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Psychology Essay

… Both positive and cognitive psychology uses the scientific technique to clarify the association that is among reasoning and behavior. Meanwhile positive psychology could couple with any other methods, cognitive psychology has lived without argument for practically four periods (Sweetland, 2009). In the 21st century, progress and technology go hand-in-hand; as a result, the formation of artificial intelligence will probable outcome in new theories concerning thought.

Theories of Psychology

There are a lot of theories in psychology that are examined for instance the theories of Gestalt psychology where he says "Humans are psychologically troubled and frequently intensely distressed by inequity, disorder, disorder, tension and battles…We are contented merely when we feel in symmetry, that is, control and in balanced." (Barnes, 2008) These two statements label the…. [read more]

Psychology - Counseling Race and Ethnicity Term Paper

… Psychology - Counseling; Race & Ethnicity

Psychology - Counseling;

Race and Ethnicity

The Cost of Whiteness" (Thandeka)

Thandeka exudes a level of conceptive development in "The Cost of Whiteness," regarding the progression of racial perception as it pertains to the Caucasian ethnicity. In detailing the allowance of assumptions that sustain such bigotry, the teachings that maintain ignorance and the subtle teachings that promote racism, Thandeka describes the inner-workings of society among whites that distinguishes in cost; the many attributing factors that subject the level of thinking that surrounds racially biased consideration.

The concepts of "whiteness," as they appear to me in 'The Cost of Whiteness,' are poorly labeled and derive an understanding that is misleading. The term 'whiteness' that is used throughout the authors dissertation…. [read more]

Race Is a Sensitive Issue Essay

… Race is a sensitive issue in the United States, because of the tumultuous history of the nation. Normalizing race relations depends in large part on coming to terms with how race and identity are linked. Race relations have also led to strained interpersonal communications. For example, an APA Press Release (2008) revealed that whites avoid mentioning race when in the presence of persons of color. Moreover, "whites' effort to appear colorblind backfired," as persons of color viewed their avoidance as clocked prejudice ("Seeing Race and Seeming Racist?" 2008). Therefore, being color-blind is neither possible nor desirable. Research shows that "despite society's best attempt to ignore race, the research indicates that race does matter," ("Psychological Research Reveals Fallacies in a Color-Blind Response to Racism" 2009).

Mills…. [read more]

Race, IQ and Intelligence in Debunking Term Paper

… Race, IQ and Intelligence

In debunking what can only be regarded as myths concerning a link between race, IQ and intelligence, particularly with regard to an imaginary "white-black gap," there are several places to begin. However, one must first define the terms IQ (intelligence quotient) and intelligence. Once that is done, however, it then it becomes clear that any correlation between two or three of those factors is, indeed, imaginary, or at least constructed by various philosophers and scientists to uphold their biases.

Defining IQ and intelligence

There are two requirements for defining IQ adequately for the current purposes. First, IQ does not measure racial characteristics. It does not "measure an individual phenotypic character like height or weight; it is a measure of the rank…. [read more]

Race and Cultural Minorities Two Term Paper

… As she damned his choices of politically incorrect racial challenges to the black 'race' of America, social activists on both sides of the aisle stepped up. Cosby's speech itself was received with some laughter and applause, and some wonder if he might have in fact been right. (Dyson, 4.) Nevertheles, Ehrenreich's fast retort with factual solidification proves the supporting evidence to Cosby's claims unsubstantiated, making his arguments invalid de facto. A year after the public debate, the facts at hand are no longer what is important though, but that the conversation existed at all.

The summer of 2005 brought with it another early 1990s full-frontal exposure to the beast that is the actualized version of race in America. Hurricane Katrina and the ensuing flood of…. [read more]

Race and the Workforce: Occupational Status, Aspirations Article Review

… Race and the Workforce: Occupational Status, Aspirations, and Stereotyping among African-American Children)

The purpose of the present paper is to provide a critical review of an article written by Rebecca S. Bigler, Cara J. Avenhart and Linn S. Liben, called "Race and the workforce: occupational status, aspirations and stereotyping between African-American children." There has been a lot of interest to discover the manner in which racial prejudice touches people's lives, especially in the case of the categories which are usually worst affected, namely the African-Americans. The purpose of this research article was to see if the perceptions held by African-American children regarding occupational status and their vocational interests were somehow influenced by the racial segregation of the workforce.

