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Reading Disorders Thesis

… Reading Disorders

What is a reading disorder?

A reading disorder is a type of learning disorder. According to Davidson (2007), a reading disorder "involves significant impairment of reading accuracy, speed, or comprehension to the extent that the impairment interferes with academic achievement or activities of daily life." A person with a reading disorder will not necessarily struggle with any other subject area. Dyslexia is a type of reading disorders, but not all reading disorders can or should be classified as dyslexia. Persons with dyslexia have ancillary problems with overall verbal comprehension, speech, and language ability. The use of dyslexia as a blanket term is misleading. Therefore, reading disorders are sometimes referred to broadly by the term Developmental Reading Disorder (DRD). Other general terms for reading…. [read more]

Etiology of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Disorder Term Paper

… ¶ … Supranuclear Palsy

A discussion of the neurological etiology of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Disorder

Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) is an unusual neurodegenerative situation that leads to severe executive dysfunction. The traditional findings in PSP reveal that executive functions are the most severely affected, including lack of initiative, increasing information processing time, decreased verbal fluency and loss of mental flexibility. PSP is often regarded as a typical parkinsonian disease, along with multiple systemic atrophy, and corticobasal damage. Onset of signs happens after age 40, with the optimum onset at age 63. It is uncertain whether men or women affected on the same magnitude. Although genetics may infer some vulnerability to the illness, PSP cases are usually infrequent and not usually inherited (Ghosh, Carpenter & Rowe,…. [read more]

Reading Disabilities in Arab Students Attending Non-Arabic Schools Term Paper

… Education, Reading Disorders

Reading disabilities in Arab students attending non-Arabic schools

Reading disabilities pose one of the greatest threats to a child's learning, since all other subjects become reliant on comprehension as education progresses. English as a second language (ESL) students have additional needs, since their knowledge of language has been shaped differently than children who speak English as their native language. Arabic children in particular may struggle in the English-speaking classroom because of the drastically different systems of speech, reading, and learning in English and Arabic language. Further, some evidence exists that Arabic children suffer from reading disabilities more often than other children due to consanguineous marriages. Due to these possible genetic issues, cultural and language differences, and the struggles inherent in all ESL…. [read more]

Sensorimotor Disorder Restless Legs Syndrome Research Paper

… Complementary interventions include vitamins, acupuncture, prayer, meditation, and music (Mitchell, 2011). These interventions have generally not been scientifically investigated with the exception of acupuncture. However, researchers have suggested that there is insufficient evidence that acupuncture for the treatment of restless legs syndrome is any more effective than no treatment at all (Mitchell, 2011). Furthermore, research has demonstrated a considerable response to placebo in relation to restless legs syndrome (Mitchell, 2011). Specifically, it has been shown that more than one third of individuals with restless legs syndrome exhibit a significant improvement in symptoms following placebo treatment (Mitchell, 2011). This indicates that expectation of relief from a treatment somehow effectively reduces the experience of symptoms possibly through dopaminergic agents and opioids which are involved in placebo response…. [read more]

Reading Skills of Students Research Paper

… Reading Skills of Students With Speech Sound Disorders at Three Stages of Literacy Development

Topic and Purpose -- The purpose of the study was to examine reading comprehension and decoding in the context of overall language, vocabulary, nonlinguistic cognitive skills, and phonological awareness. Studying that relationship can provide insight into students who have speech sound disorders, which is the topic of the paper. Three stages of development of literacy were examined for the study, including early elementary school, middle school, and high school students, in order to provide a solid cross section of information.

The study was designed to determine the correlation between various aspects of language as they related to reading comprehension. This allowed the researchers to better understand reading development, speech sound disorders,…. [read more]

Reading Education Special Needs Case Study

… The word list and story were read back a minimum of three times to force familiarity with all of the words and thoughts.

