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Bacteria Pseudomonas Annotated Bibliography

… The conference included many different notable researchers who have been looking at the issue of waterborne bacterial infections in hospital settings. This is particularly concerning due to the increase in patients who have secondary infections after hospital stays. The conference looked at the prevalence of waterborne pathogens, where they come from and methods that have been used to mediate them.

The various lectures at the conference are summarized for the reader which makes this a particularly useful article. Since waterborne infections are among the major problems discussed in the articles gathered (this pathway seems to be one of the most common for the transference of pseudomonas aeruginosa), this article gives more information about how this problem is conveyed than any other. It is a seminal…. [read more]

Antibiotics Have Saved Essay

… To try to prevent this, two drugs instead of one are often used. Because mutations are rare events, the virus population in a patient is unlikely to get both resistance mutations very quickly, but this usually happens eventually (Charlesworth & Charlesworth, 2003, p. 80).


The research showed that pathogens are able to mutate rapidly in response to the presence of antibiotics in ways that diminish the effectiveness of these initially powerful drugs. The problem of antibiotic resistance was shown to be further exacerbated by the practice of many physicians to routinely prescribe antibiotics whether they are needed or not, and the inexplicable demand on the part of healthcare consumers for antibiotics even in cases where they will not be effective or may even be…. [read more]

Report on Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Essay

… Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria

The Prevalence and Threat of Antibiotic Resistance Bacteria

The rate at which bacteria are becoming resistant to drug treatments that are intended to eliminate or weaken them is growing rapidly. For over half a century, antibiotic drugs have been prescribed to treat bacterial infections, and as their medical popularity was mounting, bacteria and microorganisms developed ways to withstand the effects of antibiotic drugs. The increasing amount of antibiotic resistant bacteria poses a severe threat to global health as it compromises the effectiveness of antibacterial treatment, contributing to greater incidence of bacterial infection, fatalities, and health care expenses (1). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 444,000 new cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis alone surface every year, and are responsible for causing at least…. [read more]

Antibiotic Resistant Streptococci Term Paper

… Antibiotics are completely useless against viruses, but doctors often prescribe antibiotics "just in case," rather than waiting for a positive throat culture for strep throat, for one common example.(17) An ultra-resistant form of strep throat would be particularly deadly, given its outbreak potential and transmissibility.

Another issue is the (over)use of antibiotics on cattle and poultry farms. This contributes to the evolution of antibiotic resistant bacterial evolution in two separate ways. Antibiotics allow farms to raise more livestock per acre, because they make cattle and poultry more resistant to bacterial diseases that thrive in close-packed host communities. But consumers are exposed to these antibiotics unnecessarily because they remain concentrated in meat products. The other problem connected to antibiotic use on farms is that promising new…. [read more]

Antibiotic Resistant Organisms Term Paper

… This is described to an extent in the scenario presented above. In addition, many argue that modern medicine has contributed to an increase in the number of infections that people have. For instance, the use of chemotherapy to treat illnesses has saved many lives but people on chemotherapy are more likely to contract bacterial infections. This increases the use of antibiotics. In addition social conditions such as homelessness, also increase the number of infectious outbreaks. All these issues contribute to an increase in the use of antibiotics and as such they contribute to the increase in antibiotic resistance (Brown & Layton, 2008).

According to an article found in Clinical Microbiology and Infection mutation is one of the causes of antibiotic resistance. According to the article…. [read more]

Antibiotic Resistance and Probiotic Interactions Term Paper

… Antibiotic Resistance and Probiotic Interactions

Studies suggest that antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in the healthcare community that needs to be addressed from a scientific perspective. This paper reviews the nature of drug resistant strains of bacteria and the relationship between probiotic use and disease immunity.

Specifically the researcher explores the growing trends in antibiotic resistance and non-conventional therapies for combating bacterial infection, which include use of probiotics to relieve bacterial infection, inflammation and help restore the balance of healthy bacteria in the gut. The researcher also reviews evidence supporting the use of probiotics in lieu of or as complementary therapy when antibiotics are used to treat certain illnesses.

The prevalence of antibiotic resistance has stimulated much interest in the use of probiotics or…. [read more]

Efficiency of Antibiotic Resistance Gene Term Paper

… What is Known about Tetracycline?

