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Romanesque Style Term Paper

… Romanesque Style


In the southern regions of Lombard in Italy, one finds for the most part the ancient traditions and conservative styles of Romanesque architecture. The buildings of Tuscany seem to adhere more closely than those of any other region in Europe to the traditions of the Early Christian basilica. For example, the cathedral group of the city of Pisa contains conservative qualities and those of the great classical Renaissance of the late 11th and 12th centuries when "architects, craftsmen, poets and philosophers again confronted classical Christian prototypes and then interpreted them in an original yet somehow familiar way" (Smithson, 144). These cathedrals are large and five-aisled and have been influenced by Early Christian churches and overall, they express…. [read more]

Romanesque and Gothic Styles: Comparison Research Paper

… As this paper will discuss below, many of the elements of the Romanesque style, including the arches and vaults, were taken over by the Gothic style and successfully adapted to the new architectural requirements. Pevsner (1964) argues that many of the elements from Gothic architecture had already been present and Gothic architecture develops them in more complex ways.

At the same time, as Banister (2001) shows the main characteristic of the Gothic style is the pointed arch, which is also the fundamental differential element between the Gothic and the Romanesque styles. The advantage of the pointed arch, as developed by the Gothic style, was that it allowed the translation from the Romanesque construction approach (heavy, solid walls and small openings) to the Gothic approach (larger…. [read more]

Architectural Principles of the Medieval Period Essay

… Architectural Principles of the Medieval Period

There is a very close connection that can be seen between the architectural efforts and achievements of medieval cultures and the cultural visions and experiences that these architectural constructions were intended to express. The astounding structures that were fashioned by medieval cultures also show evidence of certain architectural principles and techniques that were central to building and construction at that time. Architectural principles and design techniques have developed constantly as humankind has utilised the tools necessary to complete such construction projects.

The architectural principles found during this time show evidence of the connection between architecture and religious themes and principles that were dominate at the time. This time frames ranges from the Byzantine Empire to the Gothic Period. Each…. [read more]

Romanesque Architectural Construction Essay

… Romanesque_Construction

The term Romanesque is an architectural class that refers to the art and architecture of the Mid -- Late Medieval Period in Europe (1000 to 1240 AD). It was coined in the nineteenth century to describe features of the post-Roman Empire style. This period saw the decline and downfall of the Roman Empire. Romanesque elements comprise round-headed arches, barrel vaults, apses, and decorations, and in southern Europe are often blended with Byzantine elements (Atrisgerinko). Additionally, the Romanesque style developed to reflect a rebirth of art, science, and culture in the High Middle Ages. This European intellectual revival came with a great deal of social, political, and economic transformation (Benson).

The Romanesque architectural style coincided with the twelfth-century renaissance. One therefore expects to find evidence…. [read more]

History of Construction Technology of 12 Periods in Western Civilization Essay

… History Of Construction Technology of 12 Periods in Western Civilization

What makes humans different from other animals can be attributed to many things, but it usually begins with our conscious choice to explore the world and separate ourselves from nature through some mastery of it. With the advent of agriculture, humans were now congregating in population centers and living for both themselves and their gods. Religion has always taken a guiding hand through history and is intimately connected to the history of construction itself.

What pushes man to go beyond himself and create structures of immense stature and/or beauty? Only Gods can do that and have done that as evidenced in the still standing great pyramid of Giza and the Parthenon in Athens. Building these…. [read more]

11th and 12th Century Romanesque Architecture Research Proposal

… 1th and 12th Century Romanesque Architecture

The term Romanesque architecture applies to the various stages of European architecture that were influenced by both Carolingian architecture and the diffusion of Latin civilization following the break-up of the Roman Empire up to the end of the 12th century. While there has been a modest resurgence in interest in Romanesque architectural style in the West, the term continues to conjure up mistaken perceptions about precisely what Romanesque architecture is and what precise architectural elements serve to define its style. To clarify these issues, this paper provides an overview of Romanesque architecture during the 11th and 12th centuries, followed by a discussion of some examples of the architectural style. A summary of the research and important findings are presented…. [read more]

Similarities of Byzantine Romanesque and Gothic Style Churches Cathedrals Architectures Thesis



