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Realism and the End of the Cold War Seminar Paper

… Realism and the End of the Cold War

The field of international relations has always been dominated by one theory or another that tried to explain, through different mechanisms and concepts, the evolution of the international affairs.

Realism was one of the theories that tried to best characterize the period of the Cold War and especially the bipolar relation between the West and the East, which is between the United States and the Soviet Union. After the fall of the U.S.S.R. At the beginning of the 1990s, it was considered that the realist theory of international relations did not grasp sufficiently accurate the power relations between the two important players and was not able to predict the fall of communism and the end of the…. [read more]


War in Defense Term Paper

… "as late as January 1951, the U.S. 8th Army was detailing all units in Korea that refugees be attacked with all available fire including bombing." (Williams)

As many as four hundred civilians at a time were killed in more than sixty reported incidents, and many more likely went unreported. This kind of lack of regard for the lives of the Korean people whom America was supposedly present to liberate could reasonably be interpreted as a general lack of regard for Asian-human life, and a serious threat to security as troops approach China. Likewise restraint was not communicated when, despite stated intentions to regain the status quo, American forces began invading what had previously been Northern Korean territory. The many lives lost by both Americans and…. [read more]


War in Afghanistan Research Paper

… War in Afghanistan

Following the unprecedented 9 / 11 terrorist attacks on American soil, an atmosphere of fear and hysteria swept through the world. U.S. reprisal came in the form of fully blown war against terrorism as they assured the world that America would use all resources at its disposal to wage war on terror. Even as the demise of Osama bin Laden marked an important milestone in the U.S.-led war on terror, it appears as though U.S. Middle East foreign policy is going to take yet another tactical turn. After scaling down operations in Iraq in the first term, the Obama administration is at least rhetorically signaling that they will remove combat troops in 2014. By just about every measure, Afghanistan is still smoldering…. [read more]


Cold War and Its Aftermath Term Paper

… ¶ … Cold War and its Aftermath

The Cold War represented one of the most important periods in the history of the world. It did not only changed the way in which the political world was configured following the end of the Second World War, but, at the same time, it marked a change in the perspective of the way in which relations among states and international actors are perceived. From this point-of-view, the end of this period marked the beginning of an era in which the political coordinates for international relations were uncertain and lacked a particular direction. The demise of the Soviet Union left the United States as the overall winner in the bipolar struggle. However, the entire state system was thrown into…. [read more]


Iranian and Global Nuclear Realism Essay

… The real issue of the progressive advancement of nuclear technologies and the emergence of the Stutnex is more troubling, however. The U.S., the EU or players like Saudi Arabia actually using or supporting these kinds of cyber attacks can be destabilizing to many of their allies. Like an Avatar in a videogame, the attack can come from anywhere and be launched by anyone. But even if the aggressor is just a larger multinational, there is no way to know what the results could be. As mentioned, right now it appears that the Stutnex is aimed at just Iran, which has to make it worry about whether it will still be in the power game in the future. But other countries could well worry in their…. [read more]


WWI and Literature World War Term Paper

… This realism marked most important literary pieces produced during and immediately after the Great War. Hemingway's war poems indicate the fact that he seriously thought about war and its futility. Some of the best war stories of this time include "In Another Country," "Now I Lay Me," and "A Way You'll Never Be."

But apart from people like Hemingway, American literature did not produce any significant war poets and/or verses that could show clear effects of WWI. Though there were vast number of verses created during this period, the quality was rather inferior as Harvey (1993) writes: "...more than 99 per cent of First World War poetry is not very impressive, and if 99.9 per cent of First World War poets were not as good…. [read more]


War: Vietnam Term Paper

… What must be remembered, say realists, is that a state is not an individual or a person, and therefore, it must not be treated as such. The rules and the theories and principles that guide the moral behavior of an individual cannot be applicable to a state, and it must be remembered that a state belongs to the world, and when the world is taken as an arena where the various players must defend their own territories, then the state must be taken as a participant in the activities of the arena where violence is the natural course and order of things. (War: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

If a state needs to maintain its power and security and provide these for its citizens in the…. [read more]


Political Framework of EU Thesis

… As a result, European nations looked forward to developing nations such as Asia, Africa and South America for the purchase of these necessities. For developing nations this was an opportunity to become known as suppliers of grist, therefore, they were willing to enter into this trade agreement. However, what European Leaders wanted was more than a simple trade agreement; their aim was to enforce their rules on these nations, making them colonies of the infinite European empire. Therefore, they entered into the agreement after setting out a lot of rules for the dependent nations to follow. As time passed by, these rules made the European leaders indirectly administer the nation, thus the nations became a part of European empire. History reveals that the imperialism is…. [read more]


Which Approach to the Study of Security Realism or Critical Essay

… International Security

With the end of the Cold War and bipolar global order, an "international community," as portrayed by increased transnational cooperation and globalization has evolved. However, the integrity of this community depends on the actions of each individual member. Prior to 1989, the two great powers of the world, the United States and Soviet Union, countered each other creating a balance of power. This, in turn, polarized other states that fell under each respective power's umbrella of security and economic stability. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, however, the power of the United States led to hegemonic stability. During the Cold War, the United States used "national security" as justification for its actions in the international arena. National security was used by internationalists…. [read more]


Kenneth Waltz Structural Realism After the Cold War Article Review

… Is Kenneth Waltz Article Convincing or Not?

