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Criminal Justice System After Heavy Research Paper

… I would like to see the Home Secretary implement some community service - he would learn there are some really good schemes helping people to change their attitude and help the community."

Moreover Juliet Lyon (Director of the Prison Reform Trust) says

"It makes no sense to expect overcrowded jails to cut crime when the solutions lay outside, in better parental supervision, constructive alternatives for the young, mental health care, treatment for those addicted to drugs and drink, and a reduction in homelessness, poverty and unemployment."

As the British jails have been overloaded so judiciary should carefully give imprisonment punishments and less serious offenders should be given community-based punishments rather than being awarded punishments and purpose of any punishments should carefully. As the John Denham…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Theory Discussion Chapter

… Criminal Justice Policies

Criminal Justice and Policies

M2D1: Applying Due Process and Crime Control

Habert Packer was the core founder of due process model and crime control model that aimed at reducing the alarming rate of crime in America. Crime control model emphasizes more on human freedom and calls for the suppression of crime. The model puts human interest first and encourages efficiency, finality and speed to apprehend any criminal with less effort on human rights. On the other hand, due process model encourages freedom but insists more on reliable data and evidence to support a criminal act for the release of the individual. Unlike the model of crime control, it emphasizes on human rights whenever the person has committed crime (Cole, 2012).

Patriot Act…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Process Essay

… Criminal Justice Process

Considerable attention has been devoted to law, both substantive and procedural on the justice process. The criminal justice system is a legal system. How does the law influence the day-to-day activities of the justice process? Be sure to cover criminal justice decisions in all major sub-components of the process.

The law influences the day-to-day activities of the justice process in a number of ways, because the law determines the parameters of permissible activity at every point in the criminal justice system. First, it is important to realize that the law influences what is considered criminal activity. This may seem like an obvious point, but it can have a tremendous impact on the day-to-day activities of the criminal justice system. For example, the…. [read more]

Criminal Eyewitness Testimony Research Paper

… Data Analysis -- Data is well organized and presented, both in verbal and visual formats; charts and graphs are appropriate for academic research. The data has a great deal of similarity, too, in that it shows that, human nature being what it is, eyewitnesses may not only inadvertently lie or mislead, some may use planned deception to foster false evidence to protect or defame the defendant; some to glean perceived attention, and some may omit or fabricate additions to their testimony out of fear or intimidation. Typically, the Judge will instruct the Jury to pay attention to the "demeanor" and "presence" of the eyewitness, but evidence shows that eyewitnesses who are highly motivated to lie, display fewer visual and physical clues to the point of…. [read more]

Racism in the Criminal Court System Research Paper

… ¶ … Racism in the Criminal Justice System

The common causes of racial disparity in the American criminal justice system

Racism, which is defined by Schmid (2008) as the deliberate infliction of consideration in unequal measure and motivated by the general desire to basically dominate on the basis of race alone, is very common in the contemporary criminal justice system. In this paper, we discuss racism in the criminal court system. The paper discusses the background, development of rationale and justifications with an incorporation of the Saint Leo Core Value of Integrity.

Racism, which is defined by Schmid (2008) as the deliberate infliction of consideration in unequal measure and motivated by the general desire to basically dominate on the basis of race alone, is very…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Explain How Policy Term Paper

… Criminal Justice

Explain how policy is made and implemented in criminal justice.

