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Acute Renal Failure Essay

… Patients who have experienced trauma to the kidneys, patients in the ICU, patients that have had heart or intestinal surgery or a bone marrow transplant are also statistically more likely to have kidney failure (Epstein 1997).

As well as determining whether acute renal failure has occurred, a through diagnosis also demands determining the type of renal failure that the patient is suffering. "Prerenal acute renal failure is characterized by diminished renal blood flow (60 to 70% of cases). In intrinsic acute renal failure, there is damage to the renal parenchyma (25 to 40% of cases). Postrenal acute renal failure occurs because of urinary tract obstruction (5 to 10% of cases)" (Agrawal & Swartz 2000).

In prerenal acute renal failure, impaired renal blood flow "as a…. [read more]

Dialysis Renal Failure Term Paper

… Dialysis/Renal Failure


Management and Implications of Renal Failure

Kidneys are fist-sized, bean-shaped organs, which are located at th lowest part of the rib cage and the sides of the spine (National Kidney Foundation, Inc. 2003). Their major function is to remove waste products and excess fluids from the body in the form of urine. The production of urine consists of excretion and re-absorption, necessary to maintain a stable chemical balance. The kidneys also regulate the salt, potassium and acid content of the body. They produce many hormones, which affect other important organ functions. One of these hormones, for example, stimulates the production of red blood cells. Others help regulate blood pressure and the processing of calcium. The kidneys likewise eliminate chemicals,…. [read more]

Quality of Life and the Patient With Renal Failure Research Proposal

… Quality of Life and the Patient With Renal Failure

Quality of life

The patient in this case study is known as Mrs. E.S. She was admitted to the Renal Medicine Unit on the September 25, 2009, after a diagnosis of renal failure. The patient was born on the 31st of July 1922. Her weight at the time of admission was 77.270kg. Her height is 162.6cm. Her prior medical history includes breast cancer thirty years ago, which resulted in a hysterectomy of the left breast. Other relevant medical aspects include stents to the heart (2005), hypertension, gout, and arthritis of hands and legs, a cataract removed in both eyes and TIA. Currently, she is undergoing hemodialysis three times a week. Allergies include Penicillin and CT dye,…. [read more]

Renal Artery Stenosis Term Paper

… Renal Artery Stenosis

Rather than a single condition, renal artery stenosis refers to a group of diseases which are primarily characterized by the narrowing of the main renal artery as well as the branches of the artery. The narrowing of the artery secondary to atherosclerotic disease is most commonly seen in the 5th decade of life although prevalence is unknown since there is no recommended or cost effective screening mechanism. There is no gender difference in prevalence, although RAS is seen more frequently in patients with high cholesterol, smoking cigarettes, high blood pressure and diabetes, previous history of coronary artery disease, obesity, and peripheral vascular disease and those patients with a family history of RAS (although this is more commonly seen in those patients who…. [read more]

Quality of Life Among Tawau Research Paper

… In a study that was conducted under the PraxArt project, it was found that OA has a negative effect on the quality of life of patients. The study also reveals that when a patient-centered intervention that allows for longer follow-up is not applied, the quality of life of patients which is measured by their satisfaction, presence of comorbidities and levels of stress and depression deteriorates Rosemann et al., 2005: 77



Jinks et al. (2007: 59)

also provide amodel for examining the quality of life of patients suffering from knee pain that may be associated with OA. Their study used a multi-method approach over a 12-month period and found that knee OA results to difficulties in conducting normal activities such…. [read more]

End-Of-Life Health Care Imagine Essay

… Honoring the patient's wishes, withdrawing care, withholding care, or choosing long-term care facilities are all decisions with difficult ethical implications. Someone who is elderly or terminally ill can make these decisions easier for his or her loved ones by creating an advance directive, also known as a living will, that specifies what he or she wants.

