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Richard N. Albert's the Jazz-Blues Motif Essay

… Richard N. Albert's "The Jazz-Blues Motif in James Baldwin's 'Sonny's Blues'"

Richard N. Albert's argument in his critical essay, "The Jazz-Blues Motif in James Baldwin's 'Sonny's Blues,'" is that Baldwin may have intentionally made some gaffes in his characters' discussions about music as a device "which emphasizes a coming together in harmony of all people -- not just Sonny's brother and his people and culture" (par. 3). The blues are inherently linked to the mood and the plot of the story (par. 4). The message of blues music, just as the message of the story, is of just as much importance as the form (par. 5). This also ties into the depth and desperation of the black experience is also reflected in this music, and…. [read more]


Listening "Blues After Dark." Belgium Term Paper

… Role(s) of bass: The bass serves to provide a deep baseline, keeping the overall sound downbeat and somber.

Role(s) of drums (including sticks or brushes or mallets): Use of brushes at beginning creates a very light sound as the sax plays.

Role(s) of horn players: The alto saxophone is the primary instrument in this piece. Much of the time, the other players are not even touching their instruments in fact.

In Greater Detail:

For your selected solo within this song:

Identify the Solo: Saxophone played by Sonny Stitt

How did the solo progress from beginning to end?

The solo begins the song with a downbeat, torch song sound to it, picking up tempo to the point where it is a series of runs before the…. [read more]


Jazz Is a Complex and Challenging Essay

… Jazz is a complex and challenging for of music. The genre is also one of the most diverse, making it important to distinguish between different types of jazz. Compared with rock, jazz involves a vast array of song structures and sonic elements. Rock relies heavily on steady beats, usually in 4/4 tempo. Jazz, on the other hand, uses unconventional time signatures as well as more straightforward ones. Both jazz and rock share similar roots in African-American folk music, and both genres have influenced one another.

Jazz began in conjunction with the blues, as a purely African-American art form that became embraced increasingly by mainstream audiences and listeners. As the commercial music industry developed in the United States, certain types of jazz and jazz performers became…. [read more]


Jazz Pedagogy Term Paper

… Jazz Pedagogy

When it comes to pedagogy, "the art of teaching" (Mish 912), there are many different interrelationships among different theories of knowledge, theories of learning, conceptions of curriculum and approaches of broad inquiry for the purposes of schooling. Every teacher is faced with a challenge to effectively convey his or her message of knowledge and inspire today's youth. It takes a certain amount of passion and consistency to pursue such a career. It takes a certain amount of leadership and guts to effectively captivate the student with subject matter, unless of course the subject is jazz. Jazz has the ability to open the soul, inspire a range of possibility in its creation and remains a rebel among music genres as it continues to bend…. [read more]


Development of Jazz and Blues Term Paper

… ¶ … jazz and the blues. The roots of jazz and blues, which have become synonymous with American music, lie in New Orleans, and spread out across America and the world from the traditional African-American slave music that traveled here from Africa in the 18th and 19th centuries. Historians point to the "Congo Square" area of New Orleans as a place where slaves gathered and created music in the early 19th century, and that this was really the birth of jazz and the blues in America (Gioia). Another writer notes, "Whatever the real influence of African music on jazz and blues, however, it is certainly true that neither genre would exist if black slaves had not been forced across the Atlantic to America" (Knight 14).…. [read more]


Jazz and the Civil Rights Thesis

… Jazz and the Civil Rights Movement

An Exploration of Situation and Style

From Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin and Toni Morrison's Beloved to the African-American painter Charles H. Alston's portraits, art forms have traditionally made the emotions of the American civil rights movement more tangible. Throughout history, though, no art form has been more associated with the plight of the African-American than music. In fact, the Negro spiritual first marked the issue during the pre-Civil War era. Even after the Civil War, these spirituals became songs of the civil rights movement, beats that civil rights warriors would sing as they marched for their freedom.