An article in the journal Political Behavior explains how the development of public policy in the federal criminal justice system in fact is sometimes made in response to public opinion. Author Sean Nicholson-Crotty and colleagues assert that elected officials of course care a great deal about public opinion, and hence, those representatives respond to shifts in the attitudes of members of the public (Nicholon-Crotty, 2009, p. 629). When the mood in a particular politician's district is liberal, that politician is likely to vote for government programs that help people, or "entitlement" programs. However, if the politician believes that his constituency is leaning to the right, he or she will likely tend to vote…. [read more]

Mandatory Minimum Sentencing Laws Research Paper

… In the past three years, there is an ongoing basic critique of these statutes, which is rapidly becoming widely accepted. The laws do not accomplish the conventional accepted goals of punishment since it does not incorporate all theories of retribution. Generally, these theories necessitate that punishment should be proportionate to the magnitude of the offense. The concept of proportionality between the offense and punishment demonstrates a common principle of justice and a restriction of government power. The policies eliminate judicial discretion to enforce a prison term that is lower than the statutory floor (Luna, 2010). As a result, mandatory minimums make case-specific information about the crime and the criminal irrelevant to the extent that the facts may require a below-minimum sentence. Therefore, the sentences are…. [read more]

Impact of Diversity in the Criminal Justice System Term Paper

… ¶ … Diversity on the Criminal Justice System

How does diversity in the Criminal Justice System impact economic considerations?

Over the last two hundred fifty years, the study of criminal justice has become an important part of understanding society and why someone will commit different crimes. Evidence of this can be seen by looking at the writings of Cesare Becciria. In 1764 he wrote an essay called Crimes and Punishments. In it, he wanted to know why someone breaks the law and what could be done to prevent this from occurring. What Becciria concluded, was that if people knew they would be caught and severely punished their actions would be restrained. This is because they are hesitant about breaking the law, as this will serve…. [read more]

Australian Criminal Justice System Essay

… In this regard, Parkin emphasizes that, "Liberal democratic states like Australia manage criminal justice issues in ways which reflect an inbuilt tension between liberal and democratic values. Crime, public safety and law enforcement as understood and managed in Australia reflect these fundamental liberal democratic tensions" (1998, p. 445).

In some ways, this observation indicates that if a sufficient percentage of the population believes that something is fair, then it becomes fair. In this regard, Parkin (1998) emphasizes that public opinion about the law enforcement system tends to wax and wane in response to high-profile cases involving police or prison officials where opinion supports increased civil right protections or crime waves that result in demands for increased "get tough on crime" approaches. For instance, Parkin reports…. [read more]

Ethical Issue in the Criminal Justice Field Journal

… Criminal Justice


Racial Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System

The criminal justice system aims at maintaining social control, enforce laws and administering justice, primarily through law enforcement or police forces, the courts and corrections, in the pursuit of the ideal of justice and fairness (Sentencing Project, 2008). Police work, in particular, is aimed at crime prevention, crime control and the handling of cases when crime occurs. The police conduct a crime investigation, gather evidence and identify the suspects. It is the police who make the first contact with the offender and initiate the mechanics of the criminal justice system by making the arrest after establishing probable cause. They then take the suspect into custody and make him or her go through a process,…. [read more]

Criminological Event Racism Term Paper

… Black children are over nine times more likely to have a parent in prison than whites, and three times more likely to live in single-parent families, and the high number of these is one of the major reasons about half of them live in poverty (Ihewulezi, p. 43). Of the minority women in prison, over 80% are mothers, and their children often end up in foster care. Less than half of black single mothers receive child support "due to unemployment or the incarceration of the father of their children," and this also means that a shortage of marriageable black males exists (Ihewulezi, p. 44). All of these factors together lead to higher levels of poverty among blacks, and a higher likelihood of being racially profiled…. [read more]

Racism and the Death Penalty Term Paper

… Death Penalty

The United States is one of only a handful of developed nations that still readily imposes death upon those found guilty of a crime (Kurtis 200). Killing as a function of the state raises a number of moral questions, and makes a number of moral assumptions. Aside from the question as to whether the state is justified in killing at all, is the concern for equal justice for individuals convicted of capital murder. In other words, there is the possibility that certain subsets of the American population are sentenced to death more readily for the same crimes. If sentencing of the death penalty is unfair or biased, it questions the legitimacy of death as a form of justice.

