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Second Language Learning Essay

… On the same English tests, Swedish-speaking Finns consistently did better than Finnish speakers. Because the students came from similar backgrounds, one likely explanation was that, when completing the English tasks, the Swedish speakers get more help from their L1 than Finnish speakers, as Swedish, but not Finnish, is related to English.

Supporting this view is Robert & Williams, (2009) finding that Swedish children already knew a lot of English words when they started instruction in English because of the cognates in Swedish and English. However, it is also possible that some readers are not aware of cognates and cannot exploit this source of information to facilitate their reading comprehension (Cook, 2001). In a recent study, we focused on the English reading comprehension of upper elementary…. [read more]


Relationship Between Cognition and Language Development Learning New Words Term Paper

… Language and cognition is relatively new, given the fact that Jean Piaget only began his research the theories in the mid-1900s. Toward the end of the 1900s and more so now, increasing numbers of studies are being conducted to determine the relationship between language and cognition. As can be seen by the articles below, in many cases the rudiments of language development are started very early -- some even in the first few months of birth. Such studies are of interest to educators and parents, as well as those who are working toward the betterment of such illnesses as autism. Although much has been learned about the interrelationship of language and behavior, much still will not be determined until the study of the brain becomes…. [read more]


Learning Theories Research Proposal

… Learning Theories

Abstract, Learned Phenomena

Unlearned Phenomena

Methods of Assessing Learning

Transfer of Knowledge, Skills, Strategies

Vygotsky Views

B.F. Skinner

Albert Bandura

Cognition and Learning

Prominent Theories of Learning

Contextual Influences

Strategies and Metacognition

Self-Regulation in Learning

Motivation

Having knowledge of learning theories and is an imperative in today's teaching environment. This paper introduces, critiques and reviews a number of learning theories and strategies from some well-known and some not-so-well-known scholars and educators. But the key to the issue of learning theories is for a teacher (and a student that is truly motivated) to implement any one or a blend of several to meet the appropriate classroom challenge.

Instances of Learned Phenomena:

In music, when a person achieves an "absolute pitch" that is a learned…. [read more]


Language Acquisition Thesis

… ¶ … Second Language Acquisition

Metacognitive Listening Strategies

The objective of this work is to answer the question of whether metacognitive learning strategies assist in the SLA of listening comprehension. Metacognitive listening strategies have been a source of recent discussion, although this has been historically noted there is a large gap in the research that focuses on the success of language learners in employing strategical metacognitive listening to second language learning comprehension. This work notes the work of Vandergrift et al. (2006) in their development of the 'Metacognitive Awareness Listening Questionnaire' as well as other primary researchers in this field of study including that of Cohen and Macaro (2007, as well as others.

LISTENING STRATEGIES and SECOND LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION

The work of Karen a. Carrier…. [read more]


ELL Language Acquisition in English Language Learners Term Paper

… ELL

Language Acquisition in English Language Learners

Significance

Language Acquisition in English Language Learners

The United States is a country of immigrants, and has been since its inception. However, until relatively recently, immigration did not pose a significant problem for the United States educational system or for many Americans because of the rigid cultural and social expectations for immigrants. New immigrants were expected to assimilate aspects of American culture, especially speaking English, as quickly as possible. Furthermore, schools were not responsible for teaching a new language to immigrant children; on the contrary, these students were expected to learn, in English, even if they did not know any English at all. The task of English acquisition was often left to members of individual immigrant communities. Non-English…. [read more]


Bilingual First Language Acquisition Term Paper

… Infants use multiple cues to determine word boundaries between the ages of six months to 24 months. As early as 7.5 months of age, infants can detect stress patterns in speech and later, phonotactic nuances (i.e., acceptable consonant clusters at the beginning of a word).