The researchers wished to see whether the…. [read more]

Race Ethnicity in the 18th Century Term Paper

… Racism

Race/Ethnicity in the 18th Century

A Comparative Analysis of Racism in Country Lovers and What it's Like to be a Black Girl

The practice of racism and the fight against it have been the most defining phenomena of the twentieth century. The twentieth century witnessed the end of colonialism all over the world as imperialism powers receded to their home countries. Prior to that racism was the foundation of the political policies of many western states (Lentin, 2011). Racism in the United States came to an end through the civil rights movement spearheaded by Martin Luther King Jr. A few decades later, the apartheid in South Africa came to an end through the struggles of Nelson Mandela, ushering in a new era of freedom…. [read more]

Race and Culture Albert Camus Essay

… Race and Culture

Albert Camus, in an interview, once noted "If one lives in a country where racism is held valid and practiced in all ways of life, eventually, no matter whether one is a racist or a victim, one comes to feel the absurdity of life."

Beyond historical facts lies the way humans tend to interact towards one another, in particular, their overall justification for racism. Practices in psychology, for instance, reflected the curious fascination Europeans and European-Americans had with race and skin color. The institutional oppression that existed within the field of psychology was perpetuated by applications of pseudoscience, politics, and propaganda. All this presupposition trapped society in the very grip of Camus' view of institutional racism -- supporting the notion that one…. [read more]

Psychology Emerging Issues in Multicultural Essay

… Psychology

Emerging Issues in Multicultural Psychology

It is apparent that the old rules in psychology have moved away from a monocultural to a multicultural basis and that these new rules recognize both an appreciation of differences as well as an understanding of the inherent ambiguity and complexity in psychological practice. One issue is the sensitivity to the impact of cultural, disability and diversity factors on the competence of a psychologist. Psychologists should not have to provide services when they lack needed knowledge and when scientific or professional knowledge has established that a certain understanding of age, gender, gender identity, race, ethnicity, culture, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, disability, language, or socioeconomic status is essential in order for effective services to be delivered. It is evident…. [read more]

Psychology Sensation and Perception Work Together Term Paper

… Psychology

Sensation and perception work together to help us see the world. Most people use these terms as interchangeable concepts. However, they are separate functions and each compliments the other.

Sensation is the process that allows the body to take in the stimuli from outside of it. For example, when we smell cooking, it is our sense of smell that sends the information to our brain. Our five senses are smell, sight, touch, taste and sound. If all of our senses are working, we cannot possibly sense everything around us. We may taste some of the ingredients of a prepared dish, but not all of them. The same applies to all of the senses. We hear some of the sounds around us, but because of…. [read more]

Psychology Personality Albert Bandura's Observational Essay

… Operant conditioning is a form of learning which happens by either rewarding or punishing someone for a certain behavior. It is in its simplest terms a way of changing ones behavior. (Feist & Feist, 2009)

When behaviors are desired, they are reinforced positively or in other words rewarded so that the particular desired behavior is repeated in the future. Positive reinforcement is as if something is being added to your behavior and hence the likelihood of it being repeated again. There are different kinds of positive reinforcers which are used to increase the occurrence of behaviors. However, it is important to realize the situation in which an individual is in should be used to determine which reinforce is being used. There are natural reinforcers which…. [read more]

Race and Racism Essay

… Despite this overlap, Eriksen is cautious about conflating the two ideas. He believes that "both class differences and ethnic differences can be pervasive features of societies, but they are not one and the same thing and must be distinguished from one another analytically" (Eriksen, 1993, p.7).