This editorial by Waltz, possibly the "realist Maximus," is absolutely undoubted on so many different levels. Initially, democracies have in the past wrestled with democracies, as in the author's illustration of World War I nations fighting against each other. Also, this point overthrows the idealists' objective of international democracy leading in a Kantian-form of peace. Kenneth Waltz sees a coming contest where democracies could possibly be set in opposition against each other concerning the balance of power. This kind of circumstances will without doubt not be as clear-cut as the talk of East against the West, capitalism vs. communism of the preceding century. Second, Kenneth Waltz makes argument regarding interdependence and how it is able to both cause…. [read more]


International Relations: Idealism vs. Realism Essay

… The first two attempts were oriented strictly to the European continent and its colonies, whereas the League of Nations, after promoting the principle of sovereignty as a pre-requisite for states, allowed al sovereign states to be part of the organization.

The realist approach in terms of the positioning of the state is that the state is the most important and the only actor on the international arena. Indeed, the state can be part of multidimensional constructions such as international organizations but this membership would never supersede the state as a rational actor on the international scene. Unlike idealists, realists believe in the rational of the state. More precisely, the state would always take into account when making a decision the most important elements that constitute…. [read more]


Historiography of the Cold War Term Paper

… The United States, argues Williams, was so ideologically committed to the ideal of an open global capitalist system that it could not comprehend any other settlement; cohabitation with the Soviet bloc on the basis of mutual acceptance was thus ruled out. This is thus fundamentally an economic explanation rather than an ideological one, but one that sees economics in essentially political terms. As the counter-culture movements of the 1960s and the effects of the Vietnam War exerted their influence on U.S. perceptions of the world and America's role within it, many scholars developed similar arguments to Williams. Walter LaFeber's America, Russia, and the Cold War, 1945-1966 of 1967 offered a subtle and very influential model of the revisionist argument, while Joyce and Gabriel Kolko's The…. [read more]


How International Relation Theories Apply to Vietnam War Term Paper

… Vietnam War

Explained Through the Lens of International Relations Theories

The territory of Vietnam has undergone many political changes through the years. The most notable of these was the French-Japanese-French-Independence period from the 1940's and 1950's. Initially, French Indochina was lost to the Japanese occupiers in World War Two, and recovered by the French after the War. After this, however, the Vietnamese sought independence from the French in the 1950's. After this independence occurred, Vietnam was controlled by an American leader, and later, North and South fought against one another in the name of another political philosophy: communism. This paper will aim to explain the history of the Vietnam conflict, albeit from a United States perspective, but will also analyze three political lenses, liberalism, constructivism,…. [read more]


Critical Thinking Exercise Essay

… Humanity is no different. Those who recognize the scarcity of resources, especially in a world of exponential population growth and prevalence of religions that preach doctrines of hate against other faiths -- from the Crusades to 9/11 our religions have a pretty lengthy history of hate-based conflict -- naturally recognize that occasionally for one and one's kin to survive, conflict is required. And so it is that war is inevitable. Nature does not have morality, it has realism and the only morality is survival. War, no matter how hideous the idea might be, will happen and any people that want to survive to future generations will need to be ready for it.

Works Cited

Crossman, Ashley (2014). Rational choice theory. About.com. Retrieved May 25, 2014…. [read more]


Viet Nam War Term Paper

… The United States believed that it had exhausted the peaceful remedy attempts to no avail and that the only avenue left was to participate in the war.

"Many of these principles of just war are part of the body of international law and thus are legally binding on states and their agents (Viotti, P. And M. Kauppi, (eds.). 1987. International Relations Theory. Macmillan Publishing Company, New York)

The Viet Nam War when applied to the theory allows for the use of aggression because it is something that peaceful remedies did not work with . However, there is no act of self-defense because the United States was not being attacked. The South Viet Nam area did have the right to war because it was an act…. [read more]


Origin of Cold War Research Paper

… Origins of Cold War

The long Telegram

The policy makers in Washington and Harry S. Truman overlooked the views and beliefs of Kennan, those that he expressed, in Moscow. The policymakers were continuously convinced by Kennan to back out with their plans for collaboration with Soviet Union in support of Europe and to favor a sphere of power approach in order to deteriorate the influence of Soviet Union in Europe (Keene, 1946). The development of a federation was required to oppose the power and control of Soviet Union in Western Europe and to stand against the monopoly of Soviet in Eastern Europe, as asserted by Kennan (1946).