According to most art historians, the transition from Early Christian to Byzantine art, circa 600 C.E., was neither quick nor definite and at times defies an accurate definition as to exactly what Byzantine art encompasses. Around 539 C.E., the Byzantine general Belisarius conquered the city of Ravenna in northern Italy for his emperor Justinian which set the stage for the city's most important artistic growth. As part of the Eastern empire, Ravenna remained the "sacred fortress of Byzantium for more than two hundred years until its conquest by the Lombards and the Franks" (Demus, 2004, p. 345); thus, during this time, Ravenna and the Eastern Empire experienced their greatest cultural and artistic prosperity. Three architectural…. [read more]

Architecture H-Project Dome of Florence Cathedral Research Paper

… Architecture


Dome of Florence Cathedral (1420 -- 1436)

The Dome of Florence Cathedral (a.D. 1420-36) has been described as a "miracle" of design which is in essence a blend of Renaissance and Gothic architectural building aspects. The dome itself covers an octagonal apartment which is 138 ft. 6 ins, in diameter, and is raised on a drum, with circular windows to light the interior. (Italian Renaissance -- Florence)

It is pointed in form and consists of an inner and outer shell.

The original designer of the building was Arnolfi di Cambio. However, the architect who became renowned for the construction of the dome of the cathedral was Filippo Brunelleschi. His importance is also ascribed to the fact that he was the "... first to…. [read more]

Cultural and Construction History of the Romanesque Period Essay

… Cultural and Construction History Of Romanesque Period

Cultural Environment

The term Romanesque is an architectural category that refers to the art and architecture of the Mid -- Late Medieval Period in Europe (1000 to 1240 AD). It was coined in the nineteenth century to delineate features of the post-Roman Empire style. The Romanesque period saw the decline and downfall of the Roman Empire, a vacuum that was filled by the Roman Catholic Church. During this time, cathedrals and castles connected with the church and the Crusades sprang up in stone. Their Romanesque elements comprise round-headed arches, barrel vaults, apses, and decorations, and in southern Europe are often blended with Byzantine elements (Atrisgerinko). Additionally, the Romanesque style developed to reflect a rebirth of art, science, and…. [read more]

Architecture of the Middle Ages Essay

… Medieval Architecture

Romanesque vs. Gothic Architecture

Architecture of the Middle Ages encompasses a number of building and purposes for those buildings. Middle Ages architecture can be divided into two major styles: Romanesque and Gothic. However, within these categories other styles existed that encompassed a particular time or region, such as Italian Renaissance, Germanic, Celtic, or Tudor. This research will explore the similarities and differences between the two major styles of architecture in the Middle Ages.

Romanesque Architecture

Romanesque architecture represents the early Middle Ages and was popular until around 1100 A.D. It was influenced by the prominence and influence of the Roman Empire. The most recognizable features of Romanesque architecture are the barrel vault and the Roman arch (Sacred Destinations). A common misnomer is that…. [read more]

Cultural and Construction History of the Gothic Period Essay

… Gothic Period

Cultural and Construction History of the Gothic Period (13th to 15th Century)

Cultural Environment

Historians generally define the periodization of the history of Western Europe during the Middle Ages into three eras: the Early Middle Ages (5th-11th Centuries AD); the High Middle Ages (1000-1300 AD); and the Late Middle Ages (1300-1500). Construction of the great Gothic cathedrals began during the High Middle Ages, which was an era that experienced a "dramatic re-emergence of urban life and an increasing sophistication in secular culture" (Singman xi). Major events in the High Middle Ages include the conquest of England by the Normans in 1066, the conflict between the popes and emperors for political control of Europe, and the Crusades. Indeed, the very idea of Europe during…. [read more]

Fine Arts Los Angeles Essay

… However, before one goes on to detail the less quantifiable aspects of the Building (traffic flow, appeal to the senses, aesthetics, etc.) a quick point should be made about the materials used to create this awe-inspiring aggregate effect. As mentioned, much of the facade is created from tile and terracotta block to give the effect of stone. Initially, Walker & Eisen wanted to use stone, but opted for terracotta because it was more malleable and would allow for the detailed ornamentation they had envisioned (SOURCE). The large front doors are bronze, which carries on or, depending on one's perspective, initiates the bronze theme throughout the Building.