Oller's research was aimed at providing empirical research in an effort to support parents who are in search of reliable data with which to base their decisions on child rearing. Oller's methodology included a study that contrasted and compared children who were either being raised in a monolingual English environment or in a bilingual Spanish and English environment. The children were all two months old at the onset of the study. The bilingual children were exposed to both languages equally.…. [read more]


Learning and Cognition Essay

… Consistent changes are not always permanent alterations but he or she always has that learned or prior experience for an activity. There are certain forms of learning that can't be explained, but only through principles of classical conditioning. Therefore, behaviors are also partially the product of cognitive processes since the stimulus-stimulus or S-S theory involves cognitive activity, in which the conditioned stimulus is associated to the concept of the unconditioned stimulus.

Cognition is any mental activity in the representation and processing of knowledge, for example, thinking, remembering, perceiving, and language use. Edward L. Thorndike discovered learning was an association between stimuli in the situation and a response that, for example, an animal learned to make, which was known as the stimulus-response or S-R connection. Learning…. [read more]


Different Preferences in Learning Between American and French Learners in a Multinational Corporate Setting Dissertation

… ¶ … Preferences in Learning between American and French Learners in a Multinational Corporate Setting

The way training is delivered in a corporate environment has a tremendous effect on results. This study investigates the role of culture in the learning styles of adult French and American students enrolled in online training programs at an international university. Using Kolb's learning style inventory, the learning style preferences of respondents in both cultural groups will be classified as divergers, convergers, accommodators, and assimilators, reflecting their general tendencies toward learning environments as conceptualized by Kolb (1985). The assumption is that Americans prefer to learn from action-oriented methods and are more comfortable learning from activities that are not job related, such as role plays and games, than do their French…. [read more]


Lifespan Development Term Paper

… Lifespan Development: Britney Spears

Many people believe that they know Britney Spears. Having grown up in front of a camera, first on Mickey Mouse Club, and then as a major worldwide pop star, her life was covered by the camera. Unfortunately, Spears might be more notable for her personal problems than for her major life success. She had a public marriage followed quickly by two children and a divorce. However, it was her post-divorce behavior that garnered a significant amount of attention. She engaged in some publicly erratic behavior, which was apparently even more dramatic behind the scenes. The breakdown led to speculation by people that Spears was suffering from a bio-chemical disorder, with most people speculating that she was bi-polar. It also led to…. [read more]


Comparison of Learning Between USA and France Term Paper

… ¶ … Adult Learning Styles in the United States and France

Today, the United States and France enjoy a longstanding relationship based on many of the same fundamental principles of democratic thought and pluralism, and both countries are among the leading economies of the world. There are some distinct differences involved in how educational services are delivered and received between these two countries, though, that can affect the effectiveness of one educational approach over another that must be taken into account in curricular development initiatives. Not surprisingly, there is a growing body of research concerning how such differences can be identified and what learning styles are most effective in different cultural settings, and researchers such as Geert Hofstede and educational theorists such as David Kolb…. [read more]


Ape Language Experiments Term Paper

… Ape Speech

Research has been conducted for a long time on questions about the origin of language and how human beings first learned to speak. More recently, research has shifted to various primate studies as to whether or not other primates have what can be considered a language and in some cases whether apes can be taught to understand language and even to speak. Some of the early experiments in this area were seen as promising by some and as self-delusion by others, but the research continued and has produced a number of interesting results that may bring us closer to understanding the genesis of language and how widespread language is in the animal kingdom. Some animals are known to imitate human language without understanding…. [read more]


Bilingualism the Subject of Bilgualism Essay

… These relationships refer to ideas such as that cars and buses both fall into the category of "vehicles," for example.

This understanding is not dependent on vocabulary size, but could be influenced by the structural features of the speaker's language. Bilingual adults are better than monolingual adults at learning new words. Bilinguals use a variety of word-learning strategies with similar efficiency and are less susceptible to interference from conflicting orthographic information during word-learning. Linguistic input co-activates both languages in bilinguals; when bilinguals hear or read words in one language, partially overlapping linguistic structures in the other language also are activated.

In terms of cognitive differences, bilingual people can inhibit irrelevant verbal and nonverbal information with greater ease than those who are monolingual. The inhibitory control…. [read more]


Neuroscience and Human Development Research Paper

… In contrast, motor neurons transmit action potentials from the central nervous system toward the periphery (Seeley et al., 2005).

