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Public Health Policy Identify a Current Case Study

… ¶ … Public Health Policy

Identify a Current Public Health Policy

Identify a current public health policy (at the national/federal or state level) that pertains to your chosen topic

A major challenge that many states and local communities are dealing with is: the number of mentally ill that have been involved in some sort of violent activity. Part of the reason for this is because, of a shift in the kinds of treatment options that are available to many patients who are suffering from mental illness. As there has been an emphasis on: placing these individuals within the local communities on an outpatient basis. However, the number of problems associated with this strategy is creating add challenges for many regions. This is because they are…. [read more]


Policy Changes in the Criminal Justice System Research Paper

… Policy Changes in the Criminal Justice System in America

Discuss the changes that can be made to improve three parts of the criminal justice system (Crime Prevention, Sentencing, and the prison experience) QUOTE ALL 10 RESOURCES

The criminal justice system in America which comprises of three stages i.e. crime prevention, sentencing and the prison experience has failed terribly in bringing about the necessary changes to the criminals. This is seen in the high rate of violent crimes which are higher in America than other European countries and thus suggest that the system does not work as desired. The sentencing policies that have been used have not helped either. These have just led to exponential growth of the population of inmates and it has created a…. [read more]


Policy Development for the Investigated Term Paper

… The research by Zahn, Mihalic and Tichavsky (2009) was not able to identify a specific factor that determines what works for girls in Juvenile Justice System, however, it was able to deduce that gender specific programs are largely ineffective and need a lot of amendments. This led to many positive changes to gender specific programs and the follow-up programs have been made more extensive, as a result of this study.

The study by Fled (2009) had a significant impact on the policies within the juvenile justice system. The report was successfully able to formulate that female crime is on an increase, which led to changes in the organizational environment of the prison facilities and changes were made in the rehabilitation exercises to cater to females.…. [read more]


Prison Overcrowding or Typically Essay

… Since most of them are poor, they fail to get even an average repute both in the society and to the criminal system. Their poor economic circumstances lead them to a life of misery, crimes and eventually towards prisons. Several efforts are now being made in order to disprove the perception of injustice in U.S.' legal system. For this purpose, there are organizations like The Sentencing Project, which is putting its efforts in order to assist at least those prisoners who never got a chance of parole even if they are juveniles. Young Blacks can take advantage of such policies who are subjected to racial inequality and injustice as they constitute a two-third part of total inmates. Also, the amount of parole can assist government…. [read more]


Prison Overcrowding Is Indeed Ghost Writing

… Mechanisms for early release can help reduce overcrowding in prisons and also facilitate integration and social rehabilitation. Policies and legislations should be put in place to provide for possibilities of early release and parole and the conditions for the former. Early release should be structured in such a manner as to make it a part of the normal process of enforcement of the sentence. Prisoners who wish to apply for parole may be encouraged to do so by the necessary authorities.

There is available empirical data indicating that crowded prisons are stressful and create conditions contrary to any aim at rehabilitation. This has increased efforts of finding ways of reducing the overcrowding. A lot of effort has been directed towards making changes to the design…. [read more]


Prisons the American Criminal Justice Essay

… Within the prison system, overcrowding is a particularly pressing issue as it is the root of many other problems in prisons, including gangs and substance abuse. Besides these problems, overcrowding often leads to prisoners being released early and further endangering society. But this problem is not insurmountable and there are solutions to the problem of prison overcrowding. First of all society must deal with the problem of substance abuse, the lower the number of substance abusers, the lower the number of crimes associated with substance abuse. Then society must deal more effectively with those who commit crimes due to substance abuse; using treatment, not prison, in sentences. This is an effective way of relieving the problem of prison overcrowding. American society must also comes to…. [read more]


Prison Life and Recidivism Essay

… S. president. The authors in this case also note that in the past, crime studies have demonstrated that those individuals having a religious orientation are highly unlikely to be caught engaging in criminal activities. Hence when it comes to the use of religious programs as rehabilitative programs in the prison setting, the objective is to convince inmates to change their ways of living. Currently, religious programs in prison are largely voluntary. This voluntarily nature of involvement in this case is based on past court rulings deeming involvement into religious programs at the compulsory level as a violation of the First Amendment. However, it is important to note that all inmates, and not only those on special programs, have equal access to religious programs. This is…. [read more]


Prison System. This Discussion Essay

… References

Agnew, R. & Cullen, F.T. (2003). Criminological Theory, Past to Present. Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury Publishing Company.