Despite these rather "heavy" medieval or church-like materials, the building has weightlessness to it. That is to say one…. [read more]

St. Madeleine Church Roman Architecture Term Paper

… At the same time an element of realism, which parallels the first flowering of vernacular literature, came to the fore. It was expressed in terms of a direct and naive observation of certain details drawn from daily life and a heightened emphasis on emotion and fantasy. For many aspects of its rich imagery the church was dependent on the heritage of antiquity and of earlier medieval art, while the prestige of Byzantine art remained high in Western eyes. The pilgrims, clerics, natives and crusades contributed to an unprecedented expansion of the formal vocabulary through the development of closer contacts between regional cultures and distant peoples.


The first important monuments of St. Madeleine sculpture were created in the second decade of the 12th century and…. [read more]

Environment and Islamic Architecture Research Paper

… Environment and Islamic Architecture

As the term implies, "Islamic architecture" is an architectural style that is characterized by functional elements and forms that are inspired by the Islamic religion, and which serves as a framework in which Islamic tenets can be implemented, celebrated and sustained over time. Graceful arabesques, Romanesque horseshoe arches and domes all typify many Islamic architectural styles, but the range and types of buildings that have been included under the umbrella term Islamic architecture in recent years also includes some nontraditional and neo-Islamic architecture as well. Beyond these trends, there has also been a move towards incorporating environmentally friendly elements into Islamic architecture in recent years as well, making a review of these issues a timely and valuable enterprise. To this end,…. [read more]

Medieval Period - Westminster Abbey Research Paper

… In the photograph above, one can see the side of the structure that faces the courtyard: the area where congregants gather for open-ceremonies performed by the Church of England. The neo-classical style provides an appearance that is conducive to events that are held either on the inside or the outside of the edifice (Newbolt, 1828).

Victorian Period - St. Pancras Station

St. Pancras Station was built during the 19th century in Victorian England. This was a period when there was a backlash to the rather austere designs associated with the neo-classical period. England, in particular embraced the neo-Gothic style of architecture, because England was slow and reluctant to adopt classicism as an architectural style. The neo-Gothic architectural style, however, does not attempt to restore the…. [read more]

Richardsonian Romanesque House Styles Term Paper

… Art History

The Lure of Eclecticism:

Richardsonian Romanesque Houses in Nineteenth Century America

The Nineteenth Century was a period of considerable historicism in art and architecture. As Americans and Europeans struggled to come to terms with the effects of growing industrialization, they liked to the past, to earlier times for models that seemed both familiar and satisfying. The lure of gothic and Romanesque was in large measure, too, a part of the Romantic spirit of the age. Romanticism sought to capture the deep spiritual and emotional essence of the West's many ethnic groups, looking back into history at fundamental beliefs, and the ancient legends and tales that had helped to shape them. Richardsonian Romanesque was a major form of this historical romanticism in architecture. Like…. [read more]

Gothic Cathedrals, With a Few Term Paper

… To the east of the outermost bay of each transept stands a deep chapel of two stages" (Kaye 43-44).

Again, the influence of Laon on Notre-Dame is evident in the rose on the north front, the larger areas for windows, and the supportive columns throughout the nave, along with the sexpartite ribbed vaults, and the arcaded gallery that is quite similar to Notre-Dame's, and is said to have highly influenced the Paris cathedral. It is clear Laon is not on the same scale as Notre-Dame, but that it influenced Notre-Dame's builders. Interestingly, Laon's influence spread farther than Paris. Architect Kaye continues, "The influence of this cathedral was considerable in the north and east of France, as well as in Normandy -- for example in the…. [read more]

History of Architecture Not Only Provides Human Term Paper

… History Of Architecture

Architecture not only provides human beings a place of shelter but also create an aesthetic aura. History of architecture tells us about its evolution in terms of utilizing spaces, volumes, planes, masses, and voids, the use of light and shadow, as well as surface decoration. Different eras starting from Neolithic period to Renaissance have provided us important and key influences. Structural iron and steel for instance was first used in the mid-19th century while later other inventions the post-and-lintel, or trabeated, system; the arch system and finally the steel-skeleton system were used.

