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Public Policy Tourism Public Policy Orientation Essay

… Public Policy Tourism

Public Policy Orientation and Tourism in Costa Rica

Just 20 years ago, Costa Rica scarcely registered in a discussion on global tourism. A small republic most noted for its agriculture and its production of tropical export goods such as coffee, pineapple, bananas and palm oil, Costa Rica's appeal was largely to natural history enthusiasts and science tourists. Quite to this point, an article from the time by Laarman & Perdue (1989) portrays the ecologically diverse nation as possessing a "small tourism industry" with "special interest" appeal. (Laarman & Perdue, p. 205) In just the last two decades however, this condition has changed dramatically. Where Laarman & Perdue refer to tourism as an important but modest secondary industry in Costa Rica as recently…. [read more]

Public Policy Themes Public Policy Creation Essay

… ¶ … Public Policy Themes

Public policy creation and study is a complex process that contains a variety of different perspectives and considerations, some practical and others less so. Ultimately, even the more political and seemingly impractical elements of public policy must be dealt with in a practical and pragmatic fashion, however; though certain themes in public policy reflect more about personal and subjective interests and desires than they do direct, actionable, and ideal goals for the public at large, accomplishing anything in public policy means finding a diplomatic balance that appeases the louder of the more subjective public elements. Understanding certain of the themes currently observed in public policy discussions can lead to a more effective development of public policy on directly practical and…. [read more]

Public Policy and Unintended Consequences Thesis

… In this way, transparency in action and behavior is also important to the public as end-user. From a managerial perspective, the incentive to become transparent is, in a way, related to the monopolization within a certain industry. If the regulations exist where it is illegal or unfavorable for a firm to hold a monopoly (i.e. In the presence of certain government regulations), it will have more of an incentive to be as transparent as possible. This statement holds true only when the firm is not also incentivised to give first stakeholder priority to the government, through unneeded and unmoderated regulation.

These rules and understandings of market forces and transparency also have a direct application within the UK's party finance realm. This means that as exceptionalism…. [read more]

Public Administration in Brazil Essay

… In environments with restricted citizen involvement, decentralization can act as a vital first step in developing regular and conservative opportunities for all citizens and state communication. The symbiotic connection between decentralization and contribution results to conflicting policy guidelines. Mechanisms for locals' participation need to be considered as a helpful pre-condition in evaluating the opportunities for successful decentralization. The design for decentralization needs to consider the opportunities and limitations imposed by present channels of local participation.

Lack of contribution mechanisms can be considered an inspiration for decentralization and helps in the creation of local demand to incorporate more participatory channels which voice local preferences. Participation acts as a means to flourishing decentralization and as an objective of decentralization. The broad mechanisms for participation of citizens is…. [read more]

Public Policy for Reproductive Health Essay

… The National Council of Women's Societies, besides lobbying for abortion law reform, promotes free maternal health care services. Safe abortion is publicly promoted by The Campaign against Unwanted Pregnancy and Ipas.

Other improvements noted by Shiffman and Okonofua include pronouncement of clear commitments from the Federal Ministry of Health in studies and documents concerning a national reproductive health policy. These efforts involved coordinated participation by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). The first budget committed to projects funding safe motherhood was obtained by the FMOH 2004. The government adopted WHO Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) toward reducing maternal mortality and improving child health in 2005.

However, in their 2006 study, Shiffman and Okonofua state that there was no top…. [read more]

Education -- Major Policy Themes the American Essay

… ¶ … Education -- Major Policy Themes

The American education system has fallen tremendously behind those of other nations, including those of many much smaller and less wealthy nations. The United States ranks fifth among all nations in spending per student but ranks only twenty-first in science literacy and twenty-fifth in math literacy compared with the students of thirty other developed nations. In 2009, sixty-nine percent of American eight graders scored below proficiency levels in reading and sixty-eight percent scored below proficiency levels in mathematics; that is particularly troubling in light of nearly a decade of federal policies (i.e. NCLB) expressly justified by the need to improve literacy and mathematics proficiency among American students.

Since the early 1970s, education administrators have emphasized reducing the student-to-teacher…. [read more]

Public Administration and Considers Term Paper

… S. He has helped explore in depth the specifics of public administration and offers much in depth analysis of the factors affecting the decisions of policy makers. His works touch upon a variety of relevant issues, the policy making process and new policy discussions on welfare, tax, civil rights, federalism and terrorism. He also highlights controversies plaguing modern day America such as crime and guns, poverty, 'RICO vs. liberty', educational reform, healthcare, class domination, bureaucratic mismanagement and war. Dye has a unique and scholarly presentation to his work through which he stimulates the thought process of the reader through fact, analysis and proposition. He offers insight on eight analytical models in political science: Rationalism, incrementalism, elitism, interest group conflict, institutionalism, game theory, public choice, and…. [read more]

