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Prisons an Analysis Research Paper

… The Department of Justice currently supports faith-based prisoner re-entry programs throughout the United States. Prisoner re-introduction to society programs vary from state to state and county to county, leading to a lack of consistency in program availability, accessibility, quality, and implementation. There are no guidelines or rules by which to administer prisoner re-introduction programs, and no clear mandate for such programs.

Most communities lack comprehensive prisoner re-entry programs. Moreover, prisoner re-entry programs are sporadically designed, developed, and enforced. For reentry strategies to work, they must take into account socio-economic variables, issues like population migration, and the need to stimulate legitimate entrepreneurial activities in communities that are too impoverished to support their members.

Current approaches to protect the public upon a prisoner's release.

Protecting the public…. [read more]


Prison Conditions Term Paper

… The Oregon program represents a positive example of how prisons can contribute to the rehabilitation of prisons. Upon an inmate's arrival, the prison is given a battery of tests to identify the mental, social and educational barriers the inmate may confront that will prevent their successful return to society. A detailed plan is then created to help the inmate overcome these troubles through literacy, drug treatment or job training programs. The Oregon program has turned from historical vocational training for low-paying jobs to comprehensive inmate training for jobs that companies have open, like telemarketing and using computers to map water and tax districts from aerial photographs. To ensure accountability, the program tracks inmates by computer and offers small monthly bonuses for good work or study.…. [read more]


Prison Industrial Complex Research Paper

… In addition, the tendency to depend on racists' ideologies and structures to impose punishments and obtain surplus income is more troubling. Privatization of prisons is currently a capitalist move within the prison industry. Prisons run by the federal government are grossly violating human rights; on the other hand, private prisons have demonstrated lack of transparency and accountability (Schlosser, 2008).

In early 2012, a leading U.S. prison firm bought about sixty thousand beds from various correctional centers. As the trend of subjecting more women in prisons increased, the company opened a new facility in Melbourne (Gottschalk, 2010). Currently, the company has discovered Michigan as its latest frontier. Statistics have revealed that stocks of private prison companies are doing extremely well. Early last year, the overall revenue…. [read more]


Prisons as an Area Essay

… As a result, prison officers have a crucial role in the achievement of this role since they need to engage in their work as something enjoyable because they are doing something positive to promote social change of criminals. In order to promote this change, prison officers should not engage with prisoners in undignified and disrespectful ways by simply locking and unlocking them when necessary.

Therefore, these correctional and incarceration facilities should not be used as a warehouse where people are stacked while awaiting to be released. Prisons have been effective in promoting social change when prison officers have engaged more with convicts in appropriate ways resulting in less security problems and bullying. In the criminal justice system, prisons should be considered as the last resort…. [read more]


Prison Rape Elimination Act PREA Research Paper

… ¶ … Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA)

When people in the United States are incarcerated, it is the government's responsibility to ensure their safety and welfare. One of the major problems facing convicts in many correctional facilities is rape. In response, the Prison Rape Elimination Act became a mandatory requirement for every adult and juvenile correctional facility in the United States and military facility abroad effective August 2013. This paper provides a review, critique and comparison of two peer-reviewed journal articles concerning this legislation to determine the Act's scope and intent. A summary of the research and important findings concerning the Prison Rape Elimination Act are presented in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

In their study, "The Passage and Implementation of the Prison Rape Elimination…. [read more]


Prison Reduction of Prison Population Essay

… According to the criminologists, this extra attention towards the community correction will decrease the inmate population for a short period but later this problem will come in front as a giant monster with which the state government will not be able cope up. Almost 67% of the freed criminals are re-arrested and 52% of them are re-incarcerated. They further proposed a plan that the spending of government on the rehabilitation center should be within a limit.

Release of Older criminals:

Another idea that the criminologists put forwarded was to release the old age criminals. According to a report of the American Civil Liberties Union, United States spent almost $16billion of economy each year on the elderly prisoners. By releasing these older criminals, the government will…. [read more]


Prisons Before the American Revolution Essay

… d.). Of course, there are far more than eleven federal institutions in 2011 and far more inmates housed in them. According to Cole & Smith (2006), approximately 161,000 inmates are incarcerated in federal prisons that are operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons.

