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Race Standards From a Substantive Article Critique

… One of the most interesting components of this particular article, however, involved the discussion of how and why certain racial groups are identified by people. A host of factors for doing so were considered, including both actual and perceived benefits that could be gained from identifying with a potential group from a social standpoint. Additionally, there were political considerations as well -- such as the agendas of groups of people that were aiming to strengthen their factions and desired ends for producing a society devoid of race. Other factors that were taken into consideration in determining how and why people categorize themselves as part of a particular racial group have to do with who is doing the actual reporting -- which may vary depending on…. [read more]


Representative System of Government Research Proposal

… Arrest Rates. In 1990, more than 10 million criminal counts were logged. Although only comprising 12% of the general population, arrest rates for blacks were disproportionate for every offense except drunken driving. Blacks, for instance, accounted for 61.2% of all robbery arrests, 54.7% of the suspects arrested for murder and manslaughter, and 43.2% in cases of rape. (Interestingly enough, the annual victimization survey conducted by the Census Bureau found that only 33.2% of the women who said they had been raped identified their attackers as black. Because the race of the rapist does not seem to affect whether a report will be forthcoming, this disparity suggests that attacks by whites are less apt to lead to arrests) (Ayres & Steven, 2008).

The racial disparity in…. [read more]


Race and Psychology Term Paper

… This finding suggests that changes in either depressive symptoms or self-esteem are not due to past experiences of ethnic/racial discrimination or economic stress. This is consistent with other findings in the literature that show that for Asian-American youth ethnic/racial discrimination predicted current psychological functioning but not longitudinally, " (p.211).

The Impact of Racism on Psychology

The demonization of the word "racism" has created many problems in society and leave many in a sense of wonder about their place in society and how their race contributes to the cultural development of that collective. Racism implies that a judgment has been made depending on someone's race. Many times this innocuous mental process is never revealed or communicated in any way, but societies pressure to apply guilt to…. [read more]


Life Experience of Personal Care Research Proposal

… Diabetes is reported as "twice as common in American Indian and Alaska Native communities as in the general population (15.3% compared with 7.3%), and it is steadily increasing." (NIAMS, 2006 in: National Association of Chronic Disease Directors, 2012, p.3)

Methodology

The study conducted is to be a qualitative phenomenological study. Lester (2009) states "The purpose of the phenomenological approach is to illuminate the specific, to identify phenomena through how they are perceived by the actors in a situation. In the human sphere, this normally translates into gathering 'deep' information and perceptions through inductive, qualitative methods such as interviews, discussions and participant observation, and representing it from the perspective of the research participant(s). Phenomenology is concerned with the study of experience from the perspective of the…. [read more]


Tube as a Key ICT in Education Article

… ¶ … Tube as a Key ICT in Education

"Many educators believe that the act of creating content…is a valuable learning exercise… [YouTube] allows students to replace passive learning with active participation, where everyone has a voice, anyone can contribute, and the value lies less in the content itself than in the networks of learners that form around content and support one another…" (Skiba, 2007).

This research embraces several practical, creative and informational uses for the YouTube technologies to be integrated into educational, pedagogical settings.

Students today are as a rule very Web-savvy, and digital technologies are very easy for them to learn and navigate within. Whereas a few years ago students using online technologies were seen as "surfing the Web" or visiting Internet sites…. [read more]


Diversity in a Police Force Police Departments Research Proposal

… ¶ … Diversity in a Police Force

Police departments in the 21st century enjoy a level of technology that would make Dick Tracy envious, but they are also faced with several challenges that have made their jobs more difficult than ever. Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the nation's law enforcement community has been tasked with a number of responsibilities that further exacerbate the difficulty of their jobs, and immigration, the flow of illegal drugs and violent crime continue to plague the nation today. In this environment, identifying more effective approaches to the provision of policing represents a timely and important enterprise and represents the focus of this study. A growing body of evidence suggests that in an increasingly multicultural society, a police…. [read more]


Korotkoff Phase Term Paper

… The following key words were used to search the databases:

Hypertension

Pregnancy

Pre-eclampsia

Korotkoff Phases

Sphygmomanometry

Oscillometric

Auscultatory

Electronic/automated monitoring

Subject Population

The subject population of the literature review will be limited to studies reported in English concerning pregnant women in the United States.

