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Risk Factors That Increase STD Prevalence in Elderly Literature Review

… Risk factors that increase STD prevalence in elderly

There are two health conditions that are specifically bad in nature plus bring many other health disorders with them too. These are obesity and aging. As a person gets older, his bones, immunity system, heart, and muscles become weaker. The elders can easily catch infections that take longer to be treated. Hence the aged people are more prone to getting sexually transmitted diseases or commonly known as STDs. Given a weaker recovery and immunity system, the treatment becomes lengthy and painful. STDs among elders have increased over last few years and if not dealt properly, the occurrence of STDs will rise among the elders which will be more costly too. It is therefore necessary to develop STD…. [read more]

HIV and STD Behavior Interventional Strategies for Adolescents and Youths Term Paper

… HIV and STD Behavior Interventional Strategies for Adolescents and Youths

Teenage sex has been viewed as a social problem for some time, but the spread of HIV / AIDS in society has increased fears of what can happen if young people have unprotected sex. The prevalence of HIV among young people has been increasing, with some populations seen as more vulnerable than others, such as homeless youth and black and Hispanic youth. Programs have been developed to educate these young people, and studies of how effective such programs can be have been undertaken to see if they do work and to improve them if they do not.

Many researchers focus on family influences on adolescent sexual behavior, and communication between parents and their children about…. [read more]

Teen Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Essay

… ¶ … teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases has become one of the most common problems across many societies. As this problem continues to be prevalent, it affects every individual in the society since it not only affects a teenage girl but it also impacts her family and the entire society. According to the findings of research by the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, America has the highest rate of teenage pregnancy across the globe ("Curriculum Programs to Curb Teen Pregnancy," 2004). As a result of its high rate, the United States spend huge amounts of taxpayers' money of approximately $7 billion annually on this issue. Actually, the rate of teen pregnancy in this country is twice as much as that of Great Britain,…. [read more]

Epidemiology Sexual Transmitted Diseases Thesis


Epidemiology-sexual transmitted diseases

Sexually transmitted diseases: Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention

Sexually transmitted diseases: Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention

Primary: Health promotion and specific prevention strategies

Despite the increased publicity regarding the role of condom use in the prevention of sexually-transmitted diseases, there are an estimated 19 million new STD infections in the United States every year. "In 2006, more than 45,000 (of 56,300) new cases of HIV / AIDS have been attributed to sexual transmission; in addition, more than 1 million cases of Chlamydia and 355,991 cases of gonorrhea were reported in 2007" (Scott-Sheldon et al. 2009, p.1). Ignorance of how to prevent STDs with condoms is one, but not the only cause of these sobering statistics: "Patients in STD clinics often report…. [read more]

Attitude of Population Towards Homosexuality Research Paper

… ¶ … American civil rights history has marked noted change in acceptance, and the protection of, minority groups. Of these minority groups, homosexual men and women are better protected now than they were a few decades ago. Although Americans are becoming more supportive of civil rights for the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) population, there are still widespread attitudes that reflect moral disapproval and repulsion towards homosexuals. In 2006, a Gallop Poll was performed and suggested that 41% of the Americans surveyed believe homosexuality is not an acceptable lifestyle, and 38% believe there should be less societal acceptance of the LGBT community (Brown & Henriquez, 2008). Research indicates that attitudes towards homosexuals are not necessarily predicted by region or city, but are associated with…. [read more]

High Risk Family Type: Healthy Essay

… , 1992). Time effects included decreased symptoms, increased self-esteem and interpersonal adjustments. The role of an advanced pratice nurse in these programs is to help the patients overcome their distrust of healthcare service providers, to coordinate needed treatment and health needs. Working with this demographic requires a demonstration of trust and support, aspects that the disrupted family dynamic lacks. Creating a trusting relationship with the patient encourages them to return for future needs and thereby helps to control the cause of health neglect. An essential component of treating the homeless is to create a continuum of care that enables regular screening. This is the only way to accomplish the objectives established by Healthy People 2010.