Neurons and their Electrical Activity

The nervous system is composed of millions of nerve cells called neurons. Neurons are the parenchyma of the nervous system which performs every function of the nervous system from simple sensory functions to complex thinking and analysis. Neurons, upon receipt of stimuli, transmit responsive signals to other neurons or to effector organs. Clark (2005) observes that the anatomy of a neuron is composed of four main parts; the cell body, the dendrites, the axon, and the nerve fibers. Given the importance of each of the neuron components, it is important to discuss how each work separately and in tandem to achieve…. [read more]


Second Language Acquisition Advantages Essay

… There was no evidence that the extreme nationalism and anti-German feeling in France at the time of the First World War had any effect on his bilingualism.

Many other researchers after Ronjat have come to the same conclusion -- that early bilingualism has positive consequences for linguistic and cognitive development. A number of investigators (Volterra & Taeschner, 1978) have suggested that early bilingualism can accelerate the separation of sound and meaning and can focus the child's attention on certain aspects of language. Snow & Ferguson (2007) has argued that being able to express the same thought in different languages will allow the child to "observe his language as one particular system in the middle of several, to examine its phenomena under more universal groups, and…. [read more]


Piaget's Cognitive Development the Webster Research Paper

… In the concrete operational stage, the child starts to distribute with intellectual concepts such as relationships and numbers. At this are children learn mastery of classes, relationships, how to reason and numbers. Furthermore in this level the child increases the aptitude to decenter and comprehends the idea of preservation. This change from not understanding preservation to understanding it is not unchanging. Certain facets of preservation happen before others. They construct onto one another in a process that is hierarchal (Poulin-Dubois, D. 2011). Since the child has established a forward-thinking way of calculation, he is able to understand the perception of conservation and clarify how it works too. Also in this phase, the child move beyond the idea of animism and starts to reason more like…. [read more]


Cognitive Development Children Are Complex Essay

… In one article, recent advances in the study of visual attentiveness in infants was summarized and found to be dependent on four factors: alertness, spatial orienting, attention to object features, and endogenous attention (Colombo, 2001). These factors vary in importance at different stages of development, and understanding and applying these variances in directing activities may have a significant effect on cognitive development (Colombo, 2001). For instance, Colombo (2001) found that "at 8 weeks of age, the infant may have considerable skills in spatial orienting and object attention, but bringing the infant to the alert state will be the primary obstacle in demonstrating those skills. At 16 weeks, attainment of the alert state is generally not such an obstacle, but both spatial and object attention are…. [read more]


Memory on Learning Disabilities Term Paper

… Chronological age definitions. As have other researchers, Siegel (1989) suggested that IQ is not relevant to the concept of learning disabilities. Specifically, she noted the bi-directional influence of IQ and achievement, arguing that lack of achievement may in time exert a negative influence on IQ. Instead, Siegel (1989) suggested that students be identified as having learning disabilities if they score below age expectancy in achievement (particularly, reading of pseudowords) and are not mentally retarded. Lyon and Fletcher (2001) suggested that discrepancy criteria be abandoned and replaced by comparing achievement in academic areas with age and grade levels.

Bayesian procedures. Alley, Deshler, and Warner (1979) described an approach to identification based upon earlier models proposed by Wissink, Kass, and Ferrell (1975). Bayes' formula combines prior and…. [read more]


Interpret Criteria for Child and Adolescent Development Research Paper

… ¶ … Child and adolescent development process is made up of about thirteen years. An inclusion the infancy and toddler stages make it eighteen years. Through these years, the child grows as well as develops in a number of ways. Several theories have been advanced in order to explain the concept of child and adolescent development. Each of these theories suggests that children develop in almost similar ways. The criteria for their successful development are numerous. Successful emotional as well as cognitive development are though of as two different and separate processes. According to Bell and Wolfe (2004,p336) the two developmental processes are intricately bound to one another. The authors indicate that the two processes are linked as well as act upon each other in…. [read more]


Relationship Between Metacognition and Academic Achievement in College Students Multiple Chapters

… Also, test performance was likewise connected with metacognitive regulation in that he was able to discover correlations among performance and global and local judgments.

