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Women in Management and the Glass Ceiling Has it Been Shattered Models and Best Practices Research Paper

… Women in Management and the Glass Ceiling

In the last 20 years, women have shattered the glass ceiling that once kept them out of senior management positions in business, politics, and the military. In the current modern world, women have attained more career opportunities and legal rights than men have. Throughout the history of women, motherhood and wifehood was regarded as the most significant profession of women. However, in the 20th Century, women in the U.S. won the legal right of voting and increasing their job and educational opportunities. Women in the 20th century fought to a large degree accomplishing to re-evaluate perceptions towards the role of women in the society (Persons, 1915).


During the colonial period, women earned a living by working at…. [read more]

Representation of Women Through Media Thesis

… However, some prime-television showed that only 3% of women were represented as homemakers. Some British television ads by Guy Cumberbatch portrayed men cooking often than women. This was the effect of the feminist era, which made advertisers reluctant in portraying women doing housework. The Harper's Bazar magazine printed an article, "Basket-Ball for Young Women," promoted basketball as an important sport for college women. This article did not suggest that women were incapable of playing basketball; rather it showed that women had equal chances to women in sports (White 2009).

Evidence of continued patriarchy in the media

Depiction of women in the print media

Women who left their careers in pursuit of full-time mothering generated substantial media attention. This saw to publication of articles since the…. [read more]

Advertisements an Analysis of Two Term Paper

… Advertisements

An Analysis of Two Advertisements

This paper will look at the Dockers "It's Time to Wear the Pants" ad and the John White men's shoe ad.

The first main point about the Dockers ad is that it features some of the elements of the "culture war" noted by Herbert Gans in Popular Culture and High Culture. It contrasts values pertaining to an older view of masculinity with the apparent lack of manliness in today's culture. The advertisement appeals to the intellect by using words and nothing but words. There are no pictures to effect a visceral reaction. It relies on the images conveyed by the reading to make its point. It uses words like "men," "heroes," "androgyny," and "manhood" as well as phrases like…. [read more]

Media Misrepresent Women? Essay

… In essence, women end up seeing themselves as mere sex objects. In some other instances, a woman's ego and self-esteem can be negatively affected.

Misrepresentation of women in the media has many negative effects. Key amongst these is the resulting real world misconception of women. To rein in the said misrepresentation, we must all be prepared to make the relevant changes in areas that matter. On this front, people could start by boycotting all the publications and other media products that in one way or the other objectify women and instead patronize those that do not. Klenke on the other hand recommends that women reject jobs that degrade them (126). Further, it pays to put more women in charge. In my opinion, should more women…. [read more]

Women's Movement Term Paper

… On May 21, 1919, it was passed, 42 votes more than necessary being obtained. On June 4, 1919, it was brought before the Senate, and after a long discussion it was passed, with 56 ayes and 25 noes. It only remained now that the necessary number of States should ratify the action of Congress. Within a few days Illinois, Wisconsin and Michigan, their legislatures being then in session, passed the ratifications. One after another the other States followed their examples, Tennessee being the last of the needed 36 States to ratify, in the summer of 1920, to exercise their right of suffrage. On the evening before President Wilson made a strong and widely published appeal to the House to pass the bill it was passed…. [read more]

Language Data Analysis Chapter

… This certainly may be true in some cases, but it is hardly the norm anymore. Very few cultures are so isolated today that their visual (or material or linguistic) grammars and systems are untouched by other "grammatical" systems. A few such cultures come to mind, such as that of Burma or some of the most repressive African regimes. North Korea can probably be ranked among this company.

