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Public Administration in the Portuguese Essay

… At the beginning, the core concern was to generate efficiency within the current public structures. Avoiding the dysfunctional of the model became imperative. In the phase that followed, the concept of market became a strong issue of concept, as it was the base for the managerial Nation. Therefore, the state abandoned execution and planning and transformed into a posteriori regulating the behavior of key actors. This strategy influenced the reforms in the State, including areas of crucial sovereign positions such as prisons, police and justice (Raadschelders, 2008).

The new development in governance and public administration roots from the evolution and adoption of managerial central concepts. In fact, privatizations, downsizing, restructuring, and private-public partnerships have been modern phenomena, which have raised complex and countless ethical doubts.…. [read more]

Public Administration Mind Map PA Research Paper

… Wilson requires administrative leadership to separate from politics (Trottier, Van Mart & Wang, 2008). To this theory, an effective administrative leader creates politically neutral and technically competent administrative systems that create democracy in an organization (Van Mart, 2003). Though the theory's dichotomy is no longer in use, it has a vital influence on Frank Goodnow's scientific theory and the classical approach of Fayol Henry, Urwick and Gulick.

However, Wilson's theory has considerable implications on modern administration. This is because it requires administrators to have clear characteristics and objectives for the systematic execution of the law. For Wilson, the administrative leader maximizes on effectiveness, economy, and efficiency in public business. Moreover, Wilson contributes to the comparative approach of public administration. In this approach, the leader takes…. [read more]

Theory and Context: Public Administration Essay

… " (p.808) Law is reported to govern the "very rights and privileges of public employment." (Lynn, 2009, p.808) It is reported that law governs "the very rights and privileges of public employment." (p.808-09) Where the individual has the inherent right of freedom of speech the U.S. Supreme Court is reported to have "distinguished between 'citizen speech' and 'employee speech' and held that public employees when making statement pursuant to their official cuties "are not speaking as citizens for First Amendment purposes and the Constitution does not insulate their communications form employer discipline." (Lynn, 2009, p. 809)

Summary and Conclusion

Constitutional law and ethical law are often in conflict with one another and this creates difficulty for today's public administrators. Administrative practice must understand the laws…. [read more]

Public Administration in Brazil Essay

… In environments with restricted citizen involvement, decentralization can act as a vital first step in developing regular and conservative opportunities for all citizens and state communication. The symbiotic connection between decentralization and contribution results to conflicting policy guidelines. Mechanisms for locals' participation need to be considered as a helpful pre-condition in evaluating the opportunities for successful decentralization. The design for decentralization needs to consider the opportunities and limitations imposed by present channels of local participation.

Lack of contribution mechanisms can be considered an inspiration for decentralization and helps in the creation of local demand to incorporate more participatory channels which voice local preferences. Participation acts as a means to flourishing decentralization and as an objective of decentralization. The broad mechanisms for participation of citizens is…. [read more]

Public Administration With Considerations on the Characteristics Research Paper

… ¶ … public administration with considerations on the characteristics of organization and management in government centering on the impact of political processes and public pressures on administration action, role of regulatory agencies, governmental personnel and budgetary procedures, and unique qualifications of a public administrator. From the past as the paper indicates there has been increased interest in public administration in to whether they fulfill their obligations as expected (Rabin et al., 1998). As government should create the appropriate environment for public administration rather than adapting to them, it shows how politics results from social status and culture limitations (Peters, 2007, p. 92). The paper further illustrates that regulatory authorities are independent institutions, their roles revolving around developing policies, implementation and even judging creates vital political…. [read more]

Public Administration and Its Analysis Term Paper

… A concept known as "Meta-planning," this is about the process of planning the strategic management process itself to earn support and to pick up the organization's ability to assess itself and its environment, is of significance for the strategic planning process. It is also important for the management and the entire organization as a whole to be adjustable to changes and new factors when they emerge in the scenario.

However, the theory of strategic management for businesses is inadequate for the needs of applications for the public sector. Business planning is usually concentrated on some deviation from a single objective, which is the return on investment. This results in practices like portfolio analysis that require businesses to disinvest themselves of activities that are not satisfactorily…. [read more]

Public Administration the Merit Pay System Term Paper

… Public Administration

The Merit Pay System

The initiative of merit pay seems very simple on the surface. If one pays high-performing employees more than low-performing ones, the high performers will remain and keep performing at a high level, while the low performers will leave or have inducement to get better. And it can function like that, if workers understand precisely what it takes to receive an elevated raise, if there are no other aspect but performance in pay assessments, if there are adequate finances to pay out considerable differences in raise quantities, and if supervisors have the confidence to be truthful, and stand up to emotional stress (Colter, 2003).