Eriksen also challenges the idea of the American melting pot. He suggests that ethnic groups have long adhered to an ethnic identity in addition to identify as Americans and that this ethnic identification can last for multiple generations after the original family members first moved to the United States. Moreover, ethnic group identifications, which were once thought to be more primitive ways of self-identification, seem to be linked to more advanced societies. That does not mean that ethnicity is…. [read more]

Self and Social Psychology Research Paper

… The persuading Self desires to evoke harmony between the message and the audience Self. This is the basic concept behind the power of persuasion and all persuasive techniques: the establishment of harmony between message and audience.

Obedience and Conformity -- What factors lead us to be obedient and to conform?

Obedience and conformity are modes of behavior and belief which are influenced by the way the Self perceives both itself and Others. As the Self comes to identify itself with a particular group or creed or ideology, it may make an effort to conform to that group's behavioral norms and/or sense of identity. The Self is more likely to obey the tenets of a belief system or the laws of a State when it identifies…. [read more]

Clinical Psychology Mental Health Essay

… The clinical psychologist focuses on examinee or patient by diagnosing mental disorders and suggesting treatment while the role of forensic psychologist holds a more objective stand because his/her client is attorney or court and not the examinee. Due to the forensic setting priority is given to the precise information as compared to the perspective of examinee. As opposed to this the role of clinical psychologist is to focus on the well being of the patient or individual coming to the clinic for counselling. The clinical psychologist provides assistance to the examinee with diagnosis of mental health issue and recommending clinician for improving the examinee's mental health performance. Due to difference in the role the forensic psychologist is required to take safety measures while informing the…. [read more]

Discipline Social Psychology Essay

… This sub-field- Social Psychology- examines what tends to shape people, how we tend to react in social situation, how we form and express attitudes and beliefs about the world, how we attribute causes to phenomena, conformity and racism.

Personality psychology is a disjoined area of probe, but is more and more combined with Social Psychology. The focus of Personality in direct contrast to Social is on qualities we are born with or that form that are maintained across situations and over time. The psychology of Personality tends to examine how people differ from one another whereas Social Psych. will emphasize general laws of behavior or how humans, on average, react to various situations (Howard, 2000).

Difference between Social Psychology and Sociology

While social is the…. [read more]

Race, Crime, and Punishment Has Been Highly Reaction Paper

… ¶ … race, crime, and punishment has been highly acrimonious and contentious since the establishment of the republic. Although there has never been any widely held consensus as to whether or not sanctions against certain races and minorities are more severe than against white members of society, there have been a number of studies conducted that attempt to measure the perceptions of different groups in society regarding the perception that blacks and other minorities are treated differently by the legal system than whites are and that this perception is that the system is both biased and unfair toward blacks and other minorities. The studies that have been conducted, however, have suffered from two major problems First, the studies largely fail to consider both criminal and…. [read more]

Psychology Throughout Its History Essay

… This led Darwin to believe that facial expressions, such as smiling and frowning, could be cultural responses rather than instinctive ones. While physiological responses to danger could be the result of ancient evolution, some of the responses we display today could be the result of cultural evolution rather than instinct. While Darwin never had the opportunity to gather enough evidence to support his view, his work was continued by other psychologists. Only in the 1970s were psychologists able to establish that the facial expressions and even posture triggered by certain emotional states were indeed instinctive across the human race, regardless of culture or personal history.

Evolutionary psychology plays a role when the individual learns to override inappropriate instinctual responses by means of control mechanisms. Not…. [read more]

Special Populations Profession Psychology Essay

… 3% of the 90,000 doctoral level psychologists were Asian; "and "Asian-Americans born in the United States are at higher risk for mental illness as a result of assimilating to American culture and its clashes with Asian values, usually enforced by elder family members" (Asian-Americans need culturally competent mental health care, 2012, APA).