Aziz, D., Levine, A.J., Sieber, K., Schulte, P., & Steenland, K. (1997). Incidence of Tuberculosis infection among New York State prisons employees. American Journal of Public Health, 87, 2012-2014

Briggs, C.S., Sundt, J.L., & Castellano, T.C. (2003). The effect of supermaximum security prisons on aggregate levels of institutional violence. Criminology, 41, 1341 -- 1376

Cheek, F. (1984). Stress management for correctional officers and their families. College Park, MD: American Correctional Association. 38

Cheek, F.E., & Miller, M. (1982). Prisoners of life: A study of occupational stress among state corrections officers. American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees. Washington D.C.

del Carmen, A. (2004). Corrections, 2e. Cincinnati:…. [read more]


Prison Rape Elimination Act PREA Research Paper

… ¶ … Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA)

When people in the United States are incarcerated, it is the government's responsibility to ensure their safety and welfare. One of the major problems facing convicts in many correctional facilities is rape. In response, the Prison Rape Elimination Act became a mandatory requirement for every adult and juvenile correctional facility in the United States and military facility abroad effective August 2013. This paper provides a review, critique and comparison of two peer-reviewed journal articles concerning this legislation to determine the Act's scope and intent. A summary of the research and important findings concerning the Prison Rape Elimination Act are presented in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

In their study, "The Passage and Implementation of the Prison Rape Elimination…. [read more]


Public vs. Private Sector Unions Essay

… Key Differences: Public Vs Private Sector Unions

Unlike the case of private sector unions, in public unions, the municipal leaders are elected which creates a political structure in the bargaining process (Reilly, 2012). Proper voting is carried out for electing leader in the public unions; but in private sector, there are very rare workers who are shareholders and can take part in the voting and selection of management.

Public sector employees possess greater power outside of collective bargaining compare to the private sector, and therefore they play an active role in affecting the decisions of management (Reilly, 2012)..

Unions in the private sector are made to distribute profits from owners to workers. This approach cannot be applied to the public sector, as government does not…. [read more]


Public Policy Alternatives to Improve the Nation's Prison Overcrowding Dilemma Term Paper

… Public Policy Alternatives to Improve the Nation's Prison Overcrowding Dilemma

There are more individuals per capita incarcerated in the United States than in any comparative democracy that is an industrialized nation anywhere in the world. The sentences imposed on offenders in the U.S. are longer and the U.S. is one of the last nations on earth to practice capital punishment or what is commonly known as "the death penalty." Increasingly individuals are being locked up male and female and both adult and child. Collateral impacts from incarcerations of this enormity are costly to society both in monetary as well as in social terms. The findings of this study are simply that there exists alternative measures of punishment that are more cost efficient and more conducive…. [read more]


Prison Overcrowding Term Paper

… Prison Overcrowding: Empirical Analysis of Alternatives to Mandatory Sentencing and Community Sanctions

Theoretical Approaches

History Incarceration and Prison Overcrowding

Who's in Prison

Reasons for Overcrowding

This study focuses on exploring the relationship between prison overcrowding and adaptation of the situational environment in which crime occurs. Specifically the researcher will explore whether a reduction in incarceration of non-violent offenders combined with provisions for more rehabilitation and community support within at risk communities may contribute to reduced incarceration rates, better flow and reduced overcrowding. To achieve these goals the researcher proposes a triangular approach that will combine multiple research methods. The author hypothesizes that adaptations to the incarceration approach including use of more community sanctions and introduction of more rehabilitation programs within communities, combined with shorter terms…. [read more]