Step 2 was a focus on the sound of unfamiliar and letter sounds. The famous 'hooked On Phonics' approach was used in order to apply a tried and true methodology to this process. The key was to establish which sounds were familiar and which sounds were new. The approach was to focus on the sounds not known. If the letter 'b' was not known, then a list of one syllable 'b' words was reviewed until the connection of the sound and letter was established. This was then stepped up to distinguishing consonants and vowels. Simple words like 'tap' for the vowel practice…. [read more]

Depression and Eating Disorders Term Paper

… The researchers classified a sample of college students as asymptomatic, symptomatic, or eating disordered using the Questionnaire for Eating Disorders Diagnosis. The researchers found that self-esteem was negatively related to the presence of eating disordered behavior, whereas perfectionism was positively related to eating disordered behavior. They also were able to classify 59% of their sample on the continuum from asymptomatic to eating disordered using these variables.

Reference two: Green, M.A., Scott, N.A., Cross, S.E., Yu-Hsin Liao, K., Hallengren, J.J., Davids, C.M., Carter, L.P., Kugler, D.W., Read, K.E., & Jepson, A.J. (2009). Eating disorder behaviors and depression: A minimal relationship beyond social comparisons, self-esteem, and body dissatisfaction. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65, 989-999.

The article begins with a discussion of how downward social comparison, low self-esteem,…. [read more]

Learning Disorders Term Paper

… Treatment focuses on real-world applications of math, like balancing a checkbook or contrasting the cost of items (The Thompson Corporation, 2001). Occasionally, individual or family psychotherapy is advocated in terms of being the most appropriate treatment. Medication, such as Ritalin (National Institute of Mental Health, 1999) may be recommended to alleviate distractability or hyperactivity. It is necessary to empower the sufferer with self-confidence, which is imperative for healthy development. Family psychotherapy also facilitates greater understanding among family members as to how to cope with living with a learning disorder sufferer (

Currently, research into learning disorders is breaking new ground. Complex brain imaging technology now allows scientists to watch how the brain operates and to identify slight faults and glitches that could never be observed…. [read more]

Self-Efficacy and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Research Paper

… Commonly, children who receive diagnoses of oppositional defiant disorder in preschool or early elementary school transition to a diagnosis of one of three major categories of disorder: depression, anxiety, or ADHD (Hamilton & Armando, 2008). Then, too, a goodly number of children do not develop co-existing conditions (Hamilton & Armando, 2008). Many children with oppositional defiant disorder continue to exhibit a stable pattern of the disorder as adults (Hamilton & Armando, 2008). In general, the more severe the oppositional defiant disorder is in childhood and the earlier symptoms were recognized or diagnosis occurred, the poorer the prognosis over the life-span (Hamilton & Armando, 2008).

The Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD is the most comprehensive study of children with a diagnosis of ADHD (Hamilton…. [read more]

Realm of Psychological Disorder Essay

… "

9. Accurate Portrayal?

Jack Nicholson played Melvin Udall in this film and ultimately won an Oscar for best actor for this role. While critical acclaim does not guarantee any type of accurate relationship towards reality, I believe that this film is a good depiction of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and was portrayed in an exemplary fashion. While the overall performance is decent, the portrayal is not without faults.

Comic impulses help soften the blow of Melvin's very harsh treatment towards others and places him as the butt of many jokes. While the characters surrounding Melvin are tolerant towards Melvin's situation, they may not always be sympathetic. This is the challenge of mental illness and specifically personality disorders. The ambiguous causes of behavior often causes much…. [read more]

Sleep Disorders / College Students Essay

… 50. There were no significant differences found along racial lines. Females were at greatest risk for most sleep disorders. Students who reported no sleep disorder had higher GPAs than those who reported at least one sleep disorder. Self-proclaimed "morning" people also had higher GPAs. The researcher concluded that the link between sleep disorders and lower GPA is significant enough to warrant further study. "Successful treatment of sleep disorders or improved sleep practices might increase GPAs, improving students' chances of staying in school and ultimately graduating" (Gaultney, 2010, p. 95).

The results of the study were not surprising. The effects of sleep deprivation are well-known and well-documented. Occupational studies have shown that workers from emergency room personnel to truck drivers to heavy machine operators experience problems…. [read more]

Communications Disorders the Federal Individuals Essay

… Some children, however, may never communicate naturally and must be taught to do so through electronic means.