But a country like South Korea is hardly isolated. The grammar of its visual symbols and whole semiotic system is shot through with foreign elements. This is in no way meant as a criticism of South Korea: It is true also of the United States, France, South Africa, and Argentina. Kress and Van Leewen argue that even in…. [read more]

Room of Her Own," Feminist Term Paper

… While the word is simple enough, there is enough conflict in its interpretation, which many have averred to be a good reason to castigate it in any form. No work on female gender identity would be complete without mentioning the different ways in which feminists identify themselves. Affirmative Action Feminism is about equal representation. Amazon feminism is related to the female hero in fact or fiction. Anarcho-feminism is synonymous with radical feminism. Christian feminists are Christian and pro-life. Constructionist feminists grudgingly conform to traditional societal norms. Cultural feminists subscribe to the women are more kinder and gentler than men theory. Difference feminists believe that they are subservient to a society created for men by men. And so on. Different women based on their personalities tweak…. [read more]

Sex in Media Masculinity Term Paper

… ¶ … devoted to the way in which women are portrayed in the media with regard to her role in society and in human consciousness. Less such research has gone into the way in which the male is portrayed by the media. Increasingly however the effects of this portrayal has showed itself as manifest in society, and especially among the youth. Below are examples of the "man's man" as portrayed in film, television and advertisements, with a consideration of how they are portrayed and the reasons for this portrayal.

The Man's Man

Increasingly during the 1980's and 1990's, men have begun to be popularly betrayed as strong, muscular and fearless in the media. The trend is mostly ascribed to actors such as Sylvester Stallone and…. [read more]

Captain Morgan Black Spiced Rum Essay

… A number of the specific elements contained within this advertisement play into the bad-boy stereotype and the representation of this particular product as indicative of a rebellious nature to attempt to get men (and perhaps women to purchase it for men) to buy it. As previously denoted, the most overt element is the picture of the smiling captain, his sword drawn, adorning the front of the bottle of Black Spiced Rum. Other elements are distinguishably more subtle, such as the fact that just below the neck of the bottle there are two swords crossed with one another encircling the letters "CM." Additionally, the cork of the bottle is present on the table, carelessly strewn near the glass as if the liquor was consumed in haste.…. [read more]

Gaze and the Culturally Essay

… Her subsequent analysis of the gaze, and especially what she calls "face-off" ads, in which the male model stares back at the viewer, hints at this phenomena by describing its inverse, that is, the returned male gaze, but for some reason she does not bother delving into whether or not ads which challenge the viewer with "primal" displays of dominance are actually successful (Bordo 188). However, she does at least acknowledge how the gaze of the viewer, whether or not they intend to reinforce the cultural codes being exhibited in any given image of the human body, ultimately cannot do anything but reinforce those codes, because one cannot make meaning out of these images without first determining the intended meaning. Thus, while Bordo's analysis is…. [read more]

Image of Women in Novels by Saudi Men in the 1990 2012 period Research Proposal

… Time plan


Time (months)








Consultation with course tutor

Proposal writing


Data collection

Data analysis

Report writing

Report presentation

Expected study challenges

The main challenge of this particular study is expected to be in content collection, where comprehensive content examination shall be taken on to establish the depiction of women in the novel. This is expected to be quite time consuming and tedious given a novel's standard page-size. In order to overcome this challenge, the study methodology is designed to include content based on the author, thus assist in narrowing down the size of sample for efficient handling.


Al-Sudeary, M. (2012). Representations of the Veil in Modern Fiction. Interventions, 14(4), 533-550.

Arebi, S. (1994). Women and…. [read more]

Good Man Is Hard Research Paper

… ] one of [her] own children" she is correctly identifying herself as the ultimate source of the Misfit's misdeeds over the course of the story (O'Connor 22). Thus, instead of finding grace or forgiveness, the grandmother's last (and only useful) act is actually to condemn herself, such that her subsequent death may be seen as the story meting out some form of twisted, darkly humorous justice.

After considering each of the aforementioned discussions of Flannery O'Connor's short story "A Good Man is Hard to Find," it became clear to me that overall, the story takes a disdainful view of the grandmother and uses the final scene a means of highlighting her various moral and intellectual failings. In particular, the essays which best helped to answer…. [read more]

Fashion Photography Advertising in High End Women's Magazines Term Paper

… Fashion Photography Advertising in High- End Women's Magazines


Fashion Photography in the Form of Advertising, for High-End Women's Magazines

Table of Illustrations

Literature survey: Origins / history / theory of fashion photography advertising in high-end magazines

Recent Developments of Fashion Photography Advertising

Case Studies .10

Appendix of Illustrations.