Literature Review

Literature Selection and Identification

The literature reviewed for this project was conducted using the search terms noted above, in isolation and in combination. Based on the appropriateness of the identified research, the following literature was selected for inclusion in this study. As with many other areas of clinical research, there is a paucity of research concerning the appropriateness of which Korotkoff phase should be used as the endpoint for the measurement of diastolic blood pressure during pregnancy. Further complicating…. [read more]


concise Analysis of Research Methods Annotated Bibliography

… Phenomenological

Balls, P. (2009). Phenomenology in nursing research: methodology, interviewing and transcribing. Nursing Times, 105(31)

This paper gives a description of how phenomenological study methods are used in the nursing field. The writers assert that nurses are conversant with the phenomenological method since they view it as discussing nursing values. However, this is probably not enough to uses as the basis for this type of study. With regard to my personal study experience, this paper aimed at evaluating the factors that attract nurses to phenomenological approaches as well as why they believe the methods suit them. In addition, it gives practical advice about how to undertake a successful interview, what and how to transcribe as well as how to utilize quotes to enhance research.

Grounded…. [read more]


What Happened in France in 1816 Term Paper

… ¶ … French Colonialism in Western Africa

The so-called Bourbon restoration, which lasted from roughly 1814 to 1830, saw the end of Napoleon's reign as well as the beginning of the end for the empire he established, because although the true end of France's colonial aspirations would not come until the twentieth century, Napoleon's reign was the high-water mark for France as a global imperial power. Thus, the Bourbon restoration, while representing the return of the monarchy, was also a period of distinct imperial decline wherein French power, both military and cultural, evaporated. When looking at the first few years of the Bourbon restoration, one can see the beginnings of this almost inevitable decline even as the restored monarchy attempted to portray itself with the…. [read more]


Namely, Evaluating the Structure of the Research Term Paper

… ¶ … namely, evaluating the structure of the research upon which scientific conclusion are drawn. More specifically, the function of a research article is to inform readers about the problem being investigated, the methods used to solve the problem, the results of the investigation, and the conclusions being inferred from the results. The printed manuscript is to inform the reader, as expeditiously as possible, what was done, the outcome of the doing, and the investigator's conclusion.

In addition to the above, research reports must be succinct, objective, and crystalline. The ultimate test of an excellent research report is in its ability to be replicated by those who read it. If this criterion cannot be met, then the report is inadequate. The remainder of this review…. [read more]


Complexities of Doing Business Term Paper

… Enumerate and briefly explain the research question(s) to be answered and identify the policy, practice, or theory issues to be addressed. List specifically the major research questions, and any sub-questions under each major question.

c. Describe the frame of reference & identify the theoretica1/conceptual (or other) frame of reference, which is the context of the study. Summarize the elements of the rationale for the study and its design briefly here.

d. Provide a brief overview of your date sources and data analysis plans (research design), including procedures for collecting, organizing, and analyzing the data. Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria- list specific eligibility requirements for subjects, including those criteria which would exclude otherwise acceptable subjects.

e. State your expected results - provide a brief summary of what…. [read more]


U.S. Residents Want a Society Research Proposal

… During this period, the U.S. median household income fluctuated but experienced an overall increasing trend. A Gini index of 0.46 in 2007 is half of the average relative difference (0.92) in average income between any two U.S. households chosen at random. The relative difference in average income is the absolute difference in average income ($64,590) between any two households divided by the average income for all households ($70,207) (28).

HALex. HALex provides one individual-level measure of HRQL that can be used to monitor health status as well as examine inequalities in morbidity across time and groups. HALex provides a numerical measure that combines information on self-rated health and activity limitation reported in nationally representative surveys (29,30). HALex scores can theoretically range from 1.00 for persons…. [read more]


Substance Abuse Patterns of NCAA Student-Athletes Article Critique

… ¶ … substance abuse patterns of NCAA student-athletes" for a wide range of substances both legal and illegal (p. 51 Abstract). The abstract is broken into sections for objective, design, participants, main outcome measures, results and conclusion. This format is easy to follow and allows the reader to understand immediately all of the important information about the study.