Latino-Americans may face similar barriers because of the common cultural belief in the need to treat problems within the family, rather than through the field of psychiatry. The strong influence of religion on Latino culture can likewise be an important influence in reducing the tendency of the members of the population to seek treatment. "Mexican-Americans often perceive lives and health as being under the control of God" (Eggenberger, Grassley, & Restrepo 2006). Populations…. [read more]

Self-Conception Social Psychology Conceptualization Term Paper

… Since the human being has that constant sense of self in their lives, the emotional events therefore normally involve the complex self. It is worth noting though that there are some emotional events that do not need complex evaluation of self for instance fear at the sight of danger or joy upon receiving a call of having won lottery. However, taking into account the ever-present nature of the self, the winner of the lottery is bound to reappraise their win and make corresponding self-evaluation and come with conclusions like they are good in picking the numbers or tag some lucky number to an event in their daily lives hence creating some self-esteem out of the joy turning it into pride (a self-conscious emotion).

Taking the…. [read more]

Race: Hazards and Benefits Corporeal Term Paper

… Based on recent trends and the findings of the above studies, the life expectancy of African-American males should continue to increase due to increasing incarceration rates. The Bureau of Justice Statistics predicts that 1 in 3 African-American males born in 2007 are expected to spend time in prison during their lifetime (Bonczar, 2003). By comparison, only 1 in 17 White males born at the same time are predicted to have the same fate. Race can therefore manifest corporeally in the form of dramatic changes in life expectancy.

Race Defined

The anthropologist John Shea (2011) argued recently that the differences between races are an arbitrary and useless distinction scientifically or socially. From his perspective, humans that lived two million years ago were just as capable as…. [read more]

Race on Aggression Research Proposal

… (1996), the aggressiveness of the bump, angry expression, and mumbled statement will be assessed by the observers.

Statistical Analysis -- Analysis of variance (ANOVA) will be used to determine if there is an interaction between race and setting (public/private); between race and the three categories of annoyed, verbal, and verbal + bump; race and gender; and gender and setting. For comparisons between two categories or subcategories, the students t test, two-tailed, will be used. An alpha of .05 will be used for all comparisons.


The design of this study is intended to determine whether persons with different racial identities react to insults and minor acts of aggression differently. The independent variables for this study are race, private or public setting, and the three categories…. [read more]

Psychology: Identification With a Group Term Paper

… When people are too close to one another - either physically or emotionally - they lack personal space and this makes them distinctly uncomfortable because people are "wired" to have space that belongs only to them (Tajfel & Turner, 1979). However, if one allows those people to expand their personal space beyond what the majority of people need to survive and be comfortable, those people then begin to develop a territory. If that territory is later challenged - through physical or mental ways - the person may fight back and attempt to hold that territory, even though it is much more than the person actually needs (Tajfel & Turner, 1986).

People understand the need to develop a territory in some instances (like sales, for example)…. [read more]

Psychology Subjective Reality What Is Reality? Thesis

… Psychology

Subjective Reality

What is reality? This is a question that philosophers, students, and reflective people have been asking for years. Although some argue that reality is what is in front of us, it's not always that easy. For instance, the author of "The Quantum Brain" argues that knowledge is created when a person makes an observation. In other words, the author argues that it is the questions that scientists ask that seem to call phenomena into existence. Richard Dawkins, on the other hand, argues that the universe is queerer than we can assume, suggesting that individuals are composed of atoms that are constantly in motion and make curious use of space. For this reason, it seems difficult to realize that an object such as…. [read more]

Post-Modern to Contemporary Psychology Research Paper

… Post-Modern to Contemporary Psych

Psychology: Post-modern to Contemporary

From its foundation as a separate science from philosophy and biology, psychology has been a dynamic and ever evolving discipline with ongoing debate as to how to explain and describe behavior and the human mind. Many attribute the beginning of psychology as a separate discipline to German physiologist Wilhelm Wundt, during the mid-1800's, with his study of human consciousness. Since that time, there have been a number of theories and schools of thought that have served to shape contemporary psychology, and to inform many related fields such as Criminal Justice. Whereas psychologists and philosophers of the past utilized various methods such as logic and observation to define, study, and draw conclusions regarding thought and behavior, modern day…. [read more]