Because of music's monumental contribution to the civil rights movement, it is not hard to imagine that something of a…. [read more]


Blues Leadbelly Told Alan Lomax Essay

… This is not to say necessarily that the lyrics focus on this, but the sense got out from the songs is related to this. For example, in "Ain't Nobody's Business," the sense is that the person is reluctant to any outside opinion and somehow disappointed in his condition ("There ain't nothing I can do, or nothing I can say, Some folks will criticize me. So I'm gonna do just what I want to anyway, And don't care if you all despise me.") This can be interpreted as a revolt against the society he lives in. Similarly, in "Nobody Knows You When-You're Down And Out," the disappointment is with the closer society and the intimate relations. For instance, "Well, once I lived the life of a…. [read more]


Pop Culture Term Paper

… Jazz and Popular Culture

Within every genre of music, there are innovators who continue to push the edge of that genre. Classical music had innovations in every generation, from Bach, Haydn and Beethoven to Stravinsky, Bernstein, and Shostakovich. Jazz, too, has evolved from a synergism of many different folk and tribal styles to a more formal definition of a true, 20th century phenomenon. One of the most interesting aspects of jazz, though, surrounded the manner in which the different styles and subgenres mimicked popular culture and exemplified the way African-American music and social change remained melded.

Jazz emerged out of the African slave culture from a synergy between various tribal aspects (rhythm, scales, improvisation, syncopation) and European musical tradition (harmony, chromaticism, instrumentation, even hymns). One…. [read more]


Use of Music Therapy Seminar Paper

… ¶ … Blues through History of Slavery and the Clinical Applications of Blues Form in today's therapy

History of American Slavery -- Brief Overview

In the year 1619, first African slaves were transferred to the North American colony of Jamestown, Virginia. They were brought here to help in the production of crops like tobacco, which were considered to be lucrative. This even marked the beginning of slavery in America, which turned out to be the biggest curse for the country. Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, slavery was a common practiced all over the American colonies. Slaves, who were of African-American origin, played a great role in the development of the economic foundations of the new country. In the year 1793, the cotton gin was…. [read more]


Pioneering Jazz Musician, Sidney Bechet Term Paper

… In 1945, he moved to Brooklyn and started teaching music to supplement his unstable musician wages. He taught a young man named Bob Wilber the rudiments of both the clarinet and soprano saxophone. After high school, Wilber moved into Bechet's house so that he could have more in-depth lessons. Today, Wilber is a leading exponent of the soprano sax and clarinet, and with his own group, the Bechet Legacy, he plays in the Bechet tradition.

Bechet returned to France in 1952 and was warmly received there. While in France he recorded several hit records, which provided fierce competition with the sales of pop records. Bechet was considered one of the great soloists of early Jazz and France provided inspiration for many of his songs, including…. [read more]


Jazz in Context to the Harlem Renaissance Essay

… Harlem Jazz

Genesis of Jazz: The Great Migration and the Harlem Renaissance

Music, as with all art and other cultural elements -- indeed, just like culture itself -- is in a constant state of evolution. New artists bring subtle individual variations that are built upon by contemporary and subsequent artists, and so genres evolve and blossom into new genres, styles, and sounds. At times, however, new types of music emerge on a more concentrated timescale due to more substantive and rapid changes in culture. Both types of musical evolution can be greatly impacted by the movement of populations of people, which generally creates a separation from one set of cultural influences and the meeting of new cultures and influences. Irish immigrants to the United States…. [read more]


james baldwin sonnys blues story Essay

… 37). Similarly, the father had 'heard the wood of the guitar' when his brother died, having been run over deliberately by a car full of white men taking amusement in their killing (Baldwin, 1957, p. 29). When Sonny practices the piano at Isabelle's parents' house, they experience it as 'torture,' (Baldwin, 1957, p. 36). Sonny also recognizes that the singing at the revival meeting comes from a place of suffering, must come from that dark place, but that it is somewhat 'repulsive' that is the truth (Baldwin, 1957, p. 41).
As much as music is linked to suffering, music also holds the keys to salvation and human connection. Music drives Sonny to live his life to its fullest potential, in spite of his emotional struggles…. [read more]