Neolithic Architecture

Neolithic period started when people started settling in specific places instead leading a nomadic life. Soon after, a pattern of architecture developed. Initially people used stones to build…. [read more]

History of Construction Technology Literature Review

… History Of Construction Technology

Time Periods

Tools, materials, innovations

Add (April notes) two subheadings: Construction Techniques and Construction Machines under each one.




Ancient Egyptian


Ancient Greek

Idea of "Simple Machine"




Roman Empire

Works of Vitruvius

Roman Crane


Byzantine Empire

Master builders of Byzatine

Islamic Golden Age


See YC's notes on Crusader Castles -- looks like mostly books

Romanesque (1000-1200)

a. See YC's links

9. Gothic (1200-1400)

a. See YC's links on Gothic architecture

10. Renaissance Period (1400-1600)

11. Baroque Period (1600-1750)

12. Industrial Revolution (1750-1900)

1. Construction Technology of Mesopotamia

1.1. Construction Techniques

The Mesopotamian civilization dates back to c.6000 BC. As one of the first Bronze Age cultures, this civilization was also the…. [read more]

Robert Adam Term Paper

… Robert Adam

Adam's Compelling Designs

Robert Adam was a style-setter and leader in the classical antiquity movement in England during the 1700's.

Robert Adam is considered Scotland's most famous architect. But Adam was better known as the most popular designer in London and throughout England, sought after for the sophisticated and pleasant atmospheres that the rooms he decorated imbued. He was a leader of classical revival style in both architecture and interior decoration during the last half of the 1700's, and his designs dominated the focus of the most wealthy and noble. He was known for his use of lavish color, light, detailed ornamentation and above all, coordination of all parts of a room in its decoration. A good businessman, he was also a genius…. [read more]

Architecture Through the Ages Mesopotamia Literature Review

… The Erechtheum and the small temple of Athena on the Acropolis are Ionic however. The Ionic order became dominant in the Hellenistic period, since its more decorative style suited the aesthetic of the period better than the more restrained Doric. Records show that the evolution of the Ionic order was resisted by many Greek States, as they claimed it represented the dominance of Athens. Some of the best surviving Hellenistic buildings, such as the Library of Celsus, can be seen in Turkey at cities such as Ephesus and Pergamum. But in the greatest of Hellenistic cities, Alexandria in Egypt, almost nothing survives, so Greek art and architecture was at its apex during this time.

Roman Empire

The Roman Empire was a revolutionary period due to…. [read more]

Conception of Project Management Book Report

… ¶ … conception of project management is actually the summation of the preceding centuries' worth of work and development within this area. Although this discipline was not termed as such until the 1900's, it has slowly evolved much like any other process utilized throughout the course of time and which includes "building processes" which "have led to the development of project management" and, the basics of which "can be traced back to these periods of time" (Yuen 383) that are discussed within this current study. These time periods encompass the medieval period in Europe and in the Near East, and were stratified to include the Byzantine Empire, Islamic Golden Age, the Crusades, the Carolingian Renaissance, the Romanesque Period as well as the Gothic Period, which…. [read more]

Gothic Cathedrals and Light Essay

… The Gothic style is still used today, and the techniques and innovations permeated Europe and became standards for future innovations in building design. Gothic art shaped human perception in Europe at least until the High Baroque, and possibly longer (early 1700s). The idea of craft, stonemasons and others, arose from the lengthy building projects of this age, as well as the way humans viewed themselves and their ability to conceptualize and build (Gothic Dreams - Appreciating a Cultural Legacy, 2009). However, more than the tangible output, the evolution into the Gothic became a different way of viewing the human condition, and that condition as relative to God and other men. In painting and sculpture, just as in literature and poetry, figures become more animated and…. [read more]

Architecture Modernism Dissertation

… Architecture

Modernism in architecture came about in the 20th century as it introduced completely innovative ways of thinking. The way that "designers, architects and engineers conceptualized, fabricated, and evaluated these environments has been the subject of very intense debate" (Doordan 2003, p x). The maxim created by Louis Sullivan, "form follows function," was one of the most central points of debate and will be contemplated in Chapter One of this paper.