Tetracyclines and its derivatives are antibiotics which inhibit the bacterial growth by stopping protein synthesis in the bacteria. Bacteria must synthesis proteins into energy in order to survive, mush in the same way we synthesize fats, carbohydrates, and proteins into energy that can be used in our body's various systems. Teetracycline compounds have been widely used for the past forty years as therapeutic agent in medicine. The emergence of bacterial resistances to these antibiotics has n limited their use in recent times. Three different specific mechanisms of tetracycline resistance have been identified: tetracycline efflux, ribosome protection and tetracycline modification [23].These are common mechanisms found in other situations and will be discussed in detail.

Tetracycline efflux is acccomplished through thhe use…. [read more]

What Can We Do About Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria? Lab Report

… ¶ … Lab Report Template (Save as: YourName_Module#_Report.doc)

Antibiotics were once called 'wonder drugs' because of their ability to fight some of the most serious diseases plaguing humankind. However, just as other species have changed through natural selection, bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics have survived and reproduced in greater number than less resistant strains. Slower development of new antibiotics and a spike in antibiotic prescriptions has precipitated the evolution of hardier and more virulent strains of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

According to the Centers for Disease Control (2005) antibiotic-resistant bacteria develop when mutant strains of resistant bacteria survive a treatment, and "that one bacterium can then multiply and replace all the bacteria that were killed off. Exposure to antibiotics therefore provides selective pressure, which makes the…. [read more]

Role of Antibiotic Therapy Essay

… " (Lopez, et al., 2006) Subgingival plaque samples were also reported to have been taken from all teeth at baseline 3, 6, 9 and 12 months for the counts of 40 subgingival species using checkerboard DNA -- DNA hybridization." (Lopez, et al., 2006) The study results report "…Mean PD was reduced from 2.80 _ 0.45 at baseline to 1.95 _ 0.05 at 12 months (Po0.001) and from 2.39 _ 0.41 to 1.95 _ 0.10 (Po0.001) in the M1A- and SRP-treated patients, respectively. Corresponding values for relative mean AL were 10.07 _ 1.30 -- 9.77 _ 0.34 (Po0.001) and 9.94 _ 0.28 -- 9.77 _ 0.26 (Po0.001). Percentage of sites exhibiting BOP were 40.6 _ 18.3-14.0 _ 1.4 (Po0.001), and 38.5 _ 5.1 -- 19.0 _…. [read more]

Infection Trajectory: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Essay

… 26).

IV: Rates of MRSA Infections in the U.S.A.

The rates of infection are quite staggering. In the U.S., in the year 2005 alone, there were over 94,000 MRSA infections in which over 18,000 people died (Barnes & Simpson 2010, p. 24). Among the hospital infections which occurred in 2005 MRSA accounted for over 50% of all hospital related infections (Barnes & Simpson 2010, p. 24). Barnes & Simpson present studies showing that in any given sample of 1000 admitted patients nearly 46 of them will be individuals who are already infected with MRSA, surprisingly, until the 2006 study, the CDC had estimated rates to be ten time less (Barnes & Simpson 2010, p. 24). The rate of infection and the degree to which it…. [read more]

Typhoid Fever Disease Essay

… The severity of the disease is fueled by the fact that proper treatment of patients with the disease through efficient antibiotic therapy is increasingly becoming more complicated by strains resistant to the existing antimicrobial agents (Lynch et al., 2009). Generally, this disease is considered as an acute, life-threatening febrile illness that can cause severe health effects if it remains untreated.

As a potentially fatal multi-systemic disease, typhoid fever illness is likely to result in severe cases when it's left to develop. If the illness remains untreated, it's likely to progress to intestinal hemorrhage, delirium, bowel perforation, obtundation, and even death within one month of infection. Moreover, the survivors of the disease are also likely to experience permanent or long-term neuropsychiatric complications.

Therefore, the possible estimated…. [read more]

Proteus Vulgaris Term Paper

… ¶ … diseases associated with the bacterium called Proteus vulgaris, outlines its history, explains how the bacterium is transmitted, and its diagnosis, besides discussing prevention of the diseases that proteus vulgaris causes, and their treatment. It also includes an outline of the paper and bibliography.

What is Proteus Vulgaris?

Proteus vulgaris (also known as P. vulgaris) is a rod-shaped, gram negative bacterium that is usually found in the intestinal tracts of animals, but it is sometimes also present in soil, stagnant water, fecal matter, raw meats, and dust. It most commonly causes urinary tract infection such as cystitis (infammation of the ladder) and pyelonephritis (inflammation of the kidney), but may also cause wound infections, sinus and respiratory tract infections.