The introduction itself (p.51) provides a clear outline of the issue, providing valuable background and contextual information. The introduction is well-written. The study is given ample justification, e.g. "This information is potentially helpful in designing educational and drug-testing programs for college-age athletes." The purpose of the study is outlined clearly. The study does not make clear the variables that will be involved; the study is framed more…. [read more]


Examining Nonprofit Human Services Employees Intentions to Leave Employment Literature Review

… ¶ … Nonprofit Human Services Employees' Intentions to Leave Employment

The Literature Review section plays a dual part within the current endeavor. On the one hand, it collects the relevant information in the specialized literature and centralizes it in a single, integrated and unified chapter. The information as such collected is relevant and useful not only for the current study, but also for other research endeavors. In other words, the current section retrieves the most important findings in the literature related to employment in the not-for-profit sector and constitutes a new theoretical and integrated approach of the topic.

On the other hand, the section represents the starting point in the completion of the current study. This virtually means that the review of the available literature…. [read more]


School-Based Mental Health Program on Emotional Intelligence Research Proposal

… ¶ … school-based mental health program on emotional intelligence, social behaviors, psychopathology and academic performance of inner- city [at -risk / African-American] adolescents

The need for school-based mental health programs in inner-city schools.

The issue of the need for school-based mental health programs in schools, and particularly in inner-city schools, is an issue that has raised a wide range of views, research and opinions. There are many variables to consider in this context, such as race and ethnicity as well as social environment and a host of other concomitant aspects. As a study by Nabors, Reynolds and Weist, (2000) in this area states;

Expanded school mental health (ESMH) programs, involving the provision of comprehensive mental health services for youth in special and regular education, are…. [read more]


Rural vs. Urban Health Care Disparities Dissertation

… Health Care Disparity in Maryland

Context of the Problem

Unsettling Disparities Occur

Approximately 1,600,000 individuals who live in Maryland either do not have access to healthcare as they cannot afford insurance and/or are underinsured.



In "Health care reform: a vital issue for Maryland's nurses," Anne S. Kasper and Leni Preston (2008) stress this unsettling fact, as they point out that Maryland ranks number 24 in the United States in the number of uninsured residents. Fifteen percent of Maryland's population, almost 800,000 people, in fact, is not insured. The significance of the fact relating to those who do not have access to healthcare, Kasper, and Preston (2008) assert, increases as this magnificent number of individuals without access to healthcare does…. [read more]


Current Recession Thesis

… Recession and African-Americans in the Metropolitan Area

THE RECESSION AND African-AmericanS

IN THE METROPOLITAN AREA

"Researchers use the scholarly literature in a study to present results of similar studies, to relate the present study to an ongoing dialogue in the literature and to provide a framework for comparing results of a study with other studies"

John W. Creswell (2008, p. 45).

Even though the "literature" the researcher utilizes in literature review constitutes any collection of materials relating to a topic; not automatically the world's great literary texts, as Literature Reviews (2007) asserts, for this study's literature review, the researcher, as John W. Creswell (2008) notes in his book, In Research Design, primarily utilizes the scholarly literature for this segment's framework.

Along with serving as the…. [read more]


Achievement Gap Research Proposal

… Achievement Gap

"Go into any inner-city neighborhood, and folks will tell you that government alone can't teach kids to learn.

They know that parents have to parent, that children can't achieve unless we raise their expectations and turn off the television sets and eradicate the slander that says a black youth with a book is acting white."

Barack Obama, Keynote Address, Democratic National Convention, 2004

(Fryer, 2006, ¶ 1).