Them in Sonny's Blues by James Baldwin Essay

… Hem in Sonny's Blues By James Baldwin

Blues People

There are a number of thematic issues that are existent in James Baldwin's short story entitled "Sonny's Blues," which details the lengthy relationship between a pair of African-American brothers, and that of their surrounding family, during the mid-20th century in a setting that largely takes place in Harlem. In addition to being a decidedly jazz influenced piece of literature, this tale also deals with subjects such as substance abuse, both of which can be considered recurring motifs in Baldwin's work. However, for the most part these themes are merely used by the author to reinforce the authority and the power in what serves as the author's primary theme: that of desperation, desolation, and the struggle for…. [read more]


Sonny's Outline James Baldwin Research Paper

… Later, Sonny left Harlem in order to escape from the heroin use, but was unable to run from his dark feelings. He says, "The reason I wanted to leave Harlem so bad was to get away from the drugs. And then, when I ran away, that's what I was running from" (101). Upon his release from jail he is finally able to come to terms with his emotional problems. He tries to explain to his older brother who functions as the story's narrator but his words do not accurately convey the struggle Sonny has had to deal with. Finally the narrator is able to see "that music, which was life or death for him" would be the only thing to keep Sonny away from harm…. [read more]


Cool Jazz a Brief History Research Paper

… Brubeck was furious. Brubeck recruited another sax player and his new group was soon playing to critical success. Desmond returned to San Francisco, seeking reconciliation with his former band mate and friend. Encouraged by his family, Brubeck eventually made peace with Desmond and the two went on to collaborate with the Dave Brubeck Quartet, an immensely popular jazz group that enjoyed international acclaim for the next sixteen years (NPR). In a 1952 article for Downbeat, jazz critic Nat Hentoff credited Desmond for much of the Quartet's success, calling Desmond's alto playing both rhythmic and lyrical.

Desmond was a difficult man to get to know. Friend and biographer Doug Ramsey wrote that even Desmond's ex-wife, Duane Desmond Kaye, was virtually unknown to all but his inner…. [read more]


Slave Narrative and Black Autobiography Term Paper

… Several blacks were even admitted to the Military Academy.

The white intellectual community came to see black literature as somewhat formulaic. The linguist Geneva Smitherman in Talkin and Testifyin. For Smitherman, Signifyin (g) is a black "mode of discourse" that is a synonym of "dropping lugs; joanin; capping; [and] sounding." She believed the slave narrative to be characterized by eight common features:

indirection, circumlocution metaphorical-imagistic (but images rooted in the everyday, real world) humorous, ironic rhythmic fluency and sound teachy but not preachy directed at person or persons usually present in the situational context punning, play on words introduction of the semantically or logically unexpected. (Gates, 94)

It is interesting to note that many of these characteristics are to be found in the Rhythm and…. [read more]


Music and African-American Life in "Sonny's Blues Essay

… James Baldwin, "Sonny's Blues"

James Baldwin's role as a public intellectual in the Civil Rights era cannot be understated. As an example, we might consider this particular anecdote, which is from Jon Wiener's 1988 interview with the novelist Gore Vidal, who was related to Jacqueline Kennedy and thus spent time with President John F. Kennedy:

JW: What is the joke that you heard Kennedy telling about James Baldwin?

GV: He called Jimmy Baldwin "Martin Luther Queen." He thought that was wildly funny. That's very Kennedy. The worst epithet that the Kennedys had for a man was that he's a "woman." (Vidal 109)

It is worth noting first that, like James Baldwin, Vidal was gay and out of the closet even in the pre-Stonewall era: therefore…. [read more]


American Musical Genres: Rhythm Research Paper

… R&B encapsulates music from artists with such a wide range as Johnny Lee Hooker, Ray Charles, James Brown, Earth, Wind and Fire, Stevie Wonder, Michael Jackson, Public Enemy, and Usher. As author Richard Ripani notes, "R&B has not only retained its traditional core styles, but has also experienced a 're-Africanization' over time," which allows so many varying artists to become a part of the collective (Ripani 17).