Public Sector Management Essay

… Public Sector Management

The term 'public service' needs to be defined in such a manner that the need that created the public service and the implication of it to the economy has to be explained. We must therefore consider the definition of a public service. Public services are always oriented to the welfare of the community and are aimed at providing key services that must be available to all on an equitable basis. In other words public services and utilities are welfare oriented rather than profit oriented. The orientation to welfare and service with minimum or no returns thus puts huge burden on the exchequer. Thus today there is high increase in the support of reform in public services. We have to however understand that…. [read more]

Catholic Church Public Policy in Spain and US Thesis

… As I previously mentioned, the Spanish population is religiously homogeneous. Roman Catholics compose of 99% of the population, while the remaining 1% of the population is composed of those belonging to Jewish, Protestant, Muslim, and Buddhist faiths. In relation to other countries in the European Union, Spain boasts one of the most "religious" populations. As data from a study of religiosity in the European shows, as late as 1982, only Ireland surpasses Spain in religious practice. Further, by the end of the decade, the percentage of individuals identifying themselves as "religious persons" ranged from a low of 48% in Denmark to 72% in the Irish Republic. The Spanish percentage of 68% exceeded all other countries except Ireland, Portugal and Greece. In stark contrast to the…. [read more]

V.-chip Public Policy and Juvenile Crime Term Paper

… ¶ … Chip



Significance / meaning of censorship

Success of vchip

History of Media censorship

Non-vchip methods


Link between television violence and juvenile crime

Levels of violence shown on tv

Link between juvenile crime and exposure to violence

Link between juvenile crime and tv

Public policy that led to vchip

National campaigns


Attempts to get industry to self-regulate

Relative success of the vchip

Technological aspects of vchip

How vchip works

Industrial adoption of the vchip

Actual effectiveness

Cultural adoption of the vchip

Public Policy effectiveness

Has public policy paid off?

Has the vchip and other methods actually changed society?

Reduction of Juvenile crime

Underlying causes

Effects of reduction

Secondary effects

Even before the time of organizations such as the MPAA, efforts…. [read more]

New Rhetoric in Public Policy Term Paper

… Charles Tilly defines social movements as a series of contentious performances, displays and campaigns by which ordinary people made collective claims on others [Tilly, 2004]. For Tilly, social movements are a major vehicle for ordinary people's participation in public politics [Tilly, 2004:3]. Furthermore, Sidney Tarrow defines [Tarrow, 1994] a social movement as collective challenges [to elites, authorities, other groups or cultural codes] by people with common purposes and solidarity in sustained interactions with elites, opponents and authorities. He specifically distinguishes social movements from political parties and interest groups. "The pretext for this conference is a deceptively simple question. What is the new rhetoric seems straightforward, but it is in fact complex because the two key words are polysemous and overdetermined. New can mean recent, innovative,…. [read more]

Organizational Change in the Public Capstone Project

… These eight factors affect the outcome of results of change organizational levels during the change process.

This discussion also considers each factor as potentially leading to the successful implementation of change or improving implementation process. Conclusively, in spite of what some researchers might view as the coherent nature of these determinants and suggestions (Saarinen & Tinnila, 2002).

Factor 1: Need for change

It is the role of managerial leaders to authenticate and convincingly address the need for change. Research shows that the discharge of intended change usually requires that leaders confirm the need for change and plead with other members of the organization and significant external stakeholders that it is indispensable (Richards & Rodrigues, 1993; Middlemist & Hitt, 1988, Walters, 1990; Abramson & Paul, 2001).…. [read more]

Managing Out -- the Public Essay

… Following the teachings of Hayek and other conservative economists has led to a greater diversity of service and better management also. Though there are problems with the implementation of the managing out imperative, it has worked to provide services in a more efficient manner.


Bhatti, Y., Olsen, A.L., & Pedersen, L.H. (2009). The effects of administrative professionals on contracting out. Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions, 22(1), 121-137.

Broughton, C., & Chalmers, J. (2001). Reconsidering the revolution? Australian public sector administration in 2000. Australian Journal of Public Administration, 60(1), 81-88.

Caldwell, B. (2011). Hayek on socialism and on the welfare state: A comment on Farrant and McPhail's "Does F.A. Hayek's Road to Serfdom deserve to make a comeback?" Challenge, 54(1), 82-97.…. [read more]

Performance Measurement in Public Service Agencies Essay

… " (p. 1) Reported as the new component in this definition is measurement of performance that is conducted on a regular basis and as such is focused on specific outcomes in what is a process that is oriented towards customers and brings about maximization of benefits and simultaneously minimizes any consequences that are of a negative nature. Lastly, employees should be made aware of performance measurement programs.