Duffy and Meloth (2009) looked into metacognitive adjustment by calculating monitoring correctness at the local and global level on a sequence of exams that were multiple choice given as a part of a course that was a semester long. They were able to discover that monitoring correctness stayed stable throughout the semester in regards to the exam. They were able to find out that students were more right in their worldwide predictions than their local forecasts. They discovered that student performance on the tests was connected to local monitoring correctness.

Metacognitive Awareness Inventory

Schraw and Hartley (2006) were the ones that…. [read more]


Classroom Introduction- the Way Humans Essay

… Discourse Analysis in Language Pedagogy- Specifically, discourse analysis in the classroom has important applications in the areas of phonology, grammar, and vocabulary development.

Phonology -- Generally, phonology can be used to understand ethnic basis for what the student is bringing into the classroom. Within the classroom structure though, pronunciation and intonation are the most vibrant ways we can use discourse analysis. Traditional pronunciation pedagogy breaks down each part of the sound and works within that microstructure to understand dialect. From a discourse analysis method, though, the problem becomes far more complex. What sound precedes, what sound comes after -- for when words and sounds follow each other in speech they may undergo considerable changes and modifications. What then happens is that depending on the way…. [read more]


Teaching Common Idiomatic Expressions Through Intensive Reading for Young Adult Pre-Intermediate ESL Students Research Paper

… Teaching Idiomatic Expressions

An idiom is an expression, word, or even phrase that has a unique of figurative meaning that is understood colloquially but that is often unrelated to the literal meaning of the word or phrase. American English, for instance, is rich with idiomatic expressions, with about 25,000 terms or words in common usage. Idioms are unique in that they often have cultural significance, resulting in an inability to translate them into another language. When translated, many idioms lose their flavor and meaning and become completely unintelligible and meaningless. This, of course, is the challenge when teaching ESL students. Because American English is so full of idioms, they must learn to use them in a robust manner, yet often there is no equivalent phrase…. [read more]


Code Switching Term Paper

… Code Switching

Although it sounds like something straight from a James Bond action thriller, the term "code switching" is actually used to describe those cases wherein a bilingual speaks to another bilingual with the same linguistic background and changes from one language to another in the course of conversation (Wei, 2000). Code switching is also used because it can help convey more meaning than a single language provides rather than the speakers' specific preferences for the one or the other language (Veronosi, 2000). In an increasingly multicultural world, understanding how people acquire language and apply it in multi-lingual situations has assumed greater importance than ever, and, not surprisingly, linguists have contributed to a growing body of research into this area in recent years. The purpose…. [read more]


Theories of Learning and Educational Psychology Term Paper

… ¶ … Learning

Educational Psychology

Multiple Choice: select the best answer

The ultimate goal of teaching is knowledge lifelong expert learning motivation volition

Which one of the following factors does NOT influence a person's skill and will to learn?

Common sense

Knowledge

Motivation

Self-discipline

Another term for self-discipline that is characteristics of self-regulated learners is common sense context motivation volition

When studies are based only on observations, the results should be expressed as cause-and-effect relationships descriptions principles theories

In what specific type of research would a researcher be likely to serve as a participant-observer?

Correlational

Descriptive

Ethnographic

Experimental

The most likely correlation between height and shoe size of adults is anywhere between +0.00 and +0.50 close to zero negative positive

Which of the following one…. [read more]


Child Development: 18-Month-Old Essay

… An opportunity to collect additional data about the child's developmental progress would include getting a better idea of the child's total vocabulary and also an idea of how many words he can understand. Although these are somewhat subjective measures, it is hard to get a count from the brief video. However, the child seems to understand many of the objects that the mother is pointing out to the child. Some research has indicated that there can be differences in crucial aspects of early language development that correlates with socioeconomic status.