To prevent conflicts between families and health care providers at the end of a person's life, families should discuss their issues and create an advance directive, also known as a living will. Once the advance directive is completed, the patient should discuss his or her wishes with the family and primary physician to let them know that the document exists and what it includes. Advance directives inform family members…. [read more]

Non-Compliance in Patients Research Paper

… Patient Noncompliance

Noncompliance in Patients

Advanced Practice Nursing represents a partnership between the patient and service provider. Many times the success of the treatment plan depends on the patient taking responsibility for compliance with certain prescribed actions. Examples of these actions include taking prescribed medication as directed, following a certain diet, or following an exercise regimen. If a patient does not follow the treatment plan, it can jeopardize the outcome of the treatment. Many physicians and other medical practitioners now view patient noncompliance as a breach of the relationship.

The practice of "firing" patients that do not follow recommended advice is becoming more common. This research will explore the practice of terminating patients for lack of compliance to prescribed medical treatments. It will explore the…. [read more]

Quality of Life Among Tawau Research Paper

… On the other hand, the tibia has two sockets (slightly cup-shaped) to meet the femoral condyles. A healthy knee alignment has femoral condyles that rest evenly on the tibia as well as applying evenly to both sides. However, knee deformity could lead to asymmetrical force distributions. A valgus (knock-kneed) deformity occurs when the knees closer together than normal. These deformities could lead to asymmetrical degeneration of the knee cartilage leading to osteoarthritic knee.

On the other hand, knee OA could occur due to the problem with the backbone.

Backbone of an individual is made of combination of bone structure. The backbone is generally referred as vertebral column that supports the body weight, and 33 vertebrae bone are made up of vertebra column. Apart from the…. [read more]

End Stage Renal Disease Term Paper

… End Stage Renal Disease

End-Stage Renal Disease


This study addresses a patient named 'George White', born 7/15/1950. He is married to Donna White, born 1/5/65, and has two children: Jamal (male), born 9/25/92, and Rasheeda (female), born 7/11/97. Mr. White has a 2nd daughter and two grandchildren. His oldest child Kia, from prior relationship, was born 10/23/70, and she has 2 children: Kijay, born 6/18/90, and Quadir, born 8/14/96.

Summary of health problems/disease:

Medical history of patient George White: (a) Diabetes Type 2; (b) Hypertension; (c) Congestive heart failure; (d) Chronic hepatitis C; (e) end-stage renal disease (analysis topic); and (f) patient has been on Hemodialysis treatment since June, 2011.

Medical history of Patient

diabetes type 2


congestive heart failure

chronic hepatitis C…. [read more]

Hemodialysis on End Stage Renal Term Paper

… With this positive result of integrative care study, the combination between hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis treatments, nurses need to be aware of what best option is for the patients, knowing the symptoms that possibly occur, along with the different time given for each treatment.

Whether the patients are aware or not about their condition, it is advisable that the nurses give enough information about the option they have, along with each consequence related to the taken action. Patients then may take which option they prefer based on their condition, working schedule and daily activities. Also they will need to make option based on their financial constraints, although the government helps in some parts to pay for the expense.

However, in contrary to the research that…. [read more]

Physical Health of Mental Patients Using Antipsychotic Medication Essay

… Furthermore, there is a higher risk of antipsychotic induced prolactin elevation in the people who are carriers of the rs1800497 (Taq1A) A-allele of the dopamine D2 receptor gene ( Calarge et al., 2009 and Lopez-Rodriguez et al., 2011). This is due to the lower D2 receptor density in the striatum. Also, there is a possibility that the risk of increase in weight might occur by taking the antipsychotics as its use is linked to the polymorphism of the X-linked 5-HT2C serotonin receptor promoter gene rs3813929 (i.e., the absence of the T. allele) which is associated with weight gain (Reynolds et al., 2005, Risselada et al., 2011 and Ryu et al., 2007). Lastly, a relationship has been found to be present among the tragenic 5-HT2C serotonin…. [read more]

Hispanic Aggregate Term Paper

… Community Advocacy

One major challenge medical professionals today are facing is the growing incidence of kidney disease, not only in the general population, but especially among Hispanics. This population is one of the fastest-growing racial groups in the country. This group is also twice as likely to develop kidney failure as other racial groups. For a community nurse, this is of particular concern, especially in terms of strategies to help this population prevent the prevalence of kidney failure and its causes.