7. Fernando, A. And Sanchez, J. (nd) Towards a Measurement of the Public Services Productivity: A Practitioner's Guide. Retrieved from:

Fernando and Sanchez report that public services productivity measurement is a complex task. Stated specifically in this work is that the service process "is the economic activity carried out to transform inputs into out-puts." (p. 3) The…. [read more]

Public Administration Core Competency Final Exam Research Proposal

… Public Administration

Core Competency Final Exam

Many scholars have criticized the bureaucratic form of organization as originally outlined by Max Weber. Give an example of each of the key elements of bureaucracy as you see them reflected in contemporary organizations. Do you regard Weber as more as an advocate or opponent of bureaucracy or as a dispassionate describer of the social, political, and economic factors that made bureaucracy inevitable? How do Robert Merton, Anthony Downs, David Rosenbloom and Michael Lipsky qualify, extend, or criticize Weber's classic account?

Max Weber is well-known for his critical study of the bureaucratization of society, the rational ways in which formal social organizations apply the ideal type characteristics of a bureaucracy. It was Weber who began the studies of bureaucracy…. [read more]

Public Relations (Corporate Social Responsibility) Term Paper

… The use of minimal energy in manufacture, the dematerialization where more is done with less, the recycle-ability of HP's products are all factors that demonstrate the company's social responsibility. Moreover, HP is devoted to creating newer and more innovative products that satisfy the customer while at the same time use fewer resources. HP states that it understands that while it may not be possible for everybody to actually purchase a product physically, it is true that a lot of people would want the benefits and advantages of such products. This is the reason why HP claims to be able to optimize its hardware while at the same time reducing the costs as well as reducing the impact on the environment. (Social and Environmental Responsibility Report)…. [read more]

Public Space: "The Living Room Research Paper

… Public Space: "The Living Room of the City"

The Center for Design Excellence (n.d.). defines public space as "the living room of the city - the place where people come together to enjoy the city and each other." Modernity has encroached on the concept of public space by confining the most mundane aspects of daily life to the enclave of the private home. For example, the collection of water, access to washing facilities, and the production of food is collectivized in traditional village communities but not in modern metropolises. Public space in the modern city has therefore been carefully planned, to ensure quality of life and create cities that are pleasant, walkable, and convenient.

Public space is one of the keynotes of architectural design in…. [read more]

Public Schools vs. Private Term Paper

… In short, it was all -- even the math and science -- philosophy. In fact, it could not have been anything else, as science as we know it would be invented hundreds of years later by people a lot less erudite. Those early Greek 'schools' were the foundation not only of the detached method of education extant in U.S. public schools today, but of the campus style of learning as well. Universities and even high schools are generally separated from their communities by acres of greensward. Clinchy argues that this is not for peace, quiet and beauty alone, but to separate the students from everyday life. To be sure, private schools are often at least as well set apart as public schools, but the effect…. [read more]

Social Equity Is a Key White Paper

… In addition, public administration has the duty of burdening the responsibility of creating and maintaining a commonwealth. However, in practice the relationship between citizenry and administrators is complex, making matters of government operation, citizen engagement, and design in administration complex (Candler & Dumont, 2010). This is the result of a global phenomenon, which has led to the creation of the concept of direct citizenry engagement. The need for local responsibility is a challenge for the administrator to create citizenry engagement for some administrative functions, like security. However, these remains a challenge for leaders as national integrated systems of administration are in the way of future governance.

2.2 Analysis of Theories of the Conference

2.2.1 Public Administration Leadership

Leadership in public administration entails the "exercise of…. [read more]

Public Speaking Advertising Policy Planned Events Case Study

… A raffle for door prizes took place with prizes including such as stadium seats, shirts that had been printed to represent the school's future team. The table centerpieces were formed by poms that were the schools colors and the entire room had a festive air and one that was anticipatory of a great school football team.

Donations were taken at the end of the banquet and the school raised a total of $19,298.00 to support the formation of a high school football team.

The information provided by the speakers was persuasive and informative and served to garner more support than was originally hoped for at this initial event.

Ten high school teachers stepped forward to assist with the team in various ways including one teacher…. [read more]

Canadian Foreign Policy a Brave Reaction Paper

… The issue, however, is that Canadians are seldom asked to make difficult decisions in trade in regards to spending: if more money is to be provided to these outwardly focused strategy parts, what are they actually willing to spend less on is the question that I discovered?