By adopting the death penalty,…. [read more]

Discrimination Within the Death Penalty and Criminal Justice Term Paper

… Death Penalty and Race

Arguments have raged for decades about the use of capital punishment in the United States, with some holding that there is a need for society to express its disapproval for certain acts by ending the life of the convicted person, while others see this as an act outside the boundaries of what a civilized society should do. The discussion can be much more complex, beginning with assumptions about why the death penalty is used at all, how well these reasons can be supported, how likely it is that a mistake will be made, and so on. Fairness is always an issue in these discussions, referring to fairness to the accused, fairness to the victim, and even fairness to society at large…. [read more]

Implicit Bias & Racism in Criminal Justice Reform Term Paper

… Is one to believe that in 90% of white collar crime jury trials there is no reasonable doubt?

The statistics would appear to say so—but interpreted another way they could also suggest that trial juries are not competent to hear these cases and are instead convicting out of implicit bias. Even when the evidence is hearsay only—i.e., prison inmates offering testimony that such-and-such traded on insider information, trial juries are still more likely to convict. In blue collar crime cases, there are more acquittals when this is the only piece of evidence (Pavlo, 2012). In other words, trial juries are more sympathetic to the defendant in blue collar crime cases than they are to the defendant in white collar crime cases. There does appear…. [read more]

Mandatory Sentencing Public Policy, Crime Research Paper

… Afterwards, the constructing of the justice system aimed at criminalizing the "equal" African-American; additionally, the system also ensured that the social position of African-Americans was not equal to those of their white counterparts. From history, dating back to the era of Nixon, the president of America, this was done through the establishment of the "Drug War" as a strategy to gain support from whites in the south by advocating for policies in opposing civil rights and racial equality related initiatives. The system also changed via conservative justices on the courts who would endorse reductions to the fourth Amendment protections against many illegal searches, seizures of property and wrongful detentions. From the arguments presented in some studies, I strongly agree that there exist civil liberty issues…. [read more]

Racism Among Students in Home Economic Classes Seen Through Teachers Eyes Term Paper

… Racism and Home Economics

Author's Purpose

When one gets conjoined with the task of writing any account there is a basic need for that individual to have his or her own point-of-view. This point-of-view, in the true sense happens to shed lights on all aspects that guide the course of development of the entire treatise. In the same regard, in this respect too, the author has tried to explain the possibility of the notion of racism among students, belonging to 7 th to 9th grade, as is perceived through the concept of Home Economics, with a distinct possibility of its development in the schools among the students. Now, here comes the question, what can be the basic reason behind its sudden emergence? Or is it…. [read more]

Women in the Criminal Justice System Term Paper

… Women in the Criminal Justice System

The Law Enforcement Assistance Administration Task Force on Women re-evaluated its 1975 recommendations on issues concerning the treatment of women and girls in the criminal justice system (Gowdy et al. 1998). The Task Force found that female offenders, female crime victims, and female criminal justice professionals have been significantly neglected despite noteworthy gains made. Although the nature and composition of female offenders have improved or changed, their needs have remained largely neglected. Assistance rendered to them has increased and improved, but the criminal justice and juvenile justice systems have yet to make a firm commitment to change their response to victimized women and girls. Opportunities for female criminal justice professionals have likewise improved, but gender bias and inequality within…. [read more]

Racism and the Rise of Multiculturalism Term Paper

… Racism and the Rise of Multiculturalism: Progress or Pitfall?

The one absolute certain way of bringing this nation to ruin, or preventing all possibility of its continuing to be a nation at all, would be to permit it to become a tangle of squabbling nationalities. We have but one flag. We must also learn one language and that language is English.-Theodore Roosevelt

Gribbin 29)

Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, the wretched refuse of your teeming shore, Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed, to me: I lift my lamp beside the golden door. EMMA LAZARUS (the New Colossus: Inscription for the Statue of Liberty, New York Harbor)

Potter ii)

Within the foundation of this nation are several concepts that…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Gaetz, S. (July Term Paper

… Survey respondents were California and New York residents and are composed of an ethnically-diverse sample, with the inclusion of white Americans, black Americans, Hispanics, and other members of minority groups.