Prison Crowding and Violence on Staff Term Paper

… Prison Overcrowding and Its Relationship to Violence on Prison Staff Members

The debate on whether prison works or not is futile. What matters is that prison is allowed to take its proper place in the criminal justice system, one of excellent last resort, properly equipped and able to cope with those who really need to be there. -- Juliet Lyon, 2002

The epigraph above is reflective of a growing sentiment among American taxpayers that it does not take a smart person to recognize that the criminal justice system is broken, but that it is going to take some smart people to fix it. Today, the United States incarcerates more of its citizens than any other nation in the world, and the nation's prison facilities are…. [read more]


Overcrowding in Prisons: Impacts Research Paper

… And conversely, when those African-American men are released from overcrowded prisons (in certain cases some inmates are released prior to the time they were sentenced for because they were not convicted of violent crimes and judges have ordered prisons to reduce crammed facilities), the "vast majority will return to the same communities" (smith, 388). This in turn puts "additional strain on already scarce resources" in the communities they came from and want to return to.

In other words, the PIC has a recent legacy of overcrowding, and in the process the PIC "exploits African-American men by extracting their labor" below fair market wages, and then by returning them to their communities where socioeconomic resources are already depleted (Smith, 389). On page 389 the authors use…. [read more]


Prison Over-Crowding Prison Crowing Solutions Essay

… Treating the taxpayers (even the rich…who already pay the vast share of taxes) like piggybanks whenever a crisis comes up is simply wrong-headed and makes the problem worse in the long run. The money going through the system right now is not being spent wisely and it needs to be spent on keeping our society's miscreants away from the public.

References

American Water. (2013, May 1). American Water Solutions. American Water Solutions. Retrieved May 1, 2013, from http://www.amwatersolutions.com/types-of-public-private-partnerships.aspx

CBS Chicago. (2013, March 22). School Closing Opponents Call Mayor A Racist Liar -- CBS Chicago. CBS Chicago. Retrieved May 1, 2013, from http://chicago.cbslocal.com/2013/03/22/school-closing-opponents-call-mayor-a-racist-liar/

Kumar, S. (2011, December 28). California home to 1/3 of nation's welfare recipients | california, nation, welfare - Appeal-Democrat. Homepage: Appeal-Democrat. Retrieved May…. [read more]


Prisons an Analysis Research Paper

… The Department of Justice currently supports faith-based prisoner re-entry programs throughout the United States. Prisoner re-introduction to society programs vary from state to state and county to county, leading to a lack of consistency in program availability, accessibility, quality, and implementation. There are no guidelines or rules by which to administer prisoner re-introduction programs, and no clear mandate for such programs.

Most communities lack comprehensive prisoner re-entry programs. Moreover, prisoner re-entry programs are sporadically designed, developed, and enforced. For reentry strategies to work, they must take into account socio-economic variables, issues like population migration, and the need to stimulate legitimate entrepreneurial activities in communities that are too impoverished to support their members.

Current approaches to protect the public upon a prisoner's release.

Protecting the public…. [read more]


Prisons Are Correctional Facilities Essay

… There are some ideas when implemented can help in curbing officer corruption. These ideas can be expressed in three areas; the first step is hiring officers that have good character no matter how difficult it seems. There should be strict screening methods used so as to reduce chances of hiring potentially corrupt officers. Secondly officers have to be well trained on matters pertaining corruptions and how they can deal with such situations when they present themselves. Finally incentive programs should be well though such that they adequately cater for needs of officers and hence prevent them from any temptation of taking part in corruption dealings (White, 1999).

Conclusion

It is therefore very important to ensure that these challenges in prisons are addressed so that the…. [read more]


Prison Reduction of Prison Population Essay

… According to the criminologists, this extra attention towards the community correction will decrease the inmate population for a short period but later this problem will come in front as a giant monster with which the state government will not be able cope up. Almost 67% of the freed criminals are re-arrested and 52% of them are re-incarcerated. They further proposed a plan that the spending of government on the rehabilitation center should be within a limit.