The genus Proteus was first…. [read more]

Justification: Assessment of Proteome Changes in Model Research Proposal

… ¶ … Justification: Assessment of Proteome Changes in Model Bacteria in Response to Antibiotic Treatment Using Combined Mass Spectrometry and Bioinformatics Techniques

The following research proposal describes the investigation of proteomic changes in a model bacteria after exposure to a previously validated antibiotic agent. This research is situated in a context of growing need for antibiotic development in response to growing resistance, which requires a greater understanding of internal bacterial mechanisms. A mixed methodology approach combining techniques of mass spectrometry and bioinformatics is selected and described for this research in response to two research purposes: that of better identifying proteomic composition and mechanism and antibiotic impact, and in vetting the methodology implemented as an effective means of investigation. Justification of this methodology is also provided.…. [read more]

Psuedomonas Aeruginosa Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Epidemiology Research Paper

… 101-104, 137-138). Most patients will present with a moderate to high fever and 50% will be hypotensive. Skin manifestations may be present and include papules, blisters, diffuse rash, and ecthyma gangresnosum (flat, ulcerating pustules). Patients may appear sleepy and confused, sweating, agitated, or weak. It is important to note, however, that symptoms will vary depending on the tissues and organs primarily affected. For example, patients suffering from infective endocarditis will present with leukocytosis, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and azotemia, in 40%, 60%, 30%, and 40-50% of patients, respectively, and two thirds of these patients will have an abnormal X-ray.

The most common locations for P. aeruginosa infections are the blood, heart, lungs, urinary tract, central nervous system, bones and joints, skin and soft tissues, eyes, ears, and…. [read more]

Prokaryotes Consist Term Paper

… Some bacteria are capable of forming a surrounding capsule that serves as a protective shield around a bacterium and help the cell to evade immune response. The formation of a granuloma is also a protective mechanism for bacterium. A granuloma is a lesion formed in response to infection by some intracellular pathogens. Viable bacteria are walled off in the granuloma and thus prevented from further colonization. In antigenic mimicry, a bacterial cell may be able to trick the immune system by presenting antigens (molecules recognized by antibodies) that are similar to host antigens. Immunological cells therefore have difficulty distinguishing between the bacterium and a host cell.


When penicillin became widely available during the Second World War, it was a medical…. [read more]

New Diseases the Proliferation Term Paper

… (Levy 1992)

Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE)

The Virginia Department of Health explains that Enterococci are a bacterium that is present in the Vagina and the Bowels. (Control of Antibiotic Resistant Organisms in Home Settings 2003) This bacterium has a tendency to spread to wounds, the urinary tract, and the bloodstream. (Control of Antibiotic Resistant Organisms in Home Settings 2003) The Journal of Community Health Nursing, asserts that the bacteria have enormous survival advantages in hospitalized patients and can persist on environmental surfaces for prolonged periods of time, surviving heat and desiccation (Shay, Goldmann, & Jarvis, 1995). Once thought to be relatively benign, enterococci are now recognized as a potent source of infections, particularly bacteremia and endocarditis (Stosor, Noskin, & Peterson, 1996). The National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance…. [read more]

Impact of MRSA in X-Ray Department Term Paper

… MRSA in the Deparment of Radiology

As the mean age of the general population increases, and as we stand on the threshold of the senility of the baby boomers, geriatric health care is becoming a more significant issue. Medical and nursing care for the elderly is at a premium and specialists in the field can name their own jobs as the work is both physically and emotionally demanding. The patients who require care in both hospital settings for are perhaps the most challenging. The multiple medical problems, the poly-pharmacy and increased incidence of methicillin resistant staff aureus infections in this population is a significant cause of nosocomial illness and can contribute to morbidity and mortality. There exists a small but definite risk of nosocomial infection…. [read more]

Tuberculosis: Causes, Effects, Symptoms and Measures of Prevention Essay

… The country spends millions of dollars on the purchase of TB drugs as well as the enforcement of TB-controlling legislation and policy (Kaye and Frieden 59). In the U.S., the rates of TB infection are highest among minority groups because of socio-economic differences - including high unemployment rates, poor living conditions, and low sustainable income levels (Kaye and Frieden 60). Developing countries have high incidence rates for more or less the same reasons. The U.S. opens its doors to millions of refugees from these countries and thousands of Americans travel to these high-risk nations annually. The risk of contraction and the associated costs, therefore, remain extremely high and almost unavoidable. The only way to change the course is to effectively control TB worldwide.