In listening to music predominantly characterized as R&B today, one may not begin to make the connection between this contemporary pop music and the more instrumentally-based R&B of the past. However, most contemporary R&B artists consistently note their heroes and musical influences as some of the musical greats who headed up the genre so many years ago. Popular…. [read more]


Negro Spirituals and the Development Term Paper

… The theories about the origin of jazz are many. The most commonly accepted theory is that it originated in New Orleans. This was a result of many influences including African polyrhythms, European classical and American Negro spirituals. This then spread rapidly in the turn of the century culture, and within two decades it had become the most popular form of music in the biggest cities of that time in the country - New York and Chicago. It is felt to be a wonderful form of music and some even ascribe the origin of the music to the same non-people who built the pyramids. They returned after quite a few thousand years because they were unable to stand the types of folk music that were being…. [read more]


Rolling Stones Bio Thesis

… Like the Rolling Stones before them, these two heavy metal bands were influence by Chicago and Delta Blues, marrying the style with religious and controversial iconographies.

The Rolling Stones' music, style, and persona continue to influence bands everywhere. The Rolling Stones' have had such a large impact on music, culture, and society that they were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1989. Despite their many hiatuses, and line-up changes, the Rolling Stones have continued to produce great music and continue to tour the world. In 2006, the Rolling Stones had the highest-grossing North American tour, bringing in $139 million. Additionally, during their "Bigger Bang" Tour in 2005, the band managed to gross $437 million, making it the top-generation tour in history…. [read more]


African-American Duality of Identity: Literary Term Paper

… (enotes, 2004)

Sonny's Blues" was first published in 1957 and was collected in Baldwin's 1965 book, Going to Meet the Man. It is noteworthy that in addition to his considerable literary education, Baldwin became a street preacher early in his life, and religious themes appear throughout his writings. Thus, his experiences, although strongly grounded in the African-American experience do not entirely parallel the kinesthetic experiences of Sonny, or the rather nerdy narrator brother of "Sonny's Blues." When the tale begins, the narrator learns only from a newspaper that his younger brother, Sonny, has been arrested for dealing heroin. The narrator learns about his brother from book learning, rather than the street or real experiences because he has become so isolated from his community and its…. [read more]


Record Producer Analysis Term Paper

… Arif Mardin: Record Producer Analysis

It is difficult to nail down a production style for Arif Mardin because he has produced so many genres of music over the last forty years. For a young man from Turkey to become one of the best producers ever in America, Mardin's life had to take some unexpected turns (Small and Taylor, p. 52). Never anticipating a career in music, much less such a distinguished one, Arif Mardin's first love of music was with Jazz (Small and Taylor, p. 52). He attended a concert in Turkey and had the fortune of being introduced to Dizzy Gillespie and Quincy Jones (Droney, N.p.). According to Mardin, it was that meeting that forever altered his life path (Droney, N.p.).

The path that…. [read more]


Rock: A Genre Term Paper

… The band is noted for its use of reverb and complex lyrics such as found in its 1972 hit "Reelin' In The Years."

Chicago: This band was one of the first 1960's bands founded with English Progressive Rock as an inspiration, although it drew upon many notable American influences. It remains a ballad-based rock band. It primarily makes extensive use of classical horns and other non-rock sounds in its instrumentation. This is particularly notable in such hits as the 1976 "If you leave me now."

Ramones: A Queens-based punk rock band, one of the first punk bands -- some even call the band the founder of the genre, although many British bands would dispute this distinction. What is not in dispute is that the Ramones…. [read more]


Charlie Parker Music Term Paper

… These houses also normally employed a solo piano player who was called "Professor" by the girls. Jelly Roll Morton had also taken up employment as a professor and that had resulted in his being kicked out from his family. The importance of New Orleans as the center for Jazz ended when Storyville was closed down by the Navy. But, by then the spread of Jazz had started and gradually it became America's Classical Music, and finally made the long trip to Carnegie Hall. (The origins of Jazz)

While the title of creator of Jazz was claimed by Jerry Roll Morton, the different forms have their own claimants of creators. Jazz in its orchestrated form has three creator claimants - Art Hickman, Ferde Grofe and Paul…. [read more]


Music Appreciation Essay

… Music Appreciation

Describe the characteristics of the twentieth-century concept of melody. Refer to at least one listening example in your response. (Textbook p.301-302, 309-310)