Release of Older criminals:

Another idea that the criminologists put forwarded was to release the old age criminals. According to a report of the American Civil Liberties Union, United States spent almost $16billion of economy each year on the elderly prisoners. By releasing these older criminals, the government will…. [read more]


Public Policy Tourism Public Policy Orientation Essay

… Public Policy Tourism

Public Policy Orientation and Tourism in Costa Rica

Just 20 years ago, Costa Rica scarcely registered in a discussion on global tourism. A small republic most noted for its agriculture and its production of tropical export goods such as coffee, pineapple, bananas and palm oil, Costa Rica's appeal was largely to natural history enthusiasts and science tourists. Quite to this point, an article from the time by Laarman & Perdue (1989) portrays the ecologically diverse nation as possessing a "small tourism industry" with "special interest" appeal. (Laarman & Perdue, p. 205) In just the last two decades however, this condition has changed dramatically. Where Laarman & Perdue refer to tourism as an important but modest secondary industry in Costa Rica as recently…. [read more]


Public Services Management According to Hood ) Term Paper

… Public Services Management According to Hood (1991)

According to Hood (1991) the New Public Management (NPM) has come to represent a global phenomenon. This work will answer what the main trends in the worldwide movement have been since 1991 and in which countries the NPM has proven to be the most successful. Bissessar (nd) n the work entitled: "The Introduction of New Public Management in Small States" writes that in the 1980s "many countries worldwide attempted to reform their public bureaucracies by replacing the traditional system of Public Administration with what Hood (1991) commonly referred to as New Public Management (NPM). It was obvious that the ideological justification for introducing NPM was based on the doctrines of the 'new right' which placed increasingly reliance on…. [read more]


Policy Analysis -- Gang Activity Research Paper

… Researchers reached to three conclusions at the end of this exercise. Firstly, approximately 8 out of each 10 cities had been noted to experience gang homicide cases on a frequent basis. Secondly, the pattern of gang homicide cases in these cities was experiencing an increasing curve allowing the problem to grow further and getting into the roots of the city. Thirdly, around 20-40% of all homicide cases pertained to gang killing in the two largest cities. These cities comprised 70% of the total population selected for the analysis (Howell et al., 2011).

The study revealed that gang activity has prevailed throughout the nation. It was not just confined to the State of New York. The presence of gangs in these regions raises doubts over the…. [read more]


Public Administration in Brazil Essay

… In environments with restricted citizen involvement, decentralization can act as a vital first step in developing regular and conservative opportunities for all citizens and state communication. The symbiotic connection between decentralization and contribution results to conflicting policy guidelines. Mechanisms for locals' participation need to be considered as a helpful pre-condition in evaluating the opportunities for successful decentralization. The design for decentralization needs to consider the opportunities and limitations imposed by present channels of local participation.

Lack of contribution mechanisms can be considered an inspiration for decentralization and helps in the creation of local demand to incorporate more participatory channels which voice local preferences. Participation acts as a means to flourishing decentralization and as an objective of decentralization. The broad mechanisms for participation of citizens is…. [read more]


Prison Industrial Complex Research Paper

… In addition, the tendency to depend on racists' ideologies and structures to impose punishments and obtain surplus income is more troubling. Privatization of prisons is currently a capitalist move within the prison industry. Prisons run by the federal government are grossly violating human rights; on the other hand, private prisons have demonstrated lack of transparency and accountability (Schlosser, 2008).

In early 2012, a leading U.S. prison firm bought about sixty thousand beds from various correctional centers. As the trend of subjecting more women in prisons increased, the company opened a new facility in Melbourne (Gottschalk, 2010). Currently, the company has discovered Michigan as its latest frontier. Statistics have revealed that stocks of private prison companies are doing extremely well. Early last year, the overall revenue…. [read more]


Prison Health Care Agency Essay

… The Bureau of Prisons has successfully entered into a process that symbolizes allocated healthcare for the inmates. It is a blessing for every single convict who does not have means to take care of his/her healthcare or any relative who can do so. A majority of prisoners in the correctional facilities belong to a poverty-stricken background. Thus, by providing healthcare services to such individuals within the walls of the prison, BOP is rather doing a commendable job. Such means of provision of healthcare on the part of Bureau of Prisons have helped in the enhancement of healthy lifestyle. In addition, criminal activities have been reduced and there is also less recidivism.