Since the study is one of the pilot studies that attempt to provide an empirical description and explanation of racial profiling, it is important to discuss how the variables used in the study will have a bearing on future studies about the topic. The first phone-in survey, which was conducted in California, involves a description of incidences of racial profiling among the respondents and the establishment of the sample's general profile or socio-demographic characteristics. The second survey was a New York youth telephone survey, and is more in-depth in its scope compared to the first…. [read more]

Representative System of Government Research Proposal

… Arrest Rates. In 1990, more than 10 million criminal counts were logged. Although only comprising 12% of the general population, arrest rates for blacks were disproportionate for every offense except drunken driving. Blacks, for instance, accounted for 61.2% of all robbery arrests, 54.7% of the suspects arrested for murder and manslaughter, and 43.2% in cases of rape. (Interestingly enough, the annual victimization survey conducted by the Census Bureau found that only 33.2% of the women who said they had been raped identified their attackers as black. Because the race of the rapist does not seem to affect whether a report will be forthcoming, this disparity suggests that attacks by whites are less apt to lead to arrests) (Ayres & Steven, 2008).

The racial disparity in…. [read more]

Racism and Mental Health Issues Term Paper

… " Also, many children told HRW "they were beaten while handcuffed."

One interesting spot in this grim report, was that the percentage of African-American staff at the four institutions studied by HRW was reasonably close to the percentage of black inmates. On August 24, 1995, the percentage of African-American children at Baton Rouge was 84% (black staff, 87%); black children at Monroe, 88% (staff, 69%); black inmates at Bridge City, 73% (black staff, 83%); and black inmates at TCCY, 80% (black staff, 78%). Meanwhile, asked what they would most like to change about their living conditions, they said they would "like the guards to stop hitting them and that they would like more food," the report stated.


More food? Stop being hit? How sad…. [read more]

System Although the American Essay

… According to a report released by New York state attorney general Eliot Spitzer, "minorities -- and blacks in particular -- were 'stopped' at a higher rate than whites & #8230; (and) precincts where minorities constitute the majority of the overall population tended to see more 'stop and frisk' activity than precincts where whites constitute a majority of the population" (1999). This artificial increase on minority arrest rates, which is largely predicated on arrests for possession of the decriminalized substance marijuana, has created a situation wherein prosecutors have been forced to work through hundreds of hours of superfluous casework before ever handling cases involving actual crimes. By removing prejudicial legislation such as New York's "Stop and Frisk" law, or Florida's controversial "Stand Your Ground" statute, states…. [read more]

Overcrowding in Prisons: Impacts Research Paper

… And conversely, when those African-American men are released from overcrowded prisons (in certain cases some inmates are released prior to the time they were sentenced for because they were not convicted of violent crimes and judges have ordered prisons to reduce crammed facilities), the "vast majority will return to the same communities" (smith, 388). This in turn puts "additional strain on already scarce resources" in the communities they came from and want to return to.

In other words, the PIC has a recent legacy of overcrowding, and in the process the PIC "exploits African-American men by extracting their labor" below fair market wages, and then by returning them to their communities where socioeconomic resources are already depleted (Smith, 389). On page 389 the authors use…. [read more]

Public to Scholars, the Death Term Paper

… A white woman was allegedly raped by seven men in Martinsville, Virginia. All of these seven men were sentenced to death and found themselves on an electric chair . The case is of utmost importance since it signifies the legal struggle to fight racism, racism that pervades the American criminal justice system .