Melody only seems to have taken a back seat in contemporary music when compared to old times. Melodies of innovative new composers are often hard to read as they turn to scales which are not the minor and major, seeking to find inspiration from the medieval, whole-tone, pentatonic and other diverse fold scales. In addition the angular contour of the contemporary melodies renders it difficult for both the listener and performer. Melodies with distant notes have been referred to as, "Instrumentals" because they are easier to play than to sing. Octave displacement is a new technique used by the composers when…. [read more]


American Popular Music Term Paper

… Music

An American popular music classic, "Blue Moon" has been covered countless times. The most famous version is arguably the one performed by Elvis Presley but both older and newer recordings offer unique interpretations. The original "Blue Moon" was written by Richard Rogers and Lorenz Hart in 1934, when the songwriters were under contract to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM). The song underwent four incarnations before Rogers and Hart penned the version that would become a commercial success. The first incarnation of the song was entitled "Prayer," and was written for a film called Hollywood Party. According to the Lorenz Hart.org Website, "In its second life the "Prayer/Blue Moon" tune was given a new lyrics and became the title song of the 1934 M.G.M film Manhattan Melodrama which…. [read more]


Pop Is Tomorrow's Classical- Paul Term Paper

… " Although...removed from the music's more traditional folk music origins, it no less captures the contemporary music of our day - rock -- just as Bach and Beethoven did in their day (Ode To Joy from the ninth symphony, for example)." (Reed)

In the early years of true Rock and Roll, circa 1950s, modernized versions of Classical pieces were already emerging. Billy Storm's "I've Come of Age," Elvis Presley's "Tonight is so Right for Love," and Jackie Wilson's "Night" ended this decade with an emerging fascination with borrowing themes and pieces of Classical music that would shape Rock for years to come. "The popularity of classical borrowing is not in any way diminishing. It spans all musical genres and its prevalence is widespread. As new…. [read more]


Censorship in Music Term Paper

… The Spanish-born Pablo Casals (1876-1973), who enjoyed a spectacular international career as a violin and cello virtuoso and conductor, was considered to be one of the finest musicians of his day. However, he had a rather harsh assessment of rock and roll in the early 1960s, one that should be viewed through the filter of a person whose life was devoted to European fine-art music.

You want to know what I think of that abomination, rock 'n' roll? I think it is a disgrace. Poison put to sound! When I hear it I feel very sad not only for music but for the people who are addicted to it. I am also very sorry for America-- that such a great country should have nothing better…. [read more]


Elvis Presley Term Paper

… Elvis and Black Music

The Influence of Black Music and Culture on Elvis Presley

Ongoing celebration of the music and (still ever-expanding) musical legacy of larger-than-life American rock' n roll icon Elvis Presley (January 8, 1935-August 16, 1977) even a full three decades and counting after the pop idol's death on August 16, 1977, clearly underscores the quality and timeless appeal of Presley's unique and vastly appealing artistry. However Elvis's distinctive sound, although most often regarded as original to Elvis himself, especially by causal listeners, actually sprang from American black musical traditions. That musical debt of Elvis's though remains even now among the more lightly discussed of myriad aspects of the singer's otherwise exhaustively scrutinized art. Still, the truth is that significant musical blending, throughout…. [read more]


History Education Term Paper

… Theories

Tactics

Methods and Techniques

A Specific Method

DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS, and RECOMMENDATIONS

Results for the Same

Examples of Voices Singing a Canon

The Project Life Cycle

Project Management Puzzle Parts

Map of More and Less Developed Countries

Criteria for LDCs

Selected Economic and Social Indicators for LDCs (2005)

"GREAT" MINDS in MUSIC

"Great music is in a sense serene; it is certain of the values it asserts."

-Rebecca West (Simpson)

Contrary to the consensus some students purport, a thesis does not constitute a torture tactic designed by professors to traumatize students. In fact, according to Teitelbaum (1), "The thesis paper, when carefully assigned and conscientiously done, has definite value." Professors usually assign the thesis paper as a major component of a course requirement. The researched…. [read more]

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