Table of Illustrations

Helmut Newton, "Rue Aubriot," Vogue France. Paris 1975

Helmut Newton, Vogue France, 1979, Paris, Yves Saint Laurent Collection

Helmut Newton, "Self-Portrait with June and Models"

Diego Velazquez, Las meninas (1656)

Helmut Newton, Cover of Vogue France, September 1986

: Andy Warhol, Self-Portrait (1964)

: Steven Meisel, Calvin Klein "Euphoria" Fragrance campaign, 2010

: Steven Meisel, "Madonna hitchhiking (from Sex)," 1993

: Steven Meisel, "Make Love not War" cover of Vogue Italia, 2009

Typology:…. [read more]

Fashion and Appearance Central to the Construction Essay


The objective of this work is to answer the question of how is fashion and appearance central to the construction of social identities and to present a discussion that includes reference to specific examples.

The literature examined in this study clearly indicates that fashion and appearance are central to the construction of social identities. For example, the work of Christopher Breward (1999) entitled; "The Hidden Consumer: Masculinities, Fashion and City Life in 1860-1914" states that the study of "...masculinities, fashion and urban culture is rarely addressed in the same work since the dominant wisdom has long held that consumption was a feminine enterprise and that pre-War British and American men were reluctant consumers…. [read more]

Advertising Give Women Impossible Expectations and Empty Promises Essay

… ¶ … individuals are inundated with countless numbers of advertisements in a variety of formats. As we surf the web we see advertisements posted on websites, receive advertisements in our email, and see personalized advertisements on social networking sites. These types of ads are not really new, they are just presented in a new medium, and have not by any means replaced the more traditional advertising formats seen in magazines, in commercials and displayed on billboards. A large number of these advertisements target and manipulate women and young girls. From dictating the latest fashions, to providing normative information about body structure, to convincing women that one brand of cleaning product is better than another; many advertisements are designed to speak directly to women. To some…. [read more]

1994 Smirnoff Advertisement. Incorporate Three Term Paper

… This could be misconstrued as a mockery for some patriotic Americans. Others may view this as a representation of some of the things that are good about America -- our freedom, our cities and the Statue of Liberty.

But the whole advertisement is based on that simple concept of illusion. It simply implies that what's in that bottle can change your perception of things, i.e. linking the Statue of Liberty with a very famous pose by Marilyn Monroe. Could that connote that drinking Smirnoff can loosen up even the stodgiest people?

Obviously, back in the 90s, Smirnoff was developing a campaign that would reach out to younger consumers without alienating their core audience composed primarily of people over 35. The ad offers a delicate balance…. [read more]

Authentic Representations of Self Universal Term Paper

… " (83) He speaks longingly for the outside toilet in his old house,

At the end of the yard of the terraced house in which he had once lived, there had been an outside toilet. Sitting within the evil-smelling little shed, its door swinging on broken hinges, he had sometimes glimpsed one solitary star hung motionless above the city...He was earthbound, mortal...One star was all a man needed. (83)

With the closing scene of the story, Charles dies in the theater seats without his family even noticing that he was having a heart attack. It is a sad end to his unfulfilled life. In his final hours he simply wishes for the simple joys that he once had.

It is clear without question that through…. [read more]

Mona Lisa Smile: Gender Differences in Film Essay

… What Watson is doing is going against the tide at the college; she is trying to instill a sense of feminism in her female students, which is like an uphill battle against a stiff wind. In the first place have a liberal / feminist woman from UCLA teaching art history at Wellesley, one of the most conservative colleges in America, is setting the stage for conflict. According to critic Roger Ebert, the film would have been "more absorbing" if Watson and her students were "fighting their way together out of the chains of gender slavery" (Ebert, 2003). But that is not the case at all, and it is more like Watson fighting to get her points across to a college where women are asked to…. [read more]

Business Communication Effective Essay

… This is to enable employees to work together more effectively as a team and provide quality customer service.