Federal prisons differ from state prisons on several levels. For one, the 1984 Sentencing Reform Act "established determinate sentencing, abolished parole, and reduced good time," (Federal Bureau of Prisons n.d.). Mandatory minimum sentencing laws have also made federal prisons significantly stricter with regards to sentencing rules and their relative inflexibility vs. state prisons.

Both state and federal penitentiaries house mainly convicted felons; those convicted of misdemeanor crimes usually spend time in county or city jails to fulfill their sentencing. State prisons are,…. [read more]


Prison Overcrowding Term Paper

… Prison Overcrowding: Empirical Analysis of Alternatives to Mandatory Sentencing and Community Sanctions

Theoretical Approaches

History Incarceration and Prison Overcrowding

Who's in Prison

Reasons for Overcrowding

This study focuses on exploring the relationship between prison overcrowding and adaptation of the situational environment in which crime occurs. Specifically the researcher will explore whether a reduction in incarceration of non-violent offenders combined with provisions for more rehabilitation and community support within at risk communities may contribute to reduced incarceration rates, better flow and reduced overcrowding. To achieve these goals the researcher proposes a triangular approach that will combine multiple research methods. The author hypothesizes that adaptations to the incarceration approach including use of more community sanctions and introduction of more rehabilitation programs within communities, combined with shorter terms…. [read more]


Prison Duncan Argues That the Very Metaphors Essay

… Prison

Duncan argues that the very metaphors we employ in the criminal / social justice / penal system limit: (1) our understanding of deviants, and (2) possibilities of reform. Explain both (hint: consider metaphors Duncan uses such as "dirt bag," "slime," "cancer," "war" on drugs, etc.)

Martha Duncan's study Romantic Outlaws, Beloved Prisons (1996) explores the limits of language, specifically current metaphorical language to guide society in addressing the problems of crime. For example, to say that a criminal is a dirt bag implies that like dirt, society can be expunged clean of all criminals. But the character of a human being is not an objective 'thing' and criminality, unlike dirt or slime, has more than one source, and although slime makes a criminal seem…. [read more]


Prison Rehabilitation for Men and Women Term Paper

… Prison Rehabilitation for Men and Women

Despite barbaric origins in the exacting medieval dungeons and torture chambers, prisons have become a vital part of modern life. With a booming population and greater expectations of government to actuate a successful and coherent society, crime and its punishment is of paramount importance. As the French philosopher Michel Foucault asserted, the 18th Century prison system shifted punishment from the discipline of the body to the discipline of the "soul." While the last two decades have seen a rise in incarceration, they have also witnessed a key discussion in the viability of the issues surrounding it.

Four different goals of incarceration and corrections are commonly espoused: retribution, deterrence, incapacitation, and rehabilitation. Each of these goals is the recipient of…. [read more]


Prison Libraries Term Paper

… The IFLA states the one employed as prison librarian should have the necessary qualifications in library skills and the "ability to work in a prison environment...and emphasizes the importance of being aware of prisoners' immediate and potential needs" (Lehmann pg). Positions call for a library director with an ALA accredited MLS or equivalent plus two years experience in a professional capacity (Lehmann pg).

There are many organizations and foundations that contribute to prison libraries. Books Through Bars, founded in the late 1980's by the employees of New Society Publishers, "sends quality reading material to prisoners and encourages creative dialogue on the criminal justice system, thereby educating those living inside and outside of prison walls" (Books pg). While conducting a research study at women's prisons, Katherine…. [read more]


Prison Systems Term Paper

… Although the prison system in the Netherlands has long been considered to be liberal, in recent years there have been drastic changes in the system. Boeij (2002) reports that there are four main reforms that have taken place including: the increase in the size of the penitentiary system, putting inmates in facilities in the region in which they live, the centralization of the prisons with the communities and closer collaboration between police, prosecutors and the jails (Boeij 2002).