A dual diagnosis is made when a child is found to have more than one learning disability. These can be manifest in any combination of the learning disabilities and/or communication disorders discussed so far in this paper.

The National Association for Gifted Children defines gifted individuals as those who

"…demonstrate outstanding levels of aptitude (defined as an exceptional ability to reason and learn) or competence (documented performance or achievement in top 10% or rarer in one or more domains. Domains include any structured area of activity with its own symbol system (e.g., mathematics, music, language) and/or set of sensorimotor skills (e.g., painting, dance, sports)" (National Association for, n.d.).…. [read more]

Disorder Down's Syndrome Research Paper

… Apart from this, it is also important that these mothers should be given family support in the form of different groups. These mothers should be helped and trained in a way that they can rehabilitate their children with Down syndrome, take care of them and at the same time their levels of hopelessness can be decreased. It is expected and hoped that taking such precautions will contribute towards the betterment of mothers as well as that of their children. Only the mothers whose mental and psychological situation is good can make the mental and physical life of their children better.

Things media should take care of regarding Down syndrome children

Media portrays children with Down syndrome often in a wrong perspective; it necessarily may not…. [read more]

Anxiety Disorders Diagnosis Research Paper

… Gelernter et al. (1991) compared the use of alprazolam in the treatment of social anxiety disorders and reported a positive outcome.


Just anecdotal evidence is in support of the efficacy of TCAs in the treatment of the social anxiety disorder (Van Vliet, Den Boer and Westenberg,1994)

Posttraumatic stress disorder

The use of Benzodiazepines

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is noted to be a complex syndrome which occurs after a single or multiple exposure tom traumatic events and it involves a multiplicity of symptoms. The symptoms include flashbacks, avoidance of the specific reminders of a given tragic event, emotional numbering among others. No established form of pharmacotherapy exists for PSTD but there are multiple forms of medications that appear to be very effective in the reduction…. [read more]

Health Psychology Eating Disorders Among Asian American Term Paper

… Eating disorders among Asian-Americans

The following study attempts to explore and delineate the problem of eating disorders among Asian-Americans. The study presents an overview of the issue and found that there exists a serious problem with regards to eating disorders among Asian-Americans, particularly among women. This syndrome is exacerbated by the complexity of acculturation in American society. These and other aspects affecting eating disorders in this group are also discussed. One of the central findings of the study is that there has been relatively little research of quality conducted on this subject.

There is a common myth that eating disorders are usually found among white females and males and not among the Asian population.

In general "Many assume that certain "blanket factors" protect minority communities…. [read more]

Autism Spectrum Disorders Wang, K, Zhang Term Paper

… Autism Spectrum Disorders

Wang, K, Zhang, H., Ma., D., Bucan, M., Glessner, J…. & Hakonarson, H. (2009). Common genetic variants on 5p14.1 associate with autism spectrum disorders. Nature 459: 528-33.

These authors set out to examine the specific genetic factors that might be responsible for an increased susceptibility to the developments if autism spectrum disorders, building on previous research that strongly suggested a genetic factor in the development of such disorders. Noting a rising trend in the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders in children throughout the world and specifically in the United States, the authors explain that research does not support environmental or at least purely environmental causes explaining this trend. Instead, certain correlative indicators that suggested a genetic basis for the disorder and a…. [read more]

Eating Disorder Group Sessions Essay

… Your body needs to become rebalanced by eating small amounts frequently and by making sure that what you eat is nutritious and balanced, supplements may also be needed but you need to see a doctor to find out what kind of supplements you might need.

Tyra asked: "I don't eat because every time I do, I just feel sick! Do you know why this is?