The most important findings were that significant disparities in vocabulary and language processing efficiency were already evident at 18 months between infants from higher- and lower-SES families, and by 24 months there was a 6-month…. [read more]


Community Colleges in America Term Paper

… In addition, community colleges have traditionally striven to increase access to higher education through an open admissions policy -- often not even requiring a high school diploma -- and low, or no, tuition." (Kane and Rouse 65)

Joseph F. Kett's "The Pursuit of Knowledge under Difficulties: From Improvement to Adult Education in America, 1750-1990" deals with the evolution of adult education over the years. It starts out with self-education as it is portrayed in American history before it was formalized: the first universities didn't appear in the United States until the late 1800's. The author also deals with various class and social differences that were caused by the lack of availability of adult education although the advent of industry ultimately necessitated this development. As the…. [read more]


Social Contexts of Development Term Paper

… Social Contexts of Development

The social influence on human development is discussed. The role of parents, teachers, peers, family members and work colleagues in an individual's development is reviewed. The theories of development that includes development theory, cognitive theory, and moral theories are reviewed within the framework of human development.

Social development can be defined as a method of systematizing human energies and activities at higher levels to attain superior results. The use of human capability is enhanced in the course of development. Social development can also be explained as an 'upward directional movement of society from lower to higher boundaries of competence, understanding, originality, preference, achievement and other positive attributes'. (Social Development Theory: (www.icpd.org/development_theory/)Development of individuals and societies lead to an increased freedom of…. [read more]


Nature of Cognition Term Paper

… While Soong (1999) reported cases where eliminating or reducing the exposure diminished the negative effects of the lead exposure, other research has not found this. The children involved were of kindergarten age, and Soong acknowledges that lead poisoning in younger children, especially two years old and younger, causes more devastating disabilities. It was once thought that lead levels as high as 25 [micro]g/dl] would be safe, but Soong found that exposure as low as 25 could cause measurable and irreversible neurological damage, and some believe that measures as low as 10 [micro]g/dl] might be cause for concern. Lead poisoning is preventable by vigilant monitoring of lead levels in children's blood.

Genetic

Physicians have known for some time that chromosomal abnormalities can cause cognitive difficulties (ex:…. [read more]


Static Learning Research Proposal

… Static Learning in the 21st Century

The Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) test, mandated by Senate Bill 103 during the 76th Texas Legislative Session, assesses students in grades 3, through 11. Two of the tests are benchmarks for passing to the next level. The state of Texas requires students who do not pass the third grade, standardized test, to repeat that grade level and students in the eleventh grade must pass all tests in order to graduate (TEA, 2007). Test scores have come to dominate discussion about schools and their accomplishments. Amrein and Berliner (2002) found that educators at state and national levels use test scores to evaluate programs and allocate educational resources. A school, whose math test scores have dropped, might allocate…. [read more]


Exist Between Alcoholism Term Paper

… g., Merikangas & Gelernter, 1990). A large-scale twin study of women suggests that the substantial co-morbidity between major depression and alcoholism is also a result of genetic factors that contribute to both disorders (Kendler, Heath, Neale, Kessler, & Eaves, 1993).

Aside from showing a shared variance between depression and alcoholism, studies also have shown a possible causal link in the relation between the two to account for part of that variance....Overall, then, findings show that alcohol abuse and dependence on alcohol can be major predisposing factors to depression.

Tomer (2001), on the other hand, suggests that while alcoholism is certainly not rational (i.e. goes against the best interests of the actor in many cases) this does not mean that it is not learned behavior.

There…. [read more]


Video Assessment the 18-Month-Old Child Essay

… His happiness in play and in task fulfillment is something that should also be noted in assessments both as a means of ensuring appropriate perspective in such assessments and as a means of creating positive communication with parents and others who read the assessment (Wortham, 2008; Colorado Department of Education, "Finley's Parent Teacher Conference, n.d.). Sharing information about the observed emotionality of a child is important in caregiving relationships due to the lack of direct parental involvement of parents in many activities, as well, though it is clear the child in the video is capable of making strong emotional bonds and has one with the adult in the video (again, presumably though not certainly his mother).

Learning Activities

Though nothing in the video suggests anything…. [read more]

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