Adjustment and Behaviors within prison systems

The ability of a prisoner to adjust to prison life is essential to there ability to survive within the prison system. DeRosia (1998) asserts that just as university students differ in their ability to adjust college, inmates also differ in how…. [read more]


Prison Overcrowding Term Paper

… Prison Overcrowding

Prisoners' rights

Allegations of abuse

Prison overcrowding

Exploding jail populations

Soaring costs

Pressure on correctional facilities

Effects of overcrowding

Competition for limited resources

Aggression

Higher rates of illness

Increased likelihood of recidivism

Higher suicide rates

Prison Litigation

New prison construction

Convert other facilities to prisons

Economic development

Mandatory sentencing

Fills prison cells

Costs

Reducing prison population

Incarceration of drug users

Serious urban crime down

Publicity up

Makes up most prison population

Losing drug war

Incarceration of mentally impaired

Prisons used as hospitals

Prisons as local shelters

Elimination of parole boards

Emphasis on punishment not rehabilitation

Literacy of prisoners

Educational programs in prison

Reduce recidivism

Enable prisons to find jobs when released

Difficulties of programs

Stress practical applications

Creates more tolerable and humane conditions…. [read more]


Prison Inmates Term Paper

… Prison Inmates

Jail or imprisonment is the most common way of penalizing a person if he/she had committed a crime. Prisoners serve a certain number of day, months or years inside the prison, depending on the intensity of the crimes that they had committed. Prisoners are therefore believed to be paying their "dues" to the country by spending a not-so-comfortable life inside the prison cells. But there are some issues that are continuously arising regarding the miserable life of the most prisoners. Included in these issues is the continuously rising number of rape cases, inside the prison cells and prison over crowding, to name a few.

These problems cause turmoil in the society. Many are now asking whether the lives of the prison inmates can…. [read more]


Prison Rape Analysts Continue Term Paper

… In the context of prison life, this means maintaining sexual control over other potential challengers.

In prison life, sexual control is inextricably linked to violence. In the infamous Angola prison at Louisiana, a form of sex slavery was used to keep inmates under control. New inmates, particularly the weak and young prisoners, were then traded among the older and stronger inmates. Any disputes were settled through violence, often with fatal results.

Prison journalists Walter Rideau and Ron Wikberg note that in prisons like Angola, a thread of violence was woven into the fabric of all aspects of prison life. To remain safe and alive, an inmate had to acquire protections through "sheer force of character and the ability to impose (one's) will upon others" (Rideau…. [read more]


Proper Management of Prisons in Developing Countries With the Help of International Organizations Essay

… In Brazil, resource scarcity within various justice system levels amounts to prison overcrowding. For instance, while Brazilian prisons cannot accommodate as many prisoners as those in developed parts of the globe, shortages of judges and police are credited for surging prison populations. The personnel shortages translate into an increase of remand prisoners and pre-trial detainees who are mostly the vast majority of prison populations (Friedman & Parenti, 2013).

While it is not excusable for such inhumane conditions that Brazil prisoners live in, such circumstances need to be placed within the contexts of extensive deprivation across the continent. The fact that poverty is a likened norm for many Brazil, it is clear that the poor living conditions are reflected in life behind prison bars. International organizations…. [read more]


American Correctional System Research Paper

… Prison Reform

The United States has many reasons to be proud, its prison system is not one of them. America has fewer than 5% of the world's population, but nearly 25% of the world's prisoners (Liptak, 2008.) the U.S. has 751 people in prison or jail for every 100,000 in population. Russia is the only other major industrialized nation that even comes close, with 627 prisoners for every 100,000 people. The others have significantly lower rates. England's rate is 151; Germany's is 88; and Japan's is 63 (ibid). These American incarcerated help make up an enormous prison population, which has increased from 300,000 to two million in 30 years, a rate that dwarfs those of China and Iran. In fact, the U.S. leads all countries…. [read more]


Prison Overcrowding Research Paper

… By first reducing the rate at which individuals are incarcerated, policymakers can give prison administrators and officials the room in which to experiment with alternative forms of incarceration and control. As it stands, prisons are so overcrowded that administrators have largely been operating in crisis mode, and any institutional reforms have been in response to a current emergency, rather than born out of careful planning; this is not to say that recent reforms have been ill-informed or misguided, but rather to acknowledge that there is a substantial difference between long-term planning and crisis management. In other words, by reducing the rate of incarceration legislatively and then beginning the process of institutional reform, corrections administrators and officers could go from stacking sandbags to building an actual…. [read more]


Arguments for and Against Prison Privatization Essay

… , 1999).