The role of the advanced practice nurse as a case…. [read more]

Senior Citizens and the Growing Research Paper

… Anderson reports that "according to Patricia Hawkins, associate executive director of the D.C.-based Whitman-Walker Clinic, the popularity of medications such as Viagra has also contributed to the surge of HIV and AIDS among this group. 'Viagra has contributed a lot to this because there is so much more sexual activity among seniors and yet they are not often using contraception because they aren't worried about pregnancy,' she said. 'I don't think that our medical community has caught up to the impact of Viagra.'" (Anderson, p. 1)

The result is a new generation of sexually active individuals who, as discussed in previous sections, are not possessed in the education or knowledge of sexually transmitted disease or methods of protection. In addition to the creation of this…. [read more]

Benefits of Allopathic Medicine Outweigh the Risks Term Paper

… ¶ … allopathic medicine outweigh the risks?

The risks and benefits of allopathic medicine

Introduction definition of allopathic medicine is: "The system of medical practice which treats disease by the use of remedies which produce effects different from those produced by the disease under treatment." (Definition of Allopathic medicine) Allopathic medicine is also known as formal or conventional medicine and refers to accepted Western health and medical practices. The term "allopathic" originated in 1842 and is ascribed to C.F.S. Hahnemann who used the terms to differentiate conventional medicine from homeopathy, which is a system of medicine based on producing the same symptoms as the disease or disorder. (Definition of Allopathic medicine)

The term allopathic is used in one sense therefore simply to differentiate conventional medicine…. [read more]

Chlamydia Screening Focus Groups Term Paper

… This proposed program does suggest the use of less invasive tests, as well as providing continued education and support for patients. Some doctors involved in this pilot study expressed concerns that STD testing may affect insurance premiums, and while most health insurance companies will omit specific questions about STDs, this concern is relevant; various insurance-related complications are a significant obstacle to screening and treating Chlamydia. (Pimenta, 2000)

According to the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report article "Chlamydia screening among sexually active young female enrollees of health plans -- United States, 1999-2001" (Shih, 2004), there is further evidence that screening is beneficial, but that screening methods currently in use are not effective enough. Up to fourteen percent of young women who are routinely screened for Chlamydia…. [read more]

Adolescent Substance Use Screening Instruments Term Paper

… " (Zoccolillo et al., 1999) Thus, the AAOD student is at a clear disadvantage in terms of successfully completing a high-school diploma and moving on to a career-oriented post-secondary education.

Additionally, high school is generally also a milieu in which the adolescent learns other non-academic life skills, including mature means of relating to peers and supervisors, responsible treatment of deadlines and priorities, and the perspective-broadening value of sports and other extracurricular interests.

Absenteeism limits the opportunities for acquiring such skills, and even while attending, the AAOD student in all likelihood will not maximize the chance to participate in meaningful relationships and activities. Playing sports while drunk or stoned, or both, obviously also risks serious injury for the student and his or her teammates.

At its…. [read more]

Reducing Risky Behavior for African-American Research Proposal

… The disproportionately high HIV incidence among African-American female teens convincingly defines the term 'health disparity.' A possible intervention has been explored by Aronowitz and Agbeshie (2012) and Aronowitz and Eche (2013) using qualitative study designs. Working under the assumption that mothers are the primary sex educators for daughters, they investigated the interactions that took place between inner-city African-American mother-daughter dyads during discussions about intimate sexual issues. The goal of these studies were to define the main communication and parenting strategies employed, thereby providing valuable, culturally-sensitive information that could help clinicians reduce health disparities for African-American female youth.

Aronowitze and Agbeshie (2012) used a focus group strategy within a grounded theory study design. They limited the daughter's age to between 11- and 14-years of age, under…. [read more]

Alcohol Consumption Has on Risky Term Paper

… In addition, the participants who were under the influence of alcohol exhibited much poorer negotiation skills regarding condom use, meaning that they were far easier to persuade to not use protections. Alcohol also made the participants far more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior, and it may even be extrapolated that the influence of alcohol made the males intent to participate in risky sexual behavior. This study certainly backed up previous research showing that alcohol consumption is related to risky sexual behavior. Approximately 20-25% of the variance among males was related to personal attitude, and used in conjunction with level of alcohol consumption, this can be used to develop a surprisingly accurate prediction of risky sexual behavior. There is also evidence from this study…. [read more]

AIDS on South African Development Research Paper

… Mobility per se can encourage or make people vulnerable to high-risk sexual behaviour;

2. Mobility makes people more difficult to reach, whether for prevention education, condom provision, HIV testing, or post-infection treatment and care;

3. Migrants' multi-local social networks create opportunities for sexual networking; and,

4. There is a higher rate of HIV infection in "communities of the mobile," which often include socially, economically and politically marginalized people (Boe and Crush 22).