An additional issue that I discovered what the fact that the degree of support established for internationalism is way out of percentage with the evidences on the ground. "Even though Canada slept" to copy the title of Andrew Cohen's new manuscript Canada's military competence has really gone down fast (it positions near the lowest of the NATO list in footings of The Gazette, Montreal "Canadians are doing bizarre stuff in the globe," narrates Jennifer Welsh, noting Stephen Lewis's…. [read more]

New Public Management and Democracy Term Paper

… New Public Management Reforms

The Implications of New Public Management for Democracy Today

Among the plethora of issues arising out of the preeminence of New Public Management (NPM) reforms over the past decades is the question of democracy - the changing nature of Public Administration under managerialism is said to be altering the concept of governance and affecting democratic politics. According to Lane (2000), "NPM as managerialism focusing upon contract making and enforcement seems to take government once and for all out of the Weberian framework of bureaucracy" (6). Although NPM enthusiasts continue to laud their efforts to move the ordinary citizen closer to the public administration machine and thus provide them with greater choice and input in the delivery of public services, a closer…. [read more]

Public Administration and Its Analysis Term Paper

… A concept known as "Meta-planning," this is about the process of planning the strategic management process itself to earn support and to pick up the organization's ability to assess itself and its environment, is of significance for the strategic planning process. It is also important for the management and the entire organization as a whole to be adjustable to changes and new factors when they emerge in the scenario.

However, the theory of strategic management for businesses is inadequate for the needs of applications for the public sector. Business planning is usually concentrated on some deviation from a single objective, which is the return on investment. This results in practices like portfolio analysis that require businesses to disinvest themselves of activities that are not satisfactorily…. [read more]

Public School vs. Home Schooling Term Paper

… With recent advances in distance learning technology, more and more families are choosing to learn at home." (Internet Home School Website, 2003)

Internet offerings are vast, with everything from social societies that provide outreach and opinions with regards to home school concerns and solution to companies that provide whole home school curriculums that meet the standards in the state of origin or require little alteration to do so. (Home School World Website 2001) The internet site: a leading magazine, Home School World production that can assist individuals in achieving home school goals and also help answer some of the lingering questions and fears associated with home schooling children. The available information for home school advocates clearly increases the odds that any home school decision…. [read more]

Speech of a Public Institution Essay

… b. I was also intrigued by Darwin being aided in his concept of evolutionary thinking of nature as a branched tree. Had he initiated another metaphor for nature, would his concept of evolution have differed?

c. It taught me too that innovation of theory or in fact of anything can be aided by creating metaphors.

2. Dan Meyer, Math Makeover

a. I have often thought that approaching math from a real-life perspective and showing its pragmatism in real life would be enormously more helpful than teaching it as a tired subject via numbers. The video reinforced my impression.

b. Even if math were taught as a real subject form the start with relevance -- precisely as the movie recommends -- far more students would find…. [read more]

Powers and Rights Assessment

… S. federal court system and wage litigation warfare? What is the background and current status of this issue?

The chances of this depend on whether or not a successful act of terror actually occurred. If one did occur, the U.S. court system basically requires that the person or persons would get the chance to face their accusers, which means a case in the U.S. federal court system would involve courts in the general local where the terror occurred. So far this has not been allowed because the public responds dramatically to the idea of extending rights in this manner. Accordingly, the chances are that our people would have to use the military tribunals.

4) What is a military tribunal? Has the United States used military…. [read more]

Managing Out the Public Sector in the Community Essay

… Partnership OZ:

'Managing out' public social work administration in Australia

In 2008, Social Work theorist, Jim Ife made public his critique of the Australian Association of Social Workers (AASW) Code of Ethics (AASW, 2002). Referencing John Solas and the propensity and limits to official advocacy within the scope of national social work practice, Ife describes the preemption of social justice by market forces in the nation's policy, where utilitarianism, the basis of economic rationalism and crude empiricism has come to dominate the field of governance and social service known as public administration. According to Ife, "utilitarianism forms the basis of many of the policies, practice manuals, and managerial practices that form the context within which social workers work." Not surprisingly, he maintains, adherence to utilitarianism…. [read more]

U.S. Policy Term Paper

… U.S. Foreign Policy in the Middle East
is based Primarily on Securing the Flow of Affordable Oil

A change of policy is needed regarding United States foreign policy
in the Middle East. The current policy is one towards securing oil and
that must change. Oil is not worth American lives and currently American
lives are falling victim to the need for oil. Today, America is deeply
involved politically and militarily in the Middle East. While there are
arguments that terrorism ties in the United States to the Middle East, it
is the need for oil that directly involves the United States. And more
often than not, weapons of mass destruction are an excuse for conflict in
the Middle East and thus excuses for the United…. [read more]

Australian Public Sector Management Term Paper

… Australian Public Sector


Key Factors That Have Produced Greater Emphasis on Relationships

Multiple factors have produced greater emphasis on building relationships within, between and outside government agencies in the Australian public sector. More and more in recent years researchers in fields including law, ethics, public administration and management alike have expressed interest in identifying and exploring the "philosophical foundations" of their work and implications (Bois, Preston & Sampford, 1998:2). This in turn has led to increasing interest in building relationships within the Australian public sector in particular, as increasing communications and dialogue have enabled greater sharing of perspectives and greater collaboration among varying agencies.

The Australian government has also realized a strong and abundant economic performance that…. [read more]

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