There is a good chance that you are suffering from a condition that causes your blood pressure to go down every time you eat, you may not have begun with anorexia for any other reason than this, though it is likely that there were more problems in the beginning than this, this type of hypotension is common and caused by…. [read more]

Eating Disorders Research Proposal

… ¶ … Eating Disorders

Over the last few decades, society has had an obsession about being thin. In the case of Hispanic women this is in response to various cultural norms and standards. An example of this can be seen in the HBO documentary Real Women Have Curves, which would highlight how various eating disorders are affecting this group. (Alexander, 2010, pg. 256) As a result, a variety of Hispanic females are more than likely to be influenced by these conflicting views. At which point, the person could begin to suffer from some kind of eating disorder. The objectives of this study are: to see the effect that various eating disorders are having on the Hispanic women in the 15 to 35-year-old demographic. At which…. [read more]

Neurological Disorder Epilepsy Term Paper

… In some particular complicated cases, the lack of full standardization (devices, methods, etc.) also make difficult confrontation of two or more different cases, methods, devices, which ultimately reduces the extent of efficacy of this treatment for epilepsy.

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for the treatment of epilepsy tends to be a treatment which involves no side effects. It can work even if it is not beneficial in reducing the seizure frequency among patients. Psychotherapeutic strategies such as CBT can be combined with pharmacological treatments for attaining gainful results among patients suffering from severe epilepsy syndromes. This however requires a close collaboration between epileptologist and psychotherapist (Ramaratnam et al., 2008).

After having an idea about three major ways of treating epilepsy, one needs to approach psychological therapies…. [read more]

Depressive Disorder Essay

… The remaining criteria for diagnosis are relatively simple. Criterion B. states that the clinician must be certain that the symptoms presented by the patient do not instead qualify as a "Mixed Episode" -- in other words, it must not additionally include the symptoms of a Manic Episode in addition to those nine criteria outlined for Major Depressive Episode. This requires care in some specifics: irritability can be seen as an aspect of A2, but it can also be present in the elevated mood states of mania. Insomnia is a characteristic of depression, but mania instead demonstrates a decreased need for sleep, where the patient feels well-rested on very little sleep. And the cognitive impairments seen in depression are different from the racing thoughts and distractibility…. [read more]

Treatment Modalities for Conduct Disordered Research Proposal

… " (Gledhill & Hodes, 2011).

Maag (2006) researched social skills training (SST) in a public school setting, and concluded that therapists frequently lack the expertise, resources, personnel or inclination to effectively use the method (p. 14). The overall ineffectiveness, according to Maag (2006) may be attributed to methodological flaws, including the tendency to over-generalize, and resistance to the institution of long-standing recommendations for enhancing the effectiveness of SST therapy. The factors that appear to inhibit the effectiveness of an SST approach are not present in a clinical setting. Further research is needed to explore the influence of SST on outcomes for patients with CD who are also engaged in CBT.

Study Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the effectiveness of combined individual…. [read more]

Eating Disorder Is an Issue Term Paper

… Eating disorder is an issue for many people and there is significant ratio of eating disorder many people are still suffering. There are different types of eating disorders people suffer. The eating disorder is a situation in which people usually do not feel well and they behave differently either they eat too much or do not eat anything. There are different types of eating disorder and many people face problem with these habits and they check for eating disorders. Eating disorder not only disturbs your physical health but also your mental health and sometimes it has severe effect on the body of human being. The main eating disorder includes Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and Binge eating disorder. Once you are able to identify what type…. [read more]

Disorder Refers to the Clinical Implications Evidenced Essay

… ¶ … disorder refers to the clinical implications evidenced by and experienced by children who experience adverse early care, usually in the foster care system or who were adopted after having endured institutional deprivation from abroad. The problem is that there are a great deal of theoretical and interpretative papers on the topic but relatively few empirical reports, causing this state of affairs to become confusing to professionals and to caretakers who are uncertain about which approach to take in regards to treating and caring for the child

Regardless of the type of institutional care that these children received, studies consistently show that children who experienced institutional care identify a similar pattern of disturbed and alienated behavior towards strangers (Chisholm, 1998). It seems to be…. [read more]

Paxil Tying Drug Readings Essay

… Such symptoms may very well include a recurrence (oftentimes in a considerably greater degree than that which the medication was initially used for) of anxiety, as well as other commonly symptoms such as lightheadedness and difficulty with sleeping.

Another fairly intriguing aspect about Paxil is that due to the fact that it is a prescribed medication, which is disseminated to patients for such a wide variety of reasons, there is a considerable market for it. The revenues produced by the sale of this narcotic may also be factors in its panacea like perception for several clinical conditions. Author Richard DeGrandpre explores this notion in his book The Cult of Pharmacology: How America Became the World's Most Troubled Drug Culture.