TB…. [read more]

Bacterial Meningitis in Children Term Paper

… Bacterial Meningitis in Children: An Overview

Bacterial meningitis represents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide. Meningitis is defined as inflammation of the protective membranes, known as meninges, that surround the brain and spinal cord (Chavez-Bueno et al., 2005). The most common types of bacteria that cause bacterial meningitis in children aged 3 months and older are S. pneumoniae and N. meningitdis, and are responsible for 80% of cases in the United States (Brouwer et al., 2010). Symptoms of bacterial meningitis in children vary between infants and older children: infants typically present with fever, poor feeding, irritability, lethargy, and vomiting, while older children generally present with more clinically characteristic meningeal irritability, vomiting, photophobia, headache, and neck stiffness (Brouwer et al., 2010). Risk…. [read more]

Microbiology Microbes Microbial Metabolism Essay

… Schneider, 2012). Clostridium botulinum exists in seven strains depending on the antigenicity differences of the toxins. All of them are characterized by their distinct capability of producing a protein haemotoxin, enterotoxin, or neurotoxin. The ones that causes botulism in human are type A, B, E, and F, while the ones that causes botulism in birds and animals are type C and D.

Clostridium botulinum has some of its main limiting growth factors such as pH < 4.6, extreme temperature, competing micro-organisms, food preservatives, and low water activity. Its strains may be psychotrophic and mesophilic at the same time, having a growth that ranges from 3°C to 43°C (38 F. To 110 F). Meaning that there is possibility of strains growing at room temperatures and also…. [read more]

MRSA What Is the Causative Agent Term Paper


What is the causative agent for MRSA? The British Association of Medical Microbiologists reports that MRSA (Staphylococcus aureus) is a bacterium frequently found in the noses of up to 30% of "normal healthy people." It is often found on human skin, as well. But if the Staphylococcus aureus gets inside the body it can cause "important infections such as boils or pneumonia," the report continues. The problem with this particular strain of this bacterium is that there are no antibiotics that can knock it down once it has entered the internal part of the human body. The medical Web site points out that individuals can become carriers of MRSA in the same exact way that they can carry the ordinary Staphylococcus aureus -…. [read more]

Helicobacter Pylori Helicobacter (Genus) Term Paper

… Immune Response Avoidance

The severe immune response to H. pylori is characterized by an increase in IgG antibodies in the plasma that remain present for months following infection. Production of IgA antibodies also increase upon infection by H. pylori. An intense inflammatory response also follows infection by H. pylori, which leads to infiltration of numerous B. And T cells into the gastric mucosa. H. pylori is able to increase the number of T cells infiltrating the mucosa. It is thought that this ability to influence T cell activity may be the key to H. pylori's evasion of the immune response (Hofman et al. 19).


Tests for the detection of H. pylori infection include blood antibody tests, urea breath tests, stool antigen tests and endoscopic…. [read more]

Esbls Prevention and Education Extended Essay

… Implementation

The pamphlet will be made available at several central locations in the area where the project is taking place, to ensure that the target nursing staff has access to the material. Personal discussions will also take place between the author and other nurses on duty regarding the information and the pamphlets themselves, as a measure of encouraging the knowledge contained in the pamphlets to truly be disseminated and absorbed amongst the staff. Through this distribution, it is hoped that significant improvements in ESBLs knowledge will be created.


Several methods will be used to determine how successful the plan was in achieving the desired knowledge gains. First and most simply, a series of three statements has been included in the pamphlet as a means…. [read more]

Chronic Lung Disease Care Planning Research Paper

… Chronic Lung Disease Care Planning

Respiratory Care

A Case Study in Chronic Lung Disease Care Planning

A Case Study in Chronic Lung Disease Care Planning

A 65-year-old Caucasian woman is the subject of this case study. Symptoms include a dry nocturnal cough lasting two weeks, mild morning sore throat, and anorexia. The cough is worse when lying down and all symptoms have worsened over the past two days. Chest X-ray (CXR) revealed hyperinflation of lungs, increased AP diameter, and evidence of emphysema. Physical examination revealed prehypertension, body mass index (BMI) of 30.2 (obese), normal sinus rhythm, tachypnea, SpO2 at 98%, and leukocytosis with a left shift. Patient self-efficacy is low and she remains resistant to further diagnostic testing, possibly due to depression and/or cost concerns,…. [read more]