Employers have been attempting to connect performance evaluations to pay increases ever since the end of…. [read more]

Public Administration Strategic Job Analysis, Recruitment Essay

… Public Administration

Strategic job analysis, recruitment, and performance management

Before the hiring process takes place, HR must have an understanding of the needs of the organization. One common method of job analysis is to interview and analyze the work of current employees, although it is important to remember that job analysis focuses on the specifications of the job, not the person currently occupying the job (Job analysis, 1999, HR Guide). Observations of employees, looking at work logs, talking to supervisors, and making task lists are some of the components of job analysis (Job analysis, 1999, HR Guide). Job analysis is required to determine the skills needed for the applicant, which will affect salary, recruitment, and the nature of the job search. For example, if a…. [read more]

Public Administration Locomotive Parts Contract Term Paper

… The firm must understand that just because a subsidiary is currently facing financial challenges doesn't mean it qualifies for more work in this project. The subsidiary must have an impeccable past record and amazing performance to prove that its current financial situation is not because of its own inefficiency or poor performance but some other reasons led to financial crisis.

Apart from past performance, the firm also needs to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each subsidiary. For example if Argentina subsidiary is known for its quality electric parts but has received complaints about its wheel sets then it must be considered for the former only.


Worldwide can easily solve the allocation problem if it follows the recommendations given below:

Worldwide must first ask…. [read more]

Public Policy and Service Research Paper

… The term leadership, of course, brings up additional theories, viewpoints and modes of operation, which then led me to even more research.

I discovered that I was both a coach and a leader, and aspired to be more of both through knowledge and experience. Indeed, leaders and coaches, whatever the title is really mentors within the context of a particular organization or activity. In governmental service, leaders help communicate policy, but in that, they mentor staff, communicate with other stakeholders, and model the type of behavior that engenders confidence. In the workplace, we may define leadership as a coaching model, or a framework to use as an underlying structure to build teamwork, confidence, improve performance and behavior. In this way, someone with more experience and…. [read more]

Theory and Context: Institutional Choice Essay

… However, the role that bureaucracies play as organizations is not well examined from that specific view which is one that is reported to "run counter to principal-agent relationships that must be predicated on a zone of acceptable behavior between such parties." (Meier, 2003) Meier states that what is needed are models that give consideration to the "utility functions of politicians and bureaucratic agencies without relegating the latter to a constraint on the optimization problem facing the former." (2003) Moe notes the fact that the "…norm of reciprocity within Congress are not products of explicit choice but have emerged informally over time through repeated interaction and adaptive adjustment among participants." (2011, p.215)


From the literature reviewed in this brief study it is clear that there…. [read more]

Policy Democracy and Public Administration Term Paper

… The majority of the time, this system works quite well and makes a great contribution to the public's overall health program. However, these are also all prime areas for the communication of the entire system to potentially breakdown. "But, we as a nation lack a formal assessment process for the national, state and local public health systems and we also do not have a National Data System to describe the infrastructure at the state and local levels." (National Conference of State Legislatures)

To add another layer for potential intersystem bickering, adding a national communication capability would be very expensive to implement even though the system is desperately needed. New and prior federal support for broad public health infrastructure could allow more local communities to address…. [read more]

Public Policy Analysis Essay

… It is necessary on a school-by-school basis to create physical education programs that address the unique needs and challenges of student's physical health. For example, in a district where there is a large population of obese students, incorporating more cardiovascular activity may be preferred in gym class, because students do not have the time or money to devote to sports outside of school. In schools where only a few talented students dominate the gym class, less competitive activities like obstacle courses can be incorporated. "The students shouldn't be standing around. PE classes should keep kids active for at least 50% or more of the time they are in class" (Greenlaw 2012). Although healthy competition can be an important way to stimulate students' interest, it should…. [read more]

Administration of Public Institutions Thesis

… Administration of Public Institutions

The objective of this work is to interview three public administrators within a specific geographic region and report the following information: (1) Indicate what they see, from a public administrator's role, as some of the pluses and minuses of PA; (2) Note what they foresee as the challenges to public administration in the future; (3) Describe some of the unique duties that they, those interviewed, undertake that goes beyond the content contained within the course; (4) Include a summary of what you learned through the interviews; and (5) Analyze the writer's future professional career direction with regards to public administration.

Interview One

The first interview in this study was conducted with the Managing Attorney of a Legal Services Corporation, a federally…. [read more]

Approaches to Public Administration Essay

… With public administration being concerned with the implementation aspect of government policies, to govern the people, managerial approach carries the day on my list of preferences since it affects many people. The well-being of the society depends a lot on the proper implementation of government policies.