Until the mid-1946, U.S. mission residing in Moscow as the deputy head was Kennan. With the term ending,…. [read more]


Howard's End Connection and Disintegration Essay

… Howards End - Connection and disintegration

Published in 1910, Howards End is E.M. Forster's fourth novel. Although thematically rich, the novel focuses on the concept of 'connection' -- connection between the private and public life and between individuals. This theme is also highlighted in the epigraph of the novel, which reads, "Only connect." Forster emphasizes the difficulty in creating and maintaining such connections due to the ways in which people relate to one another and the moral codes they live by. As far as characters, the novel is centered on two families: the Schlegels who symbolize intellectualism and ideals, and the Wilcoxes who represent English practicality and commercialism, with connections to the worlds of business and politics. On a deeper level, these two families could…. [read more]


Cold War Space Race: U.S. vs Soviets Research Paper

… Taking precedence over other concerns due to the prevalence of the Cold War as the de facto international system, the space race necessitated investments into education reform, as with the National Defense Education Act (NDEA). NDEA was more than just placing trust in America’s future through a bolstered education system; it was about public education being a “key component of national security,” (“The Start of the Space Race,” n.d.). According to a system level of analysis, space technology, education, the federal budget, and national security functioned in tandem with one another. As Marlin (1987) also points out, the military must also be recognized as a tool or instrument in the international Cold War system. Media propaganda by both Soviets and Americans helped to propel the…. [read more]


Abstract Expressionist Painting Artistic Research Paper

… [8: Ibid. ]

The following piece is an excellent example of Rothko's reductionist forms. The piece is entitied "White, Red on Yellow" and is an excellent example of reductivism and the use of color to create a dramatic impact. It is a simplistic looking painting upon first glance. However, these paintings were not meant to be viewed in passing. One is supposed to sit and contemplate them, to see if an emotion arose As the viewer continues to gaze at the painting, they begin to notice the fabulous subtelties of the painting that are not apparent at first glance or if the painting is viewed from far away. One begins to notice tha the top square is not white, but is instead muted tones of…. [read more]


Influential Factor in the Evolution Research Paper

… World War II had thus caused a shift in influential power and both the United States and the Soviet Union wanted to exploit the new reconstructed framework of the world. The Soviet Union sought to do so by expanding socialism to countries in Europe, looking thus to dominate states in the sphere whereas the U.S. And other Western nations believed that communist ideology is threatening to both national identity and the ideal of democracy which is why they sought to prevent this from happening. Indeed, among the causal factors that led to the unfolding of the Cold War, the conflict of two competitive ideologies is assumed to be most prominent. Both the U.S. And the Soviet Union were convinced of the superiority of their system…. [read more]


Interventionism From the Perspective Case Study

… These studies serve as the foundation for this present analysis.

Other studies have shown that foreign military intervention can easily be conducted even if they are in violation of the United Nations charter and lack authorization of the Security Council (Cassese 1999). This shows that countries can and do act on their own in engaging in interventionism. The motives for doing so are what this study plans to investigate.

A number of Western countries support humanitarian interventionism but they have not yet intervened in Syria. The reality behind humanitarian interventionism is that there are clear political, geopolitical, and economical consequences to every foreign intervention. Intervention is not merely a humanitarian crusade but rather a highly explosive affair that can cripple countries' infrastructures and have global…. [read more]


USA Hegemony Term Paper

… S. kept Haiti economically and politically isolated for decades and refused any diplomatic recognition until after the Civil War. In more recent history, Jean Bertrand Aristide, a Catholic priest and advocate of liberation theology, was overthrown twice in military coups in 1991 and again in 2004, which had all the classic hallmarks of CIA-style covert operations. Not surprisingly, Haiti remains one of the poorest countries in the world, dominated by a corrupt and repressive oligarchy that the U.S. has helped to install and maintain over many decades.

Michael Doyle counters Rosato in asserting that Kant's Perpetual Peace between democracies is real, as is their tendency to be war-prone with authoritarian or non-liberal states. Not all groups within democracies are liberal or democratic, of course, but…. [read more]


Theory and Grand Strategy Essay

… ¶ … Grand Strategy

Liberalism and how it sheds light on the American grand strategy as applied to the world war

The theoretical aspects of realism, liberalism and constructivism exemplify a political undertaking that considers the idea of liberty and equality among people in the society. The general aspect of liberalism is realized when there is a confirmed state of liberty and equality in the country. This theory of politics takes much consideration of the fact that it is very important to have all the major avenues of leadership and governance within the states in the social stratifications. For instance, it has been explored that the occurrence of the American grand strategy has its roots dated to the evolution and functionalism of the liberal state.…. [read more]