Taken together, it is clear that the high degree of mobility of South African mining workers combined with a modern transportation infrastructure combine to create a number of obstacles to combating the spread of this disease. Indeed, Boe and Crush emphasize that, "The current geography of the HIV epidemic is also the clue…. [read more]

African-American Woman Living With AIDS Term Paper

… African-American Women Living With AIDS

The year 1981 marked many historic events in the world but none as tragic as the discovery of 'Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). AIDS was first recognized as a disease when clinics in the larger cities in the United States such as New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco first saw young men who were homosexuals with Pnemocystis carinii pneumonia and Kaposi's sarcoma which was quite unusual for young adults who were not know to be immunosuppressed. The first report appeared in June 1981. This disease was first believed to be a homosexually transmitted disease but soon it was recognized that this disease was being transmitted among drug users as well. It wasn't long however, until it was understood that this…. [read more]

Teen Pregnancy Research the Reproductive Habits Term Paper

… Teen Pregnancy Research

The reproductive habits of many people are often indicators of other health factors. One such relationship suggests that age, disease and behavior all can be streamlined into an understandable method of understanding. Adolescents who are postpartum are particularly vulnerable to sexually transmitted disease. While much data is available to support this idea, pregnancy as a means to intervene into this risk can also contribute to preventive health measures.

According to Ickovics et al. (2003) " the behaviors that put adolescents at risk for pregnancy also put them at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STI incidence and prevalence are higher among adolescent females than any other age and sex group,1-4 and they are particularly high among those who are pregnant.5 Although several…. [read more]

Vulnerable Population for the Sexual Orientation Research Paper

… Vulnerable Population

In seminar

Vulnerable population: Sexual orientation

Sexual behavior is an important component of a patient's physical and mental health. Just like race, ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, and nationality can all have a collective impact upon a patient's health, so can sexual orientation. Gay men and lesbians are more at risk for certain conditions than their heterosexual counterparts; conversely, heterosexuals have certain concerns that are specific to their sexuality. The precise reasons for this is unclear but is likely due to a combination of factors, including an elevated risk of emotional stress due to homophobia as well as to health lifestyle practices. Regarding sexuality, physical and mental health can be conjoined in complex ways that statistics do not always clarify. This notion is supported…. [read more]

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Term Paper

… Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Pelvic inflammation disease is the most prevalent sexually transmittable disease other than AIDS affecting more than a million women every year in the United States. The astounding fact is that every year more than 100000 cases of infertility and around 70,000 ectopal pregnancies are attributed to pelvic inflammation disease. PID is a genital tract infection that affects the uterus, fallopian tubes and the ovaries. Involving more than 250,000 hospitalizations in a year Pelvic inflammatory disease incurs an annual health care expense of around $4.2 billion. [

Stephanie Abbuhl]. The infection affects the pelvic structures like fallopian tubes, ovaries, bowel and the entire peritoneal cavity. Though infection of the upper genital tract by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are identified to be the…. [read more]

Detection and Intervention in Childhood Term Paper

… Answers of the first analysis threw light on innumerous particular variations between parents and professionals in devotion of causation. (Pottick & Davis, 2001).

On the basis of the attribution research, in which actors bear a semblance to pinpoint cause for failure in the external surroundings, while observers have the likelihood to shift blame to individual reasons, the authors were of staunch belief that there would be variations in views between professionals and mothers about maternal undertakings for difficulties. Particularly, they theorized that mothers, as actors, would pinpoint external causes for children's difficulties, while therapists, as observers, would pinpoint more cause with mothers. Outcomes did, in fact, throw light that mothers designated themselves particularly less causal undertakings than did professionals, even though it is also viable…. [read more]

Immigration Problems in Spain Essay

… Spanish Immigration

In 2007, nearly one million immigrants arrived in Spain, according to the Spanish National Statistics Institute study in 2007 (Kern, 1). Those immigrants were in addition to the already existing 800,000 that arrived in 2006 and nearly 700,000 in 2005 (Kern, 1). With these immigrants comes a host of problems, from the number of deaths of incoming populations to housing to work placement to medical care. This paper will examine the rate of immigration into Spain, and will examine the problems faced by this population, both in terms of the immigration process itself and problems occurring following immigration. This examination will show that while Spain is currently dealing with the issue successfully, the future may be bleak for these immigrant populations.