Arguments for prison privatization

Economic ventures undertaken by the private sector have a key feature of being efficient compared to state run ventures. The argument for privatization of prison owing to the potential efficiency to result follows from this argument. It is observable that private organizations have the advantage of being more rigorous and flexible in making vital decisions relating to the operation of the prison. The aspect of privatization and economic efficiency follows from the fact that private operators will face competition. This on its own is an incentive to provide state services reflective of money value. The efficiency that lack is state operation owing to bureaucratic red tapes is absent in private organizations (Committee, 1996; Thomas et al., 1999). This guarantees…. [read more]


Prison GED Programs Hypothesis Testing Research Proposal

… Secondly, the GED is not as effective as expected due to the course outline of the subjects. The GED only provides the inmates with a certificate equivalent of the high school certificate (Kaprov & Kaprov, 2009). This means that for the person to obtain gainful employment, they have to further their education. This is an enormous challenge as most of the convicted persons in the first place went into crime due to the inability to access education facilities. Therefore, this means that when released, the person goes to the same poverty-stricken home, and does not have means to further their studies. Thus, the program does not achieve the objective of reducing recidivism (Sullivan, 2009). Lastly, the GED program service cannot produce equipped persons due to…. [read more]


Prisons Prison Systems Auburn State Essay

… Inmates were kept in a type of isolation, as they were required to remain in complete silence and were not allowed to speak to each other. The New York system maintained that a "steady, predictable, unrelenting routine of hard work, moderate meals, silent evenings, and restful nights in individual cells would produce men who were, indeed, cured of all vices and excesses." ("The Evolution of the New York Prison System")

Both systems required prisoners to work hard and reflect on their past misdeeds, and hoped that they would come to some sort of redemption and reform. In other words, the basic goal of reformation of a criminal was the same in both systems, they only differed on the way to achieve this goal. Because the…. [read more]


Prison Architecture Criminal Justice Essay

… The effectiveness of the Auburn approach depended on a regime of brutal punishments for breaches of regulations, especially the rule of silence, and therefore required a large staff. Its communal labor programs permitted a broad range of potentially profitable industrial activities. The method and form of Pennsylvania-styled prisons led to smaller staffs but a very narrow range of labor programs (Johnson, 2011).

Since 1960 many prisons and jails have been replaced by new institutions. Electronic and building technologies such as video and audio surveillance, automated entry systems and tempered steel and other high-strength materials, provide the security once guaranteed by walls and high staffing ratios. Many institutions offer vocational, recreational, psychological and socialization programs. Modern-day prisons are increasingly run in a business like fashion and…. [read more]


Prison Overcrowding Is Indeed Ghost Writing

… Mechanisms for early release can help reduce overcrowding in prisons and also facilitate integration and social rehabilitation. Policies and legislations should be put in place to provide for possibilities of early release and parole and the conditions for the former. Early release should be structured in such a manner as to make it a part of the normal process of enforcement of the sentence. Prisoners who wish to apply for parole may be encouraged to do so by the necessary authorities.

There is available empirical data indicating that crowded prisons are stressful and create conditions contrary to any aim at rehabilitation. This has increased efforts of finding ways of reducing the overcrowding. A lot of effort has been directed towards making changes to the design…. [read more]


Prison Overcrowding and Its Effect Term Paper

… A psychologist notes, "As a group of prison researchers summarized in the 1980s, as the problem was just beginning to take shape, 'crowding in prisons is a major source of administrative problems and adversely affects inmate health, behavior, and morale'" (Haney, 2006, p. 2). While that may seem to be a trivial worry with all the other ills facing the criminal justice system regarding prison overcrowding, it can be an extremely dangerous situation for prison personnel. Haney continues, "Among other things, we know that prison overcrowding increases negative affect among prisoners, elevates their blood pressure, and leads to greater numbers of prisoner illness complaints" (Haney, 2006, p. 3). That leads to rising health care costs throughout the prison system, and California has experienced this phenomenon…. [read more]


Prison System Term Paper

… "

Prisons have a revolving door. They have a rate of recidivism that is shocking when compared to the prison or correctional systems of other nations. The prison system is obviously not working if it has inmates returning again and again instead of going back to society and leading productive lives.