Liberal and Realist Creative Writing

… American realists believe that international relations are dominated by a political power struggle among sovereign nation-states. These states must rely on their own devices to survive this struggle, which they attempt to do by acquiring economic and military power. Realists stipulate that the anarchical international condition formed by this state security seeking is difficult or even impossible to overcome." Craig states that there are many realists in America who have followed the path of Kenneth Waltz in attempting to assume an objective approach "…eschewing moral assessments of international relations and foreign policies in favor of positivist analysis of interstate systems. Their realism nevertheless is driven by clear normative concerns, as they have usually sought to promote foreign policies or at least political worldviews that enhance…. [read more]


Iraq Afghan Culture the War on Terror Thesis

… Iraq Afghan Culture

The War on Terror and the Imposition of Cultural Change

The War in Iraq began on March 19th, 2003, when American bombers began a 'Shock and Awe' campaign designed to 'decapitate' Iraqi Republican Army leadership and to pound the civilian population into preemptive submission. The attack preceded the arrival of a deadline by which despot Saddam Hussein had been given the ultimatum to vacate Iraq with his sons to make way for democratic reform or to face the wrath of the United States. The purpose of this invasion was proposed quite singularly as the disruption of a regime which 'could' aid terrorists in destroying the United States, its friends and its allies. The final justification for this war was that, to that…. [read more]


Representations of War Research Paper

… Under normal circumstances, the life of one soldier would not be as important as to risk the lives of seven men, however, Ryan is the last remaining male descendent in his family as it is revealed during the course of the film that all of his brothers, who enlisted in the Armed Forces, were killed.[footnoteRef:15] The film's narrative is inspired by the four sons of Agnes Allison who were killed during the American Civil War, as well as, the story of the Niland brothers who fought in World War II.[footnoteRef:16] Under the War Department's sole-survivor policy, which was implemented after the five Sullivan brothers were killed while serving on the same ship, any and all efforts were made in order to ensure the safe return…. [read more]


Naturalism and Realism Term Paper

… Upton Sinclair's Novel Oil! And Paul Thomas Anderson's Movie There Will be Blood

Like Realism, literary Naturalism attempts an objective depiction of human beings in the context of their social and natural environment. The difference between the two is that naturalism also adopts a philosophical attitude towards men: humans are no more than 'beasts' whose character and behavior is deeply influenced by their environment, heredity or by their instincts. Thus, the naturalist writers focus on the 'natural' instincts of men that make them products of their environment. A human being is inevitably dependent and bound to her or his social and natural environment. As an integral part of their extraneous context, men lose their individuality and become a homogenous mass.

One of the best known…. [read more]


America's Tactics During the Cold War Research Proposal

… ¶ … America's tactics during the Cold War, the term "soft power" has come to mean the use of policies at the national, regional and local levels that can achieve a wide range of desirable outcomes. One of the desired outcomes of the Saudi Arabian national leadership in recent years has been to increase the number of international visitors that travel to the kingdom each year. Millions of Muslim religious pilgrims already visit the kingdom every year to complete their religious obligations by visiting Mecca, and to a lesser extent Medina, during the Hajj, and a substantial percentage of these pilgrims are visiting other Saudi tourist destinations as part of their experience. Moreover, the Saudi national leadership has invested heavily in developing the infrastructure needed…. [read more]


Modernism, and How the Literature Term Paper

… Both writers are products of minority race and their race and experiences influenced their writing. Morrison was African-American. Her books, famously The Bluest Eye, Sula, Song of Solomon and Beloved, deal with the struggles of growing up debased and disadvantaged in a humiliated sector of America. The novels detail the characters' travails as victims of child molestation; outcasts of society due to differences in race and gender; ravages of slavery (e.g. "Beloved"); and the difficulty of being different ("Sula"). Roth, on the other hand, filled his books (that include Goodbye, Columbus, Portnoy's Complaint, and Everyman) with his Jewish experience; Portnoy's Complaint deals with Jewish identity in America whilst Everyman describes the hardships of growing old in America.

Morrison deals with feminism and the experiences of…. [read more]


Women and the Home Front Term Paper

… From the beginning of the secession crisis President Abraham Lincoln viewed the supposedly loyalist mountain regions as an ideal base for military operations into vital Confederate territory, and a place to drive a wedge into Southern unity. Politically, not to mention logistically, the mountain regions turned out to be less hospitable, and certainly less cooperative, than Northerners hoped. The Southern Appalachians, however, proved equally troublesome to the Confederate command. After an initial burst of wartime fervor, many mountain residents grew increasingly resistant, and then violently hostile, to coercive Confederate mobilization policies. The mountain regions also provided havens for deserters and increasingly fertile ground for bushwhackers, bandits, and resistance movements. At the same time, the war was particularly cruel to the Southern Appalachians, and residents suffered…. [read more]

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