Form follows function is often credited as the main principle of modern architecture; however, there are a slew of modern architects who would disagree with this tenet, one of those architects was Frank Lloyd Wright, a former assistant of Sullivan. Adolf Loos is another important designer of the 20th century who spoke passionately about…. [read more]

Cultural and Construction History of the Carolingian Renaissance Essay

… Carolingian Renaissance was a period occurring in the late 8th and 9th centuries characterized by a revival in an interest in intellectual and culture development. The leadership of Carolingian rulers, Charlemagne and Louis the Pious, spear headed this interest (Trompf). The movement itself was an isolated event and did not incorporate all of Europe. It was limited to the confines of the royal court and monasteries but was important nonetheless as the movement was responsible for the preserving of existing knowledge and the copying of ancient manuscripts for future generations. The movement also resulted in the establishment of a strong learning environment in monasteries throughout Europe and the adoption of Latin as a common language as a form of communication. By adopting Latin as a…. [read more]

Reign of the Emperor Justinian Essay

… ¶ … reign of the Emperor Justinian is largely considered to be the beginning of the period of art known as Early Byzantine Art which is considered the first of the three golden ages of Byzantine Art. Said period ended with the onset of Iconoclasm that occurred during the reign of Leo III from 527 A.D. To 726 A.D. Justinian's reign was a highly successful one characterized by his driving the German Ostrogoths out of Italy, the Vandals from Africa, and the defeat of the Bulgars along the northern frontier of the Roman Empire. During Justinian's reign, active construction of churches and cathedrals began in and around Constantinople all of which were built in a style that is now known as the Byzantine style.

One…. [read more]

Older and Modern Plan for a College Campus Term Paper

… Architecture

Way of Life in Search of an Architecture"

Cistercian architecture reflected the identity of a group of monks who wanted to reform the excesses of the church, which they regarded as inhibiting the spiritual life. They sought to establish a way of life that was simple and humble and devoid of distractions. These monks believed that elaborate architecture and highly embellished designs would distract from worship. They believed it was important to avoid distraction because it would lead to pride. Cistercians put down their roots in aesceticism which demanded withdrawal from the world, poverty, and discipline. Their communities called for an self-sufficient agrarian life in an isolated area. They renounced cash because business dealings would lead to contact with the outside world. They rearranged…. [read more]

Notre Dame Cathedral Paris Thesis

… Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris

The Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris

The Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris is a gothic cathedral. it's found on the Eastern side of Paris but the main way to get in is on the West side of the building (Myers, 1957). it's also the seat for the Archbishop of Paris. Viollet-le-Duc is the architect who saved and restored it so that people could still go and see it today. He was very famous in France during his lifetime and most people there still know who he is today. In French, "Notre Dame" means "Our Lady." Notre Dame was among the first of the gothic cathedrals and building it happened over almost the entire gothic period. There is a lot of stained…. [read more]

Mont Saint Michel Normandy France Term Paper

… Mont Saint Michel Island

For centuries, the Mont Saint Michel has beckoned travelers and the faithful from around the world. The small, rocky island off the coast of Normandy rises from the Couesnon River. Until 1879, the island was connected to the coast only via a natural land bridge, which was submerged when the Cuoesnon River was at high tide. The island was therefore cut-off from the mainland during high tide. This feature further highlighted the splendor of the island's prominent architectural feature - the Benedictine Abbey which rises like a castle towards the sky.

This paper examines the history and architectural character of this unique structure. The first part of this paper looks at the history of how this structure was built and how…. [read more]

Project Management History Essay

… Project Management

History of Project Management Prior to Classical Antiquity

The current definition of project management is the very deliberate orchestration of people, resources, money and time to complete a specific project. The first step is the development of a project plan, which includes a task breakdown, a list of resources needed, a budget and a timeline. The planning phase is then followed by the implementation phase, the actual organization and use of resources to accomplish the specified goal.

Project management has evolved over the ages; as culture, knowledge, and construction skills, tool and techniques evolved so did the purpose and construction of buildings. This essay looks at the societal, the managerial, and the scientific changes, which took place prior to classical antiquity. The impact…. [read more]

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