Literature Review Organization

The researcher's engagement with the literature, according to Henry N. Kemoni (2008), PhD, Senior Lecturer at the School of Information Sciences, Moi University, Kenya, in the report, "Theoretical framework and literature review in graduate records management research," factors into whether or not the literature review proves successful. In writing their literature review chapter,…. [read more]


Attitude and Behavior Developmental Task Term Paper

… ATTITUDE and BEHAVIOR DEVELOPMENTAL TASK NEEDED to ASSIST African-American COLLEGE STUDENTS WITH DEVELOPING a CLEAR COMMITMENT to SUCCEED AFTER COLLEGE

There is an acknowledged identity crisis present in the African-American race due to the high rates of incarceration and low education achievements. The college environment serves to influence the development required in the self-identity transition toward the self-actualization of the individual in gaining a view of identity characterized by achievement. There is a delay in achievement associated with the failure to accept self or group identity. This work will illustrate that attitude is linked to talk development and behavioral adjustment which is part of the requirement for making the commitment for achievement in educational attainment. Principles of military discipline and leadership will also be reviewed…. [read more]


Ethical Issues in Group Counseling Research Paper

… Ethical Issues in Group Counseling

Any counseling scenario introduces a variety of ethical issues because counseling involves human beings who are frequently at their most vulnerable, seeking help and advice from human beings who are fallible. What complicates the ethical rules and norms that surrounding counseling scenarios is that the relationship between the counselor and the client is central to the efficacy of the counseling. Rules that stifle the development of an organic, helpful relationship can stifle the goal of counseling. However, there are clearly rules that must be followed to ensure that the client is protected from counselors who may act in an unethical manner. The very fact that counselors and clients enter into unique, personal relationships as part of the therapeutic process can…. [read more]


Teen Pregnancy Study Thesis

… Teen Pregnancy Study

Study into the Impact of Parental Communication and Parenting Styles on Teen Pregnancy: Comparison with the Impact of Demographic Variables

It has been suggested by statistical evidence that teenage pregnancy rates have been declining in recent years, declining by 28% between 1990 and 2002. However, with 750,000 teens still falling pregnant each year (Guttmacher Institute, 2006), teen pregnancy remains a major issue in U.S. public health. The importance of lowering teen pregnancy rates is critical given the negative consequences so often associated with the condition. For example teenage mothers are associated with greater rates of neonatal and infant mortality, and also major neonatal morbidities, when compared with women in the 20 to 29 years age group (Gilbert et al., 2004). In addition,…. [read more]


Domestic Violence Research Paper

… Kolbo, Blakely, and Engleman (1996) also reported that studies measuring the differences in physical health between children exposed to domestic violence and those from nonviolent homes did not find evidence of a causal link between exposure to violence and health problems in the children. Recent research has looked at more specific measures of emotional and cognitive functioning and how being exposed to domestic violence affects these domains.

Animal models have suggested that exposure to stress at a young age is associated with reductions in cortical volume. Koenen et al. (2003) assessed IQs for a sample of 1,116 monozygotic and dizygotic five-year-old twin pairs in England whose mothers reported experiencing domestic violence in the previous five years. The children who had been exposed to high levels…. [read more]


Multiculturalism in Europe With Special Dissertation

… ¶ … Multiculturalism in Europe With Special Reference to Germany

The issue of multiculturalism has been the focus to the political concerns of European nations since nineteen forty five. The problem of multiculturalism covers numerous issues, which predominates differ with different political situations. Multiculturalism mirrors concerns regarding immigration and the manner in which immigrants settled in Western Europe between 1950s and 1960s. Following the break-up of communism in nineteen eight nine, and the rebellion of ethnic nationalism in the Eastern Europe, the problem of multiculturalism centered around devolution of power from central national governments to regionally sub-national groups and the probabilities of power-sharing at the centre. Multiculturalism was also linked to the developing numbers of political refugees, and in the wake of terrorists attacks in…. [read more]


Teen Pregnancy and Parenting on the Educational Research Proposal

… ¶ … teen pregnancy and parenting on the educational advancement of a girl child in Buea-Cameroon

In the past 3 decades, there has been an ever increasing interest in the link between lower educational advancements of teenage mothers and adolescents who get pregnant. Numerous studies have confirmed that higher levels of teenage pregnancy are directly linked to higher levels of educational abandonment (Albert, B., Sarah and Christine, 2003; Singh and Darroch, 2000; Federal/Provincial/Territorial Advisory Committee on Population Health, 1999; Galambos and Tilton-Weaver, 1998). This level of consistency has led many researchers to believe that there is a definite and interdependent relation between the two amongst the youth (The Alan Guttmacher Institute, 2000; 1999a, 1999b, 1999c; The Real Costs of Teen Pregnancy, 2006; Social Exclusion Unit,…. [read more]