Diversity and Psychology Derived Essay

… The assessment is taken like this because all of these different factors ultimately have an impact on the patient's thoughts and behaviors and whether they can get better in a treatment paradigm, which may include physical therapy. If the patient is not fluent in English and that type of environment provides a sense of worry and anxiety for the elderly patient, which is a diversity issues that needs to be taken into consideration. This treatment consideration should ultimately translate into a psychological treatment intervention that maybe that the patient should have at home physical therapy visits, as this would create less anxiety for this patient and would yield a better medical outcome. Without the consideration of the diversity factor for the psychologist, then the anxiety…. [read more]

John Dower War Without Mercy Essay

… Race and World War II: The Racial Hatred between Japanese and Americans Fueled a Merciless War

When one thinks of racism in World War II, one automatically sees images of Hitler's Nazi Germany. The German genocide of Jews in Europe was one of the biggest racial tragedies of the modern world. However, it was not the only racial hate that was fueling cruelty and oppression during the context of World War II. As John Dower presents in his work War without Mercy: Pacific War, it is clear that there were extremely high racial tensions between the Japanese and the United States which were perpetuated by the military and media's of each respective nation. This extreme xenophobia and racism then led to an increase in wartime…. [read more]

Political Psychology Essay

… (Cottam, 2010, pp. 173 -- 174)

Symbolic racism is when a person believes a blanket set of views about a particular group of people. Over the course of time, these kinds of ideas can lead to changes in beliefs about various minorities in society. This is the point that these kinds of views will become that of society itself and a part of the status quo. (Cashmore, 2001, pg. 221)

A good example of this can be seen in the Deep South, after the end of the Civil War until the mid-1960's. What was occurring; is the views that Southern society had about slaves (before the Civil War) influenced these ideas for many decades after the conflict ended. The reason why is because, symbolic racism…. [read more]

Social Psychology Cognitive Dissonance Term Paper

… Social Psychology

Cognitive dissonance

This is the feeling that one has within them when they hold two conflicting feelings or thoughts within them at the same time. This usually highlights the importance of the subject within us. Dissonance is said to be strongest when we believe one thing within us and do directly the opposite. It is also said to be strongest when it concerns our self-image like feelings of immorality, foolishness, respect and so on (Rudolph F.M., 2013). The strategy that I will use to encourage people to buy into the idea of recycling will be more of a social campaign. This will be aimed at educating every member of the residence hall on the benefits of recycling, giving them the actual figures of…. [read more]

Organizational Behavior (Psychology) Applied Comprehension Organizational Psychologists Term Paper

… Organizational Behavior (Psychology)

Applied Comprehension

Organizational Psychologists continually seek the creation of relevant approaches for the application of organizational psychological principles. Central to the application of Industrial Organizational psychological principles, as an emergent approach, has been the elevation of consultation psychology as a primary approach for the application of organizational psychology. Theoretically, the tension between business, clinical psychology and Industrial or Organizational Psychology has occasionally thwarted the effective application of psychological principles that could otherwise guide the successful resolution of issues between people and systems.

This paper will review the role that consultation psychological services can play in organizations, particularly as it may apply to facilitating organizational movement towards increased strategic success. As a case example, this paper will use a mental health organization to…. [read more]

Arrest Rates Against Race Literature Review Chapter

… However, the probability model will solely focus on the disparities among the whites, Hispanics and black arrest rates, assuming any possible bias within the judicial systems. This model will estimate the frequency differences in criminal activities between the whites and blacks. As well, it will take control for the correlated factors and frequencies of crime commitments against race. Under this estimation, if the correlation between the ratio of whites and blacks to the whites' arrests is greater than one, then that will elicit the evidence of racial bias within the policing methods.

As stated by Shah and Pease (1992), there exists a problem in studying the arrest data- overcoming the potential reporting bias against crimes. Several research results reveal that the whites report crimes more…. [read more]

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