Secondly, perhaps I identify with the managerial approach because of the special bias that I have towards issues of management. I believe that good management is the key to unlocking progress of any organization or country. As it is the conventional thought, "everything rises and falls with a leader." A leader provides direction and is the vision bearer, who shows his or her followers the desired course of direction. Good leaders are good managers able to succeed in his…. [read more]

Public Administration the Boone Air Force Base Research Proposal

… Public Administration

The Boone Air Force Base is a large education and training facility that has a child development center that provides federally subsidized childcare for military personnel. The center employs two different types of employees, those in civil service positions and those in non-appropriated fund positions. The civil service positions are the better of the two and are provided protections that the non-appropriated employees are not given. This makes moving into a civil service position a highly desirable thing to accomplish.

The development center is currently undergoing an expansion and when done in the next 30 days will double its current capacity. Because of the expansion to the center it was recently approved for two new full time civil service positions. Claudia Tyson, the…. [read more]

Public Administration Budgeting an Important Stride Essay

… Public Administration


An important stride in calculating expenditures and in the end profit is by generating a budget for an organization. With ever tightening profit margins, every department in an organization needs to keep careful track of their expenses. Some of the things that are often incorporated into an annual budget are salaries, utilities, office costs, repairs, and maintenance. Without doubt, situations occur that may require purchases that exceed budgeted totals. There are also times when income falls short of the predicted amount. These situations often make the organization to revise the budget every so often. A budget is usually put together for a one year time period. Logging departmental discrepancies from the budget can be an effectual management tool (Fuller, 2010).

In order…. [read more]

Goals of a Public Administrator Essay

… In other words, it will not be wrong to say that ethics are the moral justification and the moral consideration that is brought into discussion when making decisions and taking any action that are taken while the daily duties are being completed when an employee is working to provide the general services of the nonprofit organizations as well the government (Menzel, 1997). The accountability standard that is used by the public so that it can scrutinize and the judge the workings of the members of the organizations of the government and the nonprofit ones is in fact termed as ethics (Hallunovi, Osmani & Basha, n.d.).

Another important role that ethics and ethical principles have to play is in decision making and taking by the individuals…. [read more]

Public Administration Case Study

… " (Olsen, 2007, p. 13 )

The public program has as its bases the various assumptions about what citizens have the ability and the will to do and the assumption that citizens are "informed, resourceful and active" means the less likely that those with less in the way of resources will benefit to the extent that the groups that are more resourceful will benefit. (Jacobsen, 1964, 1965, paraphrased cited in Olsen, 2007, p. 14) Public programs are based upon different assumptions about what citizens are able and willing to do, and the more a program assumes informed, resourceful and active citizens, the less likely that individuals with few personal or group resources will benefit as much as more resourceful groups (Jacobsen 1964,1965 in: Olsen, 2007,…. [read more]

Public Admin Problems Case Study

… Analysis

The environment of the 21st century requires that novel and creative ideas are implemented within the general framework of society to combat the challenging problems that arise on a constant and consistent basis. When making decisions of this type it is important that all necessary data and information that can be gathered, is used in a refined and purposeful method. Analyzing this problem requires wisdom, empathy and common sense that must transcend the smaller picture and envision a future of success and growth.

One option is to significantly increase tuition fees for MRCC to help cover the cost of the depleted resources. Other options include reducing staff by offering early retirement. MRCC could also reduce course offerings and diminish the overall quality of the…. [read more]

Organizational Change in the Public Capstone Project

… These eight factors affect the outcome of results of change organizational levels during the change process.

This discussion also considers each factor as potentially leading to the successful implementation of change or improving implementation process. Conclusively, in spite of what some researchers might view as the coherent nature of these determinants and suggestions (Saarinen & Tinnila, 2002).

Factor 1: Need for change

It is the role of managerial leaders to authenticate and convincingly address the need for change. Research shows that the discharge of intended change usually requires that leaders confirm the need for change and plead with other members of the organization and significant external stakeholders that it is indispensable (Richards & Rodrigues, 1993; Middlemist & Hitt, 1988, Walters, 1990; Abramson & Paul, 2001).…. [read more]

Public Personnel Administration Term Paper

… Public Personnel Administration

The objective of this work is to trace the major eras or period of personnel administration since the American Revolution. Included will be the strengths and weaknesses of each era and as well a description of the selection practices that were predominant in each era will be provided. This work will further describe the effect each era has had on the development of personnel issues such as employee rights, recruitment, classification, compensation, benefits, training and labor relations. Finally, this work will discuss the values important in each era and will as well provide examples which demonstrate how values, such as responsiveness, administrative efficiency and individual rights might sometimes conflict with certain functions of personnel administration.