References

About The Bureau of Prisons. (n.d.). BOP: Federal Bureau of Prisons . Retrieved…. [read more]


Improving Customer Service Research Paper

… It is also evaluated to check its sense of fairness and that it is not a violation of any of the ethical principles. The last step is then to implement the chosen course of action.

The Team

The team which will lead this improvement in patient satisfaction rate will consist of 8 members. One will be the nurse manager who will be the overall and the "senior leader" for this process. he/she will be involved in supervising all members of staff of the medical-surgical unit to make sure they act in a way which complements the achievement of this desired patient satisfaction rate. The other 7 team members will be staff members of the medical-surgical unit chosen based on their experience in the team and…. [read more]


Public Sector Strategy and Leadership Essay

… Public Sector Strategy and Leadership

The contemporaneous society is more demanding than ever and competition amongst social individuals has dramatically increased throughout the past recent decades. This competition includes enlisting one's children in the best kindergartens and schools, getting the best job or buying the best house. Regardless of their personal goals, fact remains that the social individuals need guidance, assistance and protection of their rights. The Citizens' Advice Bureau is the provider of these services, meaning then that the role they play within the society is pivotal. For the institution to function at its maximum potential and retrieve the most successful outcomes, they must be internally strong and united. This leads to high performance and increased client satisfaction. Unfortunately, this is not the case…. [read more]


Public Administration the Ultimate Thesis

… The employers in the local government can include special districts, townships, counties, municipalities and school districts. Now we come to the particular strategies that should be employed by the public administrator of this area. First of all, he should have a sound knowledge of the procedures of the local government job applications. His second strategy should be to develop a network of contacts. It is important for him to keep a check on the statistics of the expanding communities so that he gets to know where the best opportunities emerge.

Moreover, a rational public administrator should also go for activities like internships and volunteer positions so that he can get relevant experience in the field. It is also advisable for him to carry out applicable…. [read more]


Prisons as an Area Essay

… As a result, prison officers have a crucial role in the achievement of this role since they need to engage in their work as something enjoyable because they are doing something positive to promote social change of criminals. In order to promote this change, prison officers should not engage with prisoners in undignified and disrespectful ways by simply locking and unlocking them when necessary.

Therefore, these correctional and incarceration facilities should not be used as a warehouse where people are stacked while awaiting to be released. Prisons have been effective in promoting social change when prison officers have engaged more with convicts in appropriate ways resulting in less security problems and bullying. In the criminal justice system, prisons should be considered as the last resort…. [read more]


Prison System According to the Bureau Term Paper

… Prison System

According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, on December 31, 2004, there were 2,135.901 prisoners being held in Federal or State prisons or in local jails (Prison). This is an increase of 2.6% from 2003, and less than the average annual growth of 3.4% since the yearend of 1995 (Prison). It is estimated that there are 486 prison inmates per 100,000 United States residents, a figure up from 411 at 1995 yearend (Prison). The number of women incarcerated increased 4% by the end of 2003, reaching 104,848, while the number of men rose 1.8%, totaling 1,391,781 (Prison). At the end of 2004, there were 3,218 African-American male sentenced prison inmates per 100,000 African-Americans in the United States, compared to 1,220 Hispanic male inmates…. [read more]


Public Administration in the Portuguese Essay

… At the beginning, the core concern was to generate efficiency within the current public structures. Avoiding the dysfunctional of the model became imperative. In the phase that followed, the concept of market became a strong issue of concept, as it was the base for the managerial Nation. Therefore, the state abandoned execution and planning and transformed into a posteriori regulating the behavior of key actors. This strategy influenced the reforms in the State, including areas of crucial sovereign positions such as prisons, police and justice (Raadschelders, 2008).

The new development in governance and public administration roots from the evolution and adoption of managerial central concepts. In fact, privatizations, downsizing, restructuring, and private-public partnerships have been modern phenomena, which have raised complex and countless ethical doubts.…. [read more]

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