Another problem with the prison system is the three strikes law. There is a law that states three strikes one is out. This means if one is convicted three times of certain crimes then they are sentenced to25 years to life in prison without the possibility of parole (Strikes, 1999).

"A study by the Justice Policy Institute, a prison reform group, says California's 10-year-old "three strikes" sentencing law has proven ineffective and discriminatory, though…. [read more]


Policing Social Control and Prison Essay

… Policing, Social Control, And Prison

Policing, Social Control and Prison

There are over two million people incarcerated in the United States today, this comes out to fifteen prisoners for every 100,000 persons (Pager, 2003, p. 937). This is a 600% increase since the 1970s and gives the country the highest internment rate on the planet. Imprisonment has been gone from a penalty reserved chiefly for the most atrocious offenders to one given for a much greater range of crimes and much greater proportion of the population. Recently developed crime policy has led to judges imposing harsher sentences for a wider variety of offenses packing our prisons with an ever growing number of individuals (Pager, 2003, p. 938).

Drug related violence is has become widespread not…. [read more]


Management of Prisons Thesis

… ¶ … prison management from the prison manager's perspective. Effective prison management results in a safer, more controlled prison environment, and leads to staff and inmate safety, as well. From the prison manager's perspective, attaining effective prison management is their primary duty. Today, prison management is often privatized, leading to different goals and objectives in some cases. Prison management usually falls to wardens in the prison system with years of experience in incarceration, so sometimes; bringing in new management techniques can be difficult.

From the prison manager's perspective, there are two distinct schools of management style. There are those who become involved with the prison community (often seen as more liberal), and those who remain in their offices for a majority of their time (often…. [read more]


Federal Bureau of Prisons Essay

… Health Service departments at most of the BOP institutions are accredited by the Joint Commission, and many of these providers are in-house providers. The BOP has over 3,000 health care workers under its auspices, and about 1/5 of those workers are Public Health Service workers from the Department of Health and Human Services. Most of those workers are accredited under Joint Commission guidelines. However, there is a significant exception to this guideline. At Care Level 1 facilities, the Joint Commission does not have to accredit care providers because Care Level 1 facilities serve healthy inmates (DOJ, 2008). Ostensibly, healthy inmates require less medical care than unhealthy inmates. However, healthy inmates still need access to preventative medical care. Moreover, healthy inmates are still at risk of…. [read more]


Prison Systems Essay

… It means employees must be placed in the organization according to the skills, qualification, and experience in their particular field.

Just like employees have the responsibility to work dedicatedly for the growth of an organization, there is an equal responsibility of that organization to provide good working environment to its employees (Guest, 1987). When an organization provides healthy and safe working conditions, its employees feel secure and work with more satisfaction. Moreover, employees must be allowed to work under flexible working arrangements and options. It will help them to achieve a balance between their personal and professional life (Guest, 1987). In this way, they will be able to work more productively which will eventually lead to an improved organizational performance. An organization can only effectively…. [read more]


Bankruptcy Reform Act of 2005 Essay

… The law was ushered in by President Bush on April 20, 2005. (United States Justice Department, 2012) Thereafter a program called the United States Trustee Program under the Department of Justice is vested with the task of governing the affairs of the process and the enforcement of bankruptcy laws. The Trustee program will thus use a "means test" to find if a debtor is eligible for "chapter 7 (liquidation) or must file under chapter 13 (wage-earner repayment plan)." (United States Justice Department, 2012)

Likewise provision has been made in the act to empower the trust to conduct specific audit to determine if a debtor has provided proper documentation and if they are genuine. There is also mandate that the individual must receive proper credit counseling…. [read more]

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