Apart from sensitivity training, managers can use employee support groups to increase and promote tolerance in the workplace. Another method of increasing tolerance in the workplace is through mentorship programs especially for minority and women. These mentorship programs assist in developing leadership skills that allow employees to develop opportunities for advancement (Beaver and Hutchings, 2005). This tolerance tool assists management in ensuring that minorities and women reflect on their presence and value to the labor pool. This enables them to define themselves as employees of a company rather than a group within the larger workforce. This increases their confidence and allows them to elicit their potential (Beaver…. [read more]

Gender and Ads Essay

… Gender hierarchy in advertisements both confirms and creates gender hierarchies in reality. "In contrived scenes in advertisements, men tend to be located higher than women, thus allowing elevation to be exploited as a delineative resource," (43).

Licensed Withdrawal

The Hermes advertisement substantiates Goffman's analysis of licensed withdrawal. Goffman notes, "women more than men, it seems, are pictured engaged in involvements which remove them psychologically from the social situation at large, leaving them unoriented in it, and…dependent on the protectiveness…of others," (57). Licensed withdrawal is a visual phenomenon that reflects gender norms and social roles. Patriarchal societies present females as being not only subordinate, but also helpless. They are not active participants in the creation of political, social, and economic realities; they are withdrawn and passive…. [read more]

Advertising Applying Goffman to Modern Essay

… There is a two page ad by Tommy Hilfiger. Though it is a group photo, more than half of the models are male. There are a few males on the floor, in reclined positions, touching each other. There are also males who are standing upright and looking directly into the camera. There are two males that are touching themselves in the way Goffman would call the Feminine Touch. Therefore, this photo is dynamic in its display of gendered roles, as it falls in line with some of his ideas and also opposes them at the same time. None of the women in this ad fall into any of Goffman's categories of female representation, making this ad all the more interesting to analyze. This ad both…. [read more]

Gender and the Fashion Industry: Blaming Gay Term Paper

… Gender and the Fashion Industry: Blaming Gay Men for the Emaciation of Women

One of the most recent controversies particular to the fashion industry that has spilled over into the larger media conversation about female beauty is the shrinking BMI (Body Mass Index) of fashion models. Some major fashion shows, most notably the 2006 show in Spain, have attempted to instate a cut-off BMI of 18.5 for the fashion models exhibiting designer's clothing. However, the way that this issue has been phrased in the media has proved troubling. Many media sources, such as one blog called 'Feminine Beauty' have targeted, not commercial or cultural pressures that encourage women to tailor their bodies to fit the image of the moment -- whether that be fat or…. [read more]

Marketing Analysis for the Olde Distillerie Term Paper

… Marketing Analysis for the Olde Distillerie

The spirits industry the world over has been faced with some tough challenges in recent years as more and more consumers make the switch to wine and beer. The Olde Distillerie has not been immune to these trends either. This company is a small independent Scotch whisky distillery based in Dumfrieshire, South-west Scotland. As a consequence of the stagnant/declining UK market, the company has decided to investigate the sales potential overseas. The purpose of this study is to provide the first stage (secondary data) of a comprehensive research program by identifying one market that can subsequently be explored in greater depth through primary research. The market environment for four potential countries is provided to this end (i.e., Eire the…. [read more]

Art Violence and Social Engagement in Colombia Research Proposal

… ¶ … Colombia is the third-largest recipient of military aid from the United States and is at a critical juncture in its turbulent history. More than three million people have been displaced in Colombia during the past decade alone, and violent deaths and kidnappings remain alarmingly high. While violence is nothing new to the people of Colombia, their response to its sources and causes have been portrayed in the visual arts in various ways, with one of the most recent manifestations of this being portrayal such as the "The Skin of Memory," developed by the anthropologist Pilar Riano-Alcala and the artist Suzanne Lacy in collaboration with a multidisciplinary team in Colombia. Because art must also serve a social function and civic responsibility, this thesis evaluates…. [read more]

People Join Fraternities and Sororities Term Paper

… Instance of hazing are comprehensive of but are not constrained to the exertion of liquor, paddling, and the emergence of redundant tiredness, scavenger hunts, public gimmicks, morally dilapidating or disgracing games and actions. Literacy associated with hazing is an instrument in the eviction of this attitude. Henceforth, literacy is given to the people by the University to assure that brotherhood and sisterhood campaigns, advisors, faculty advisors, and fellow members, realize that hazing is not legal and will not be put up with. (Greek Letter organizations) Hazing is strongly protested by all sisterhood and brotherhood campaigns and is not put up with. The actual fact is that hazing is an illegal activity, strictly kept away in Greek organizations.