Drives Punitive Beliefs Brian K Term Paper

… The research review section of Payne, et al.'s report is by far its greatest strength. In the course of the literature review, the authors take care to point out reasons for differences and inconsistencies in study results, rather than simply stating that conflicting results were found. For example on page 197 they cite methodological differences between studies as one potential explanation for conflicting evidence. The authors also took care to speculate about potentially different theoretical frameworks underlying past research. In fact, the authors' ability to thoroughly and fearlessly incorporate issues of theory alongside empirical research makes "What Drives Punitive Beliefs" an exemplary work of scholarship. The authors also dutifully point out the gaps in past research and provide reasons for undertaking their study on punitive…. [read more]


Criticisms of Psychology Essay

… ¶ … discipline of psychology is often challenged in its entirety through a variety of concepts. The very concepts that it preaches are the very concepts that marks some of its weakest links. This paper extensively evaluates by way of extant literature the various criticisms and misunderstandings that are related to psychology. In order to fully cover these redundancies on the discipline of psychology. We evaluate the criticism of artificiality with a particular attention to abnormal psychology, social psychology and organizational psychology. In addition to above, we compare and contrast the various breakthrough models in the field of scientific research together with the principles of connectivity in the process of explaining the various events and their possible outcomes. Finally we evaluate the concept of single-cause…. [read more]


Divorce on the Lives Term Paper

… To draw a conclusion, I compared children in the two samples (divorced and intact) on key variables known to be associated with both divorce and adjustment, including the five discussed in the literature review. The effects of divorce were examined through a series of questions on how children viewed their personal and family lives.

Using the answers to the 30 questions, I assessed the information in the form of a t-test. The top part of the ratio represented the difference between the two means or averages of the questionnaire results. The bottom part measured the variability or dispersion of the scores. The t-value will be positive if the first mean is larger than the second and negative if it is smaller. The t-test will determine…. [read more]


Examine the Observation That Refugees of Today Are Essentially an Urban Phenomenon Term Paper

… ¶ … refugees of today are essentially an urban phenomenon critical examination of the observation that refugees of today are essentially an urban phenomenon

The problem and the phenomenon of refugees in the world have become increasingly related to urban areas and the urban environment. This is particularly problematic in regions such as Southern Africa where refugees tend to gravitate towards the urban area. In many cases, the urban management systems and cultural context cannot cope with the influx of refugees. This has resulted in a particular set of problems in Africa as well as in other regions of the world where refugees exist in the urban context. However, as will be discussed, these problems are not ubiquitous and different situations exist in developed countries…. [read more]


Theory Classical Psychoanalysis Term Paper

… "

Another characteristic assumption to the strengths approach is that people also have the necessary information that is relevant to them in defining their personal situations, both with reference to the problematic aspects, as well as to the potential solutions. This knowledge may be useful in prefiguring a patient's future. The social worker sees an opportunity when observing a client's resourcefulness and perseverance in managing a difficult situation. The strengths approach enables social workers to encourage clients to define and attribute meaning to their situations. Simply listening to and accepting the client's opinion is a recognition of the client's capacity and the quantity of internal knowledge of the situation (Weick, 1983; Weick & Pope, 1988, sources cited by Early, GlenMaye).

Consumers of social work services…. [read more]


Medical Anthropology Term Paper

… Alternative Medicine

Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Altshuler, Larry

2004 Balanced Healing: Combining Modern Medicine & Safe & Effective Alternative Therapies. Gig Harbor, WA: Harbor Press.

A reference guide for anyone who wants to benefit from alternative healing methods, without replacing the advanced benefits of contemporary medicine. Dr. Altshuler, with 25 years of experience in alternative medicine, divides the book into two sections, and gives readers a holistic approach to health care. The first section addresses the types of experiences one might encounter from both conventional and alternative medicine. This is done via a comparison of advantages, issues, benefits and risks of both approaches. The second section within the book serves as a desk reference for most common ailments, with corresponding treatment protocols for each. This…. [read more]

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