The disease among this population is of particular interest, since the researcher has worked in this area for a considerable period of time. During the initial stages of the project, in-depth research must therefore be conducted in order to determine the exact nature and…. [read more]

Preventing Kidney Failure Diabetes and Hypertension Dialysis Capstone Project

… Kidney Failure



Kidney Failure: Prevention When There Is No Cure

Kidney Failure: Prevention When There Is No Cure

As of 2007, an estimated 11% of Americans over the age of 20 have kidney disease (National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse, 2011). Kidney disease can lead to kidney failure if left untreated. Kidney failure occurs when the kidneys can no longer perform the blood-filtering role that they are intended for; therefore the toxins that would normally be removed from the blood accumulate in the body, causing downstream problems including further organ failure (Jacobs, 2009). Dialysis is a common treatment for people with kidney failure, yet of patients receiving dialysis, the morality rate is still approximately 50%…. [read more]

Kidney Transplant Thesis

… ¶ … kidney donation and renal availability: A utilization of literature review in nursing research

Living donors are clearly superior and more desirable for kidney transplantation for a variety of reasons, and though there are some medical and ethical concerns with living donor renal transplantation new innovations can greatly reduce risks to living donors (Nakamura et al. 2008; Testa et al. 2009). There have also been enormous gains in the rates of living donors worldwide, largely as a response to educational campaigns aimed at informing the public of the need for donation and the increasing ease of the surgery on donors (Mayor 2009; Horvat et al. 2009).

This easement on post-surgery recovery and life for living kidney donors is the result of several new techniques…. [read more]

Analysis of Patient Diagnosis Medical Studies Literature Review

… , 2015).

Summary of the conclusion and recommendations for further research

Respiratory events in the first phase of recovery and OSA are both connected to the high possibility of the administration of naloxone for opioid instigated pulmonary depression.

ii. Close monitoring

Close monitoring of high-risk opioid patients especially those in homecare is very important. When opioid painkillers are prescribed but the individual gets identified as a high-risk patient, treatment involving opioid might be cautiously tried with very close monitoring of the individual as well as specific measurable outcomes to gauge the efficiency and basis for continuing with the treatment.

Summary of the research questions posed by the studies

How do patterns of opioid prescription connect to overdose-related deaths in…. [read more]

Care Coordination Relating to Elderly Patients After Discharge From Emergency Room or Hospital Annotated Bibliography

… Care Coordination Relating to Elderly Patients With Congestive Heart Failure After Discharge From Emergency Room or Hospital Within 30 Days

A growing body of evidence supports the need for careful care coordination for elderly patients who suffer from congestive heart failure, diabetes, and/or hypertension for at least 30 days following their discharge from a hospital or emergency room. To determine the current best practices and guidance in this area, a summary of the relevant literature is provided below in an annotated bibliographic format, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.

Bisognano, M. & Boutwell, A. (2009). Improving transitions to reduce readmissions. Frontiers of Health Services Management, 25(3), 3-5.

Authors report that a growing body of research confirms the high…. [read more]

Ethical Decision 'Not to Resuscitate Essay

… It should be remembered that there is not a single kind of consent but many. Therefore, the doctors must see what sort of consent is applicable in a specific situation and then act accordingly (J., 2005).

First of all, the doctors and nurses should remember that the consent should always be in form of a typed paper. However, most of the times because of common practice and to save time many consultants just the verbal consent. Either way, consent should be proper and the doctor must only proceed if the patient agrees (Nandimath, 2009).

The kind of consent that the doctors are required to take from the patient in most of the cases is the informed consent. In this type of consent, the doctors tell…. [read more]

Teaching on the Cognitive Learning of Adult Term Paper

… ¶ … Teaching on the Cognitive Learning of Adult Kidney Transplant Recipients

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of individual and group teaching on the cognitive learning of adult kidney transplant recipients on an inpatient transplant unit.