Public Personnel Administration is a role…. [read more]

Public Policy Processes and Analytical Approaches Critical Book Report

… Public Policy Processes and Analytical Approaches

Critical Book Review- David E. Lewis, the Politics of Presidential Appointments:

Lewis, David. 2008. The Politics of Presidential Appointments: Political Control Public Policy Processes and Analytical Approaches

Critical Book Review:

The Politics of Presidential Appointments: Political Control and Bureaucratic Performance (2008)

PAPA 6214 Public Policy Processes and Analytical Approaches - Professor Patrick Roberts

Stacey Shindelar

David E. Lewis' book on political appointment in the United States has been considered to be one of the most important writings in the field of public policies of the last years. This is largely due to the fact that the book in itself represents a comprehensive view and analysis on the way in which appointments are achieved at the high level of local…. [read more]

Public Policy Making and the Policy Making Process Term Paper

… Public Policy-Making Process


Public policy-making or the policy-making process that occurs in governmental organizations is a complex process that involves many organizations and entities and is inclusive of several stages in the policy-making process. Charles Lindblom published an article entitled: "The Science of Muddling Through" in 1959 and is 'one of the most highly cited articles in the Social Science Citation Index" (Weiss and Woodhouse, 1992, p.267; as cited by Kantor, 2000) and continues to generate debate and insights into policy making which are valuable to analysts (e.g. Lessman, 1989; Weiss and Woodhouse, 1992; Albaek, 1995)

The Nature of Policy

The argument of Lindblom was that the process of policy development is both a systematic and rational process…. [read more]

Role of Public Administration in Our Postmodern Term Paper

… ¶ … role of public administration in our postmodern world. Specifically, they examine how we can understand ethical dilemmas so as to address them in a given social and cultural context. In taking a sociocultural approach, many of the models of public administration that we might use are based upon the needs of a society and culture of the late 1800's and 1900's. No longer are we living in the modern world; instead, we live in the postmodern world of rapid technological development as well as changing norms and values. As such, it is critical for governing to take place in a manner in which the changing norms and values of society are accounted for; to do this, the notion of "eternal vigilance" occurs when…. [read more]

Reintegration of Ex-Felons Term Paper

… The Reintegration of Ex-Offenders-Adult program is directed toward those formerly incarcerated individuals who came from high-crime, high-poverty communities (Morrison, 2012). Roughly 709,000 individuals were released from state and federal prisons in 2010 (Morrison, 2012). According to the Labor Department, this is an increase of nearly 20% from the numbers in 2002. Without the support to accomplish a successful transition during reintegration, research has shown that "the majority of former offenders return to criminal activity" (Morrison, 2012, ¶1).


Although Thompson is an attorney, he exemplifies the new interest in public administration for improving the efficiency and institutional competence and efficiency of reentry courts and reintegration programs. Thompson (2004) recommends a more evolved role for public defender offices such that a more integrative role can be…. [read more]

Peculiar Ethics of Public Leadership Essay

… Without the trust of the public, public administration cannot exist." (Gray, 1996) Classical thinkers believe that legislators "if freely elected and guarded against corruption by special interests…could be counted on to reflect the consensus values of an essentially unified popular sovereign." (Gray, 1996) Progressives however, held that lawyers, prior to designing legal doctrines and institutions that would effectively meet the needs of the public must first "learn the facts about society" and then effectively become "social engineers, systematically investigating social problems, familiarizing themselves with the available methods of reform and testing whether these had the intended effects." (Gray, 1996) The work of Stever (2008) reports that Evans "makes it clear that pragmatism, as it was forged by John Dewey is a body of philosophy that…. [read more]

New Public Management and Democracy Term Paper

… New Public Management Reforms

The Implications of New Public Management for Democracy Today

Among the plethora of issues arising out of the preeminence of New Public Management (NPM) reforms over the past decades is the question of democracy - the changing nature of Public Administration under managerialism is said to be altering the concept of governance and affecting democratic politics. According to Lane (2000), "NPM as managerialism focusing upon contract making and enforcement seems to take government once and for all out of the Weberian framework of bureaucracy" (6). Although NPM enthusiasts continue to laud their efforts to move the ordinary citizen closer to the public administration machine and thus provide them with greater choice and input in the delivery of public services, a closer…. [read more]

New Governance Application to International Term Paper

… Due to its multi-purpose nature, it has varying uses as well. Governance can be used as minimal state. In this context, it defines public intrusion which focuses on establishment of market aimed at delivering public services. Another use of it is corporate control or corporate governance which will not control the enterprise but oversee it. Governance also provides mechanism of new public management: managerialism (introduction of managerial practices specific to private sector in public sector) and the institutional economics (introduction of reward structure). Fourth use of governance is good governance which entails using political power to control national matters (Plumptre & Graham, 1999). Other uses are socio-cybernetic systems and governance as self-organizing networks (Rhodes, 1996).

Application of New Governance to International Trade for Free Market…. [read more]

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NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.