The competitiveness of the drug market…. [read more]

Role of a Reading Specialist Term Paper

… Role of a Reading Specialist

General Role of a Reading Specialist


In the past epoch, reading specialists or experts were educators who work in hand with children who struggle with reading, adding or supplanting the classroom instructor's work. In contemporary times, new responsibilities are essential. The most necessities are for the reading specialist's instruction to supplement, build and extend classroom-teaching practices. Such a necessity calls for the reading expert, and the class teacher to work together for them to implement a quality-studying plan that research-based and accomplishes the needs of all students. The class teacher and reading specialist can line up instruction so that the teaching process is harmonious and high quality. The reading specialists and teachers ought to converse with together and with…. [read more]

ADHD and Reading Difficulty Learning Article Critique

… Using the cross-legged model, a child was more likely to develop reading problems after expressing ADHD symptoms (X2 = 58.80, p < 0.001). Even though the heritability scores for each trait was strong in middle childhood, the heritability of both traits together was modest. This result indicates that shared genetics only accounted for 1/3 of each trait individually; however, when both traits occurred in the same child, 85% of the co-occurrence can be attributed to genetics. A similar result was found for the early adolescence age group.

An important question addressed in this study was whether the genetic and environmental influences on individual traits were stable across time. The authors found that between 51-84% of these influences were different between middle childhood and early adolescence…. [read more]

Reading Improvement in Third Grade Term Paper

… The goals are as follows:

Terminal objective 1. Students will demonstrate positive attitudes toward reading by accelerating their growth and reading ability, fostering a love of reading, developing into lifelong learners, becoming critical thinkers, and improving their scores.

Terminal objective 2. Students will demonstrate their ability to construct, extend, and examine meaning for a variety of texts by using strategic behavior and integrating their prior knowledge about both reading and the topic.

Terminal objective 3. Students will demonstrate their ability to vary their orientation to the text by interacting with a variety of texts for different purposes. Students will read for recreation, for literary experience, to be informed, and to perform a task.

Terminal objective 4. Students will demonstrate their ability to interact with texts…. [read more]

Students With Reading Disabilities Term Paper

… Disabilities

Students With Reading Disabilities

Learning disabilities (LD) are a group of varying disorders that have a negative impact on learning. They may affect one's ability to speak, listen, think, read, write, spell, or compute. Insomuch, the most prevalent LD is in the area of reading in which close to half of secondary students with LD perform more than three grade levels below their enrolled grade in essential academic skills (45% in reading, 44% in math) (NCLD, 2009). Currently, 2.4 million students are diagnosed with LD, and they receive special education services in schools, thus representing 41% of all students receiving special education. Chiefly, reading disabilities are life long; however, the effects may be mitigated to support learning, living, and earning, particularly when identified early…. [read more]

Learning Disorders Research Paper

… The availability of a reputable referral is of great importance .the process should begin by going to the child's school, if they are not in a position to offer any assistance then one can seek help from family, friends, doctor or insurance company all who have dealt with issue of learning disorders. In some instances several professionals coordinate their services as a team so that an accurate diagnosis can be given. The specialist might ask for a little input from the child teachers .recommendations are made for speech language therapy or special education within the school system (KidsHealth, 2013).


It is often something tough to parents to face the possibility of their child having a learning disorder. There is no parent who wants to…. [read more]

Technology and Language Disorders Term Paper

… Technology and Language Disorders

Technology has been given a major role in higher education, where the personal computer is today a necessary tool the way pen and ink once was. In the lower grades, technology has arrived in the form of various teaching devices to introduce students to concepts in arithmetic, reading, and other subjects, with programmed instruction geared to the young learner. At the secondary level, technology has also been introduced, though with less programmed instruction and with some budgetary constraints preventing the full implementation of computer technology to the degree seen in higher education. More and more, though, the schools see themselves as having a role in preparing students for the computer-oriented world they will encounter once they graduate and for the increased…. [read more]

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