Much of…. [read more]

Teenagers and Safe Sex Term Paper

… "These permit ways of handling conflict, embarrassment, and stress surrounding the potentially awkward social transactions required in sexual risk reduction to be modeled." (Bennett & Murphy, 1997, p71).

An important extension of the basic educational efforts to reduce high risk sexual behavior is the additional of skills training and problem solving. Specifically, youth must be introduced to strategies for introducing condom use when the situation presents itself. This has typically been where safe sex campaigns fall short, as even when teenagers' attitudes are favorable toward condom use, an awkward situation can cause them to ignore these attitudes and engage in high risk behavior. "Even when they are knowledgeable about STDs, many teens may lack the assertiveness necessary to resist sexual pressure from a romantic partner…. [read more]

Nursing Assessment Taking the History Essay

… However, the Craig (2007) article does provide some useful basic information concerning what information should be taken in the patient history and in general the article is well-written and direct. Some of the references to alcohol may not apply outside the UK; however, most of the information is relevant for nurses, social workers, psychologists, physicians, and other health care workers who are interested in taking complete patient histories. However, as mentioned above the article does has some minor inadequacies and supplementing the information in this article with information in the references provided in this paper will result in a more complete understanding of what is required in the history taking process. Craig's (2007) recommendations could be adopted into most practices, but again as mentioned above…. [read more]

Whose Responsibility Is Informed Consent in the Patient at Risk for Postoperative Vision Loss Research Proposal

… Postoperative Vision Loss

Elements of an Informed Consent Form

Patients Who May be Unable to Make Healthcare Decisions

Recommendations for Decreasing POVL

Four Elements of Negligence

Prudent Behaviors in Medical Informed Consent

Cortical Blindness (Vision loss after…, 2009, ¶ 6).

CRAO: Central Retinal Artery Occlusion (Chang & Miller, 2005, Introduction section, ¶ 1).

IGT: Iowa Gambling Task (Northoff, 2006, p. 70).

Ischemic Optic Neuropathy (Vision loss after…, 2009, ¶ 6).

IOP: Intraocular Pressure (Gilbert, 2006, ¶ 4).

MacCAT-T: MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool (Northoff, 2006, p. 70).

NQF: National Quality Forum (Clarke, Johnston & Finley, 2007, p. 395).

OR: Operating Room (Clarke, Johnston & Finley, 2007, p. 396).

POION: Perioperative Ischemic Optic Neuropathy (Chang & Miller, 2005, Introduction section,

¶ 1).

POVL: Perioperative Visual Loss (Gilbert,…. [read more]

African-American Males and the Correlation Between Affective Disorders Substance Abuse and the Criminal Justice System Term Paper

… African-American Males and the Correlation Between Affective Disorders, Substance Abuse, And the Criminal Justice System

Studies Supporting African-American Male Criminal Activity

Mental Health, Substance Abuse and Aggressive Behavior

The Link Between Victimization and Psychopathology

African-American Males and the Correlation Between Affective

Disorders, Substance Abuse and the Criminal Justice System

In recent years a growing body of research suggests that crime is on the rise among the African Male population, and that this crime may result from a variety of social problems including a history of abuse and psychological disorders among the population in question (Gil, et. al, 2004; Coker, 2003; Lloyd & Gil, 2002 Miller, 1997; Having worked within the health care field recently, the researcher noticed a steady increase in the number of African-American…. [read more]

Mental Health Policy a Healthy Term Paper

… Parents should also play an important role in dealing with dating violence. They should develop a strong bonding with the children so that they could share what is going on in their life. Also, the parents can then help them coping with their particular situations through their own life's experiences.

The peers are most aware of dating violence. So the peer groups should be educated about the negative and ill effects of it so that they can assist their friend who is experiencing it.

The legislative body on part of dating violence should become more active and efficient in resolving the dating violence cases and there should be a system of penalties and punishment to those who commit this crime.


