan and published in the Scientific American on March 25, 2009. Entitled "How Humor Makes You Friendlier, Sexier" Ayan's article takes the position that not only is humor "psychologically beneficial" but it actually can cure diseases. The author uses several interesting and even compelling anecdotal examples to bring the reader an entertaining as well as informative experience. Ayan clearly knows how to get a reader enthused to dig into a psychological article. And by using the word "Sexier" in the title of his article Ayan is assured of attracting attention no matter the age or gender of the potential reader.

There are many reasons…. [read more]

Structural Therapy Positive Psychology (PP) Literature Review

… Structural Therapy

Positive Psychology (PP) and Structural Family Therapy (SFT): A Literature Review

Abelsohn, D. & Saayman, G.S. (1991). Adolescent Adjustment to Parental Divorce: An Investigation from the Perspective of Basic Dimensions of Structural Family Therapy Theory. Family Process, 30(2), 177-191.

The study by Abelsohn & Saayman provides some empirical evidence of the need for Structural Family Therapy (SFT) for children of divorce by proving setting out to prove that adolescent children of divorce with more structurally sound family dynamics experienced better adaptation to new circumstances than did their counterparts in structurally unsound homes. (p. 177)

The study by Abelsohn & Saayman gathered a sample of 45 adolescent children and monitored their adjustment based on 'four family-based, clinical dimensions.' (p. 178) the adolescents, all sharing…. [read more]

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