Microbiology Assessment

… Furthermore, there is criticism abound with regards to new drugs, especially since there is strain of TB that has been proven resistant to drugs. According to the StopTB Partnership, and a WHO working paper in 2006,

"Multidrug-resistant TB threatens the potential salutary impact of DOTS programmes. Although progress in widespread DOTS implementation will help prevent the further emergence of drug-resistance, expansion of effective DOTS-Plus programmes is vital to stem the contribution of drug-resistant cases to the overall TB epidemic. Too few countries have national policies for the diagnosis and treatment of MDR-TB. In some of those that do, treatment commonly fails to meet acceptable standards."

Thus, as aforementioned and as one always states with regards to deteriorating health and social situations, more could always be…. [read more]

Infectious Disease of Animals Research Paper

… TB transmission in households can be prevented through adequate ventilation, education on cough etiquette and respiratory hygiene. In healthcare facilities workers who provide acre to patients with TB should follow control procedures so as to prevent the infection from passing from one person to another (Knechel, 2009).


People with TB should not be stigmatized in the society but embraced. If there is no stigmatization of TB then people will not be afraid to get tested and hence get the treatment required hence prevent any spreading of the disease. Political leaders should advocate for and provide funds for programs that help in the creation of TB awareness to the public. In this way people with get adequate information on TB and hence will be on…. [read more]

Tuberculosis (TB) Prevention and a TB-Treatment Intervention Term Paper

… Tuberculosis (TB) Prevention and a TB-Treatment Intervention for Males Newly Released from New York City Prison/Correctional Facility (Riker's Island)

Despite significant progress in detecting and treating tuberculosis (TB) in recent years, TB remains a significant health threat, especially among institutionalized populations such as prisons. While the experts remain divided as to the precise causes for the inordinately high incidence of TB in the nation's prisons, the reasons typically cited include the fact that prisons house higher percentages of lower socioeconomic individuals that have not had access to healthcare or that have ignored their healthcare needs prior to incarceration, including alcoholism, substance abuse patterns and a higher rate of HIV infection, all of which can promote the contraction and spread of tuberculosis. The purpose of the…. [read more]

bacterial infection called Tuberculosis Essay

… Uninsured and insured tuberculosis-diagnosed individuals vary considerably in their health predictors such as health behaviors, risk factors, preferences, socio-demographic traits and environmental influences. Measuring every single systematic difference between the two groups, of which a few aren't apparent, is near impossible, as is measuring them accurately.'
Comparison of Tuberculosis-related Health Outcomes between the United States and Israel
Despite achieving considerable headway in the battle against tuberculosis (forty-three million lives have been saved since the year 2000), there is still a long way to go. More than 4,000 individuals succumb to tuberculosis per day, since certain disease strains have failed to react to extant antibiotic 'cocktails.''The disease is reportedly constantly declining in Israel when compared with the US, where one in seven patients succumb to the…. [read more]

Gingivitis Periodontal Disease Periodontitis Onset Essay

… Gingivitis

Periodontal disease


Onset of gingivitis

Other diseases

Four stages

There are two primary types of periodontal disease. One is described as gingivitis and is relatively mild. It can be treated successfully and usually it is done so by a brisk oral treatment. Untreated, gingivitis can proceed to develop into a more destructive periodontal disease that can affect the individual's overall health and welfare. It is much more difficult to treat and much more destructive. Many experts believe that periodontal disease is always preceded by gingivitis but several studies have provided other sources that should be considered before making such a statement.

Periodontal disease

Periodontal disease can best be described as a disease of the gums and mouth that is often times evidenced, or…. [read more]

Production of Food Products Research Paper

… These animals are forced to eat food that would ordinarily not be part of their natural diet in the interest of producing a less expensive meat product for the consumer.

The ill effects of factory farming are felt not only the animals involved in the process. The effects are more far reaching than that. Among the other effects are the human illness caused by the drug-resistant bacteria associated with the wide-spread use of antibiotics and water and air pollution caused by the inordinately large accumulation of animal waste. Ordinarily neither of these conditions presents itself on a traditional family farm. On such farms the animals are provided living conditions more conducive to their historical environment. As a result, they are subject to less exposure to…. [read more]

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