Dating violence is a…. [read more]

Lesbian Health Care Dissertation

… The final consequence of such circumstances is that the research quality and generalizability is sacrificed in the face of affordability. Despite these challenges, researchers have indeed conducted fruitful and important research on the health status and experiences of sexual minorities, allowing for a thorough review of the literature concerning lesbian health, lesbian access to health care and lesbian experiences with health care services and professionals.

After reviewing the methodological issues relevant to studying lesbian health, the exiting knowledge concerning the current health status of lesbian women will be reviewed. A great deal of research has established the various risk factors that are unique to lesbians with respect to health care concerns, such as being at an increased risk for various forms of cancer, substance use,…. [read more]

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Term Paper

… Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Conduct a data analysis of a problem that you perceive can be improved through health education/health promotion activities.

The research shows that today, pelvic inflammatory disease represents a significant healthcare problem in the United States with serious outcomes that can be addressed to a significant extent through the use of health promotion activities. The research will also show that pelvic inflammatory disease is a fairly common condition, but one that can cause chronic pelvic pain and even infertility if left untreated. Finally, the research will show that the majority of cases of PID today are caused by infection with Chlamydia or gonorrhea and that young women in particular are at higher risk of acquiring one of these sexually transmitted diseases. An overview…. [read more]

Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents Term Paper

… In his Adult Children of Alcoholics, Steve Frisch, a mental health professional clinical psychologist, indicates the following as a statement from an adult child of alcoholic parents.

We have feelings of low self-esteem that cause us to judge ourselves and others without mercy. We cover up or compensate by trying to be perfect, take responsibility for others, attempt to control the outcome of unpredictable events, get angry when things don't go our way, or gossip instead of confronting an issue.

In peer relationships, some adult children of alcoholics try to become the consultant of problems. Others, on the other hand, try to hide their family's situations by not allowing friends to come over or visit in the house. Denial of problems often becomes the peer…. [read more]

Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine Term Paper

… Monthly teleconferences and meetings were held by the workgroup thrice a year to review published as well as unpublished data related to HPV vaccine clinical trials along with data on efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of the vaccine. Moreover, data on HPV epidemiology, natural history and sexual behavior in the United States was also reviewed. Economic and cost effective analyses were carried out. During ACIP meetings in 2005 and 2006, presentation on these topics were held. The ACIP HPV vaccine group devised and discussed the recommendation options. The expert opinion of the workgroup for the recommendations was taken when there was a lack of evidence. The recommendations were approved in 2006 ACIP meeting.

For effective control of vaccine-preventable diseases among the population, ACIP provides advice and…. [read more]

Physical Health of Mental Patients Using Antipsychotic Medication Essay

… Furthermore, there is a higher risk of antipsychotic induced prolactin elevation in the people who are carriers of the rs1800497 (Taq1A) A-allele of the dopamine D2 receptor gene ( Calarge et al., 2009 and Lopez-Rodriguez et al., 2011). This is due to the lower D2 receptor density in the striatum. Also, there is a possibility that the risk of increase in weight might occur by taking the antipsychotics as its use is linked to the polymorphism of the X-linked 5-HT2C serotonin receptor promoter gene rs3813929 (i.e., the absence of the T. allele) which is associated with weight gain (Reynolds et al., 2005, Risselada et al., 2011 and Ryu et al., 2007). Lastly, a relationship has been found to be present among the tragenic 5-HT2C serotonin…. [read more]

Symptoms and Psychosocial Term Paper

… D. 1500. A third possibility is that syphilis developed in both hemispheres from the related diseases bejel and yaws. New studies by paleopathologists Bruce and Christine Rothschild favor a New World origin (ORIGINS OF SYPHILIS ("

There have also been medieval and ancient references to a disease that strongly resembles syphilis however, the recorded incidences are not accurate enough to definitively call it syphilis (ORIGINS OF SYPHILIS (

Thirteenth- and fourteenth-century A.D. references to "venereal leprosy" may also indicate syphilis because leprosy is not sexually transmitted. But the first unambiguous descriptions of syphilis begin around 1500. These may either reflect growing medical knowledge and ability to differentiate syphilis from other diseases or signal its arrival from the New World (ORIGINS OF SYPHILIS ("

There have…. [read more]

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