Kidney transplant recipients have an abundance of learning needs after receiving their transplants. Patient education is a crucial aspect of the transplant nurse's role. Transplant recipients must learn follow-up instructions, signs of rejection and infection, medications and their side effects, urine testing procedures, and dietary and lifestyle modifications in order to ensure transplant viability and increased quality of life. It is important that the most effective method is used to teach this critical information. Patient education is widely documented in the literature, however little…. [read more]

Chronic Kidney Disease Term Paper

… ¶ … Department of Health and Human Services with respect to the issue of chronic kidney disease suggests that this condition has the potential to have considerable health ramifications for specific groups as well as overall public health. At a time when other chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease are being reduced, the incidence of chronic kidney disease is increasing. Further, the data demonstrates the individuals over the age of 75 are more susceptible to this condition. Given that almost one-third of the American population is poised to turn 65 chronic kidney disease represents an emerging health threat that must be addressed.

In an effort to improve health outcomes in this area, Department of Health and Human Services has developed its Healthy People (HP) 2010…. [read more]

Dialysis Among the Elderly Research Paper

… Nursing

Dialysis among the Elderly

The issues that surround the health of a person at the end of their life have started to attract growing attention over the last several years (Menec, Lix, Nowicki, and Ekuma, 2007). Many questions have been looked at surrounding this topic. Should older adults be able to choose to receive treatments that extend their lives? Are the treatments that they are available affecting the quality of life that these people are living? Are their alternatives that could be used instead? People who have renal disease often experience a decline in their state of health and the energy that is needed to keep up previously enjoyed activities (Curtis, Rothstein and Hong, 2009). The purpose of this paper is to conduct a…. [read more]

Nursing and Kidney Failure Term Paper

… In addition, age should be a modifying factor, especially in moderate kidney impairment. These changes would allow identification and treatment of clinically relevant disease and avoidance of what can seem exaggerated prevalence estimates." (Bauer, 2008) These insights are showing how the inability to accurately screen for the condition is compounding the problem. To deal with these challenges, a new approach must be taken. This will help to improve the accuracy of test results and identify the possible impacts on patients.

Relationship to Individual Advanced Role

This problem relates to advanced practice nursing, as these individuals are quickly becoming the primary care provider for the patient. This means that they will help with screening the person and discussing the condition with them / their families. During…. [read more]

IV Aspirin for Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients Research Proposal

… ¶ … Aspirin for Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients


Organization of the Study



Aspirin (ASA) has been known to influence the bleeding time of individuals who take aspirin and it this is presumably due to the inhibition of prostaglandis biosynthesis and the resultant platelet secretion time. All observations in man indicate that long-term ingestion of aspirin is associated with impaired platelet function and prolongation of the bleeding time. Patients with inadequate platelet inhibition by aspirin, which is commonly referred to as aspirin resistance, may have an increased risk of suffering cardiovascular events. Because of this, identification of these patients with aspirin resistance by measuring platelet function is of great interest. This…. [read more]

Hypertension Is Defined as Systolic Research Paper

… It also provides treatment guidelines for hypertension. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005, recommends an intake of no more than 1,500 mg/day. (Seventh Report of Join National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment, 2003)

Despite various campaigns and an increase in awareness on the effects of hypertension, there still seems to be a deficit in the knowledge of, who is included in the high risk group. Effective legislatures need to be implemented to control the risk factors. Media and educational institutes can also help in building enough motivation amongst the public in avoiding these potentially harmful factors that prevent appropriate quality of life. Moreover, educational institutes can impart rules to prevent in campus smoking. They can also keep students focused on extracurricular activities, along…. [read more]

Direct to Consumer Advertising History Term Paper


The National Institute for Health Care Management, a nonprofit watchdog agency, estimated that expenditures in pharmaceutical advertising in the U.S. grew from an estimated $55 million in 1991 to $2.5 billion in 2001. While the numbers seem exponential, the Institute points out that the ads represented merely 16% of the entire budget for drug promotions in 2001. A historic perception perpetuated by the drug industry is that costs are driven by expenditures in research and development. This has been considered a valid argument, as advances in drug research are indeed beneficial to humanity. However, recent examination of the industry's expenditures indicates that marketing (34.4%), not R&D (13.7%), comprise the lion's share of the industry's operating expenditures.