Those who are new to college and the…. [read more]

Letter of Recommendation Essay

… This enhances one's capability to begin and handle transformation. Within the collaborative team, acquiring an optimistic attitude including the influence change seems to have on other people plays a role in efficient conflict management as well as handling of arguments; i.e., having the ability to negotiate, meet half way, and looking for the very best options that yield good results (Xavier, 2005). My recommendation to Jack and Lara utilizing this as the foundation is to make certain that they manage their adverse feelings and employ constructive vessels to vent all of them i.e. they might either write or spend time on art depending on their individual abilities. Moreover, I'd personally also recommend them to not be judgmental or presumptive of what the other person is…. [read more]

Likeability Is Effected by Management Dissertation

… The best leaders are able to balance the emotional and the logical, underscoring the need for continual improvement and innovation to ensure challenging objectives are accomplished (Den, Deanne & Belschak, 2012). Theorists and researchers alike show that just creating a culture of trust and transparency is not enough, team members want someone to hold them to a standard of what they can achieve, and help them get to that level of attainment when and if they need help (Cavazotte, Moreno & Hickmann, 2012). The leader emerges as coach and mentor, a person capable of creating the combination of transformational factors that gain subordinates' commitment to a challenging goal or vision, while being transparent and trustworthy enough to gain cooperation, all underscored by a high level…. [read more]

What Are the Benefits and Limitations of Animated Characters in Contemporary Advertising? Dissertation

… Animated Characters in Advertisements

The History of Animated Characters in Advertisement

The Efficacy of Animated Characters in Advertisement

The Benefits of Animated Characters

The Limitations of Animated Characters

Conclusion and Areas for Further Investigation

Unlike the early days of animation and mass advertising when animated characters were still novel and largely unknown quantities, the choice of whether or not to use an animated character in a contemporary advertisement must be informed by the ample research and analysis regarding the benefits and limitations of these characters that has emerged over the intervening years. However, determining these benefits and limitations is not so simple as drawing up a list of positives and negatives, because the utility of animated characters depends upon a number of subjective details one…. [read more]

Semiotic Analysis of a Celebrity Essay

… This ad operates upon the signs of western beauty and the traditional ideology of women. By traditional standards, this is a highly effective ad. Feminists would not agree. A semiotic discussion of the ad reveals the modus operandi used by the advertisers to entice consumers to purchase as well as to emulate Kardashian in other ways.


Abrams, N., Bell, I., & Udris, I. (2001) Studying Film & Studying the Media. Oxford University Press: UK.

Austin, T. & Barker, M. (eds) (2003) Contemporary Hollywood Stardom. Oxford University Press: NY.

Berger, J. (1972) Ways of seeing. Chapter 1, 7 -- 10; 45-47. Penguin Books: London.

Burgin, V. (1977) Looking at Photographs. Available from: 2012 June 23.

Chandler, D. (1995) Semiotics for Beginners. Available from:…. [read more]

Uncle Tom's Cabin - Fiction Term Paper

… "5

The North primarily used images of the brutality of slavery in their depiction of Stowe's chronicle. Both in text and drawings the Union drew on the grotesque physical evils of slavery to rally support for Emancipation. The power of the visual spectacle opened the eyes of Northerners once ignorant to the evils of slavery.

The harsh Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, was one of the factors which impelled Harriet Beecher Stowe to write Uncle Tom's Cabin. This bust image of Anthony Burn, whose trial under the Act touched off riots and protests by abolitionists and citizens of Boston in 1854, was drawn from a daguerreotype. The print depicts scenes from his life. 6

Perhaps because of the immediate impact of physical pain and the…. [read more]

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