However, Rice theory is anti-thesis of racial discrimination in the American judicial system. Rice argues that the seven black men accused did not only receive a fair trial, the atmosphere was free of "lynch mobs." He contends that race was not the sole or the most significant factor behind the court's verdict; factors and values other than race were into play as well. These values he points out are "due process, crime…. [read more]

Penal Practices Essay

… Crime, Aboriginality and the Decolonization of Justice

There are reports of huge levels of sending people to jails in Australia as Blagg (2007) mentions. The people from nationalities originally outside Australia are unjustly treated. Thus are more easily imprisoned than a native would be. There is no clear indication if the native is penalized less only by less time in prison or also if the natives are fined in place of imprisoning them. The Aboriginals and the non-aboriginals have different levels of access to as well as support from the court. Some people say that the intensity of crime varies in the areas they are committed but this should still not result into high level of discrimination, in fact discrimination at all, in the justice…. [read more]

Criminal Justice System Term Paper

… In this regard, Bailey and Green note that this institutionalized racism "meant too that they continued to suffer from the social oppression that extended into and was sustained by the criminal justice system. Like public accommodations, the criminal justice system was 'Jim Crow'" (emphasis added) (p. 66). Just as the growing pressure from millions of Rosies who had quit riveting and returned to the American home no longer satisfied with the status quo, though, the second-class citizen status of African-Americans was threatened by the returning black servicemen and women who, in their minds, had fought one white supremacist regime in Nazi Germany on behalf of another one back home. According to Bouza, these powerful social forces represented a juggernaut that was unstoppable, but the going…. [read more]

Race Juvenile Family, Community Essay

… The issue of economic status has already been mentioned as a certain contributor to social disorganization and thus increased delinquency and criminality; this correlation has not only been affirmed in research directed specifically towards minority youths but has been generally accepted as a truism in pretty much every human society (Rodriguez 2007; Piquero 2008). Other community-specific influences such as employment rates, access to appropriate activities and learning opportunities, and the degree of cultural cohesion or fragmentation that exists in specific locales and amongst specific ethnic populations can all also be contributing factors in real and perceived rates of minority youth criminality (Piquero 2008).

Media and Juvenile Crime

The media also plays a significant role in shaping the perception of youth minority criminality and thus potentially…. [read more]

Values Driven Organizations Term Paper

… Values in Justice System Organizations

To create a balanced and violence free society it is essential to give importance to values in organizations that deal in justice. A good justice system ensures security and peace in society. A good justice system can help in preventing crimes and violations and without proper values they cannot perform their core functions. A number of organizations play their part to prevent injustice in the society. These departments or organization may include:



Correctional Facilities

Non-government Organizations

Core Values

Some of the important core values that can be part of the justice system are:

Aim of Justice and Peace: This core value lends a hand in the maintenance of a just, peaceful and safe society. Justice and peace are…. [read more]

Race Discrimination Justice Essay

… However, given the level of technology available to monitor the results of the judicial system there seems to be many opportunities to further study the issue. If the judicial system was modernized then data could be collected to better isolate the factors involved with discriminatory practices. Courts could be monitored on an ongoing basis to ensure that there are not any patterns of biasness among judicial sentences. The data generated could offer judicial review committees information that could identify patterns based on race, gender, or economic status. With the advances in modern technology, the judicial review system could become more accountable to different objectives such as equality.


Crutchfield, R., Fernandes, A., & Martinez, J. (2010). Racil and Ethnic Disparity and Criminal Justice: How Much…. [read more]

Murder and Injustice Essay

… These laws are however growing less popular with time and people are condemning them from individuals to the civil society with the sole reason that there is no room to correct the behavior for the criminal and on the sanctity of life basis. The first option is guaranteed lengthy minimum sentences. This serves as a relief especially to the society that the murderer and potential repeat murder will not be walking the neighborhood in as few as seven years hence justice seen to have been done. These sentences should go long enough to see the person leave prison a wasted individual at a very advanced age to serve as an example to the younger people about crime avoidance.

The other alternative is the life imprisonment…. [read more]

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