Families USA is a nonprofit…. [read more]

Comparison of Spect Lung Scintigraphy and Ctpa for the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Embolism Article Review


Pulmonary embolism or PE is the sudden blockage in a lung artery by a blood clot coming from a vein in the leg (NHLBI 2009). PE can permanently damage part of the lung due to lack of blood flow into the tissue, decrease oxygen level in the blood, or damage other organs from lack of sufficient oxygen. A large clot or too many clots can cause death. PE is often a complication of deep vein thrombosis or DVT. Other causes are resting after surgery, a long trip by car or airplane, and being bedridden for a long time. Men and women are equally at risk for PE, although risk doubles every 10 years after age 60. Most common signs and symptoms are…. [read more]

Cholesterol & Hypercholesterolemia Treatment Thesis

… Those with abnormal levels (total cholesterol more than 200 mg/dL or HDL less than 40 mg/dL), will go on to have a test called fasting lipid profile (in which the person being tested refrains from eating for 8 to 12 hours, usually overnight, prior to the test) (Anderson et al., 2001). The fasting test will indicate whether or not total cholesterol levels fall within the normal range (between 140 and 200 mg/dL), are moderately high (between 200 and 240 mg/dL), or if they are in the very high range (240 mg/dL or greater) (Anderson et al., 2001). This blood test also reveals the levels of LDL, HDL, and triglycerides; according to guidelines released by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP), the optimal level for LDL…. [read more]

Nursing: Comparative Critical Review Term Paper

… ¶ … Nursing: Comparative Critical Review

To analyze the most pertinent data from a review of literature concerning the problems following discharge after intensive care during the recovery period in the weeks following the discharge of the patient. Further to make a comparative critical review of the work "Problems Following Discharge after Intensive Care" written by Daffurn et al. (1994) and "Intensive and Critical Nursing Care" written by Scraggs et al. (2001)

Intensive Care Units are present in most institutions of medical care and are for the specific primary purpose of enabling round-the-clock care for the patients that are most ill and most in need of constant and scrutinized care while in the medical care facility. The period following the intensive care stay is often…. [read more]

Nice Standards Nice Compliance Literature Review

… All of these risk factors pose an additional risk for thrombosis. Complications that may additionally increase the risk for thrombosis may include a recent hip fracture or knee replacement or surgery which may increase immobility (DH, 2010). Factors that may impose an increased bleeding risk may include acquired bleeding disorders, use of certain medications including anticoagulants, acute stroke, thrombocytopenia, uncontrolled hypertension, inherited bleeding disorders including haemophilia, lumbar puncture during a recent epidural or spinal anesthesia, or other procedures that increase the risk of high bleeding (DH, 2010). These factors when combined dramatically increase the risk for VTE.

VTE Prevention and Implementation

Prevention is key to survival. The purpose of NICE is essentially, risk management, which falls in the category of prevention. Education and assessment are…. [read more]

Diabetes Evidence-Based Practice Essay

… At the same time, EBM has garnered critiques, particularly from social scientists, who question its underlying assumptions, impact on professional practice, and broad reinforcement of medical authority. Little empirical work has been done, however, to explore these concerns (Gabbay, 1999).

The term "evidence-based medicine" was formalized at McMaster University in the 1980s as part of a new approach to problem-based learning in medical education (Gabbay, 1999). Its philosophical roots, however, can be traced to the mid-nineteenth century when medicine began aggressively to position itself as a science. The concept has spread widely beyond medicine and is often referred to as evidence-based practice to encourage its adoption by diverse health disciplines such as nursing, midwifery, physiotherapy, psychology, and dietetics (Bogdan-Lovis and Sousa, 2006).

The founders of…. [read more]

Swedish Health Care System Essay

… If an individual is ill for more than 14 days, he or she will receive a slightly lower compensation from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency. After an individual has been sick for longer periods of time, their illness is assessed at various intervals for any change in their status and their payment is then adjusted according to their illness.

Most of the health care in Sweden is provided in health care centers staffed by doctors, nurses and other allied health staff. The fee chargeable in most centers ranges from SEK 100 to 200 depending on the county where the care is provided. There is however a maximum of SEK 300 in the case of specialist visit. The hospital stay fee per day is given as…. [read more]

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