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Rousseau the Origin of Civil Society Research Paper

… Rousseau

When Jean-Jacques Rousseau wrote the Origin of Civil Society, Europe was becoming enmeshed with its colonial enterprises. Ironically, this was also the time when Enlightenment philosophy and theory spread throughout Europe. The Enlightenment helped to pave the way for the French and American Revolutions and spawned interest in freedom, liberty, and individuality. Slavery -- both real and symbolic -- became the topic of conversation in philosophical circles when the French Revolution and the American Revolution were already being underwritten. The idea that government serves the people and not the other way around, was just starting to take root. Rousseau, like many other Enlightenment thinkers, proposes a humanist vision in which inequality is abolished in favor of the true civil society. The civil society, according…. [read more]

Rousseau: The Declaration Term Paper

… This political philosophy and concept of social contract greatly influenced the French Revolutionist and the concept of human nature and his insistence on the limited role of the government inspired the French Revolutionaries in drafting out the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen.

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen" passed on August 26, 1789 gave to the world the ideals and principles of the French Revolution in the form of a Declaration. The most fundamental concern of the Declaration was the liberty and rights of man, known as the natural and unalienable rights. The Declaration proposed to develop a society and a form of government which holds these two principles of liberty and natural rights the prior to…. [read more]

Social Contract and Discourses on the Origins Book Review

… ¶ … Social Contract and Discourses on the Origins of Inequality by Jean Jacques Rousseau (Digireads, 2006)

The civil society guarrantees its members their right to their possesions, even though their porprietors have alienated these by becoming memebrs of the respective civil society. They became possesors of the public goods with their rights respected by all the other memebrs and their protection against any foreign interference was to be provided by all the means the state had. In this respect, Rousseau also emphasizes that a subsequent role of the civil society is to subordinate the right which each individual hasto his own estate" (Rousseau, 12) to the right the respective community has over all. The author of the Social Contract and Discourses on the Origins…. [read more]

Marx and Rousseau on Property Marx Term Paper

… Marx and Rousseau on Property

Marx, Rousseau, and the Question of Property

Of all the liberal philosophers of the modern era, the one closest in his views on the question of property to Karl Marx was arguably Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Marx is often viewed as an aberration to the development of liberal thinking on economic relations, but there is a ground for arguing that Marx borrowed heavily from other liberal philosophers, especially Rousseau. This becomes clear when we look at how Marx and Rousseau dealt with the question of property. The views of Marx and Rousseau on property were by no means identical. There were certain similarities but also notable differences. Both viewed private property as the source of political, economic, and social corruption in the…. [read more]

Philosophy the Greek Philosopher Plato Term Paper

… Augustine, and Taylor.

Locke and Aristotle argue that subsistence to intellectual development shall lead to material progress, a precursor to achieving social progress in human society. Locke demonstrates how the institutionalization of human society serves to temper the desires of humans to accumulate more property and create an imbalance in humanity's properties and resources, while Aristotle's belief in reason and empiricism advocates a learned society that only pursues personal development at the expense of social harmony.

Plato, Rousseau, and St. Augustine echoes Taylor's criticism of the rationalized society in the modern world, wherein the pursuit for intellectual development in order to achieve social progress is achieved at the expense of losing the individual's meaning as a human being. For these philosophers, if rationalization of society…. [read more]

Vision for Society: A Just Essay

… Education is paramount in achieving a just society (Locke, 2010). When people are educated, they learn how to maintain law and order, fight for equality and shun discriminations of all forms. Education will also enhance knowledge of the society when used as tool for humanization (Freire, 2002). A just society is achievable through cognitive streamlining of human behavior into worthy moral justification, advantageous comparison, sanitizing language that is enhanced through diffusing of responsibility and reducing injurious effects of the injustices.

Obstacles to a just society can be addressed through social power accounts for intricate means through which political subjects are created and how social constructs are upheld. Power does more than merely repress, it constitutes the basis on which conduct is judged, individuals formed and…. [read more]

Kant Hobbes Rousseau Essay

… Kant, Hobbes, Rousseau

One of the philosophical theories which has attracted the attention of numerous writers is represented by the theory of the social contract. The main philosophers who have dealt with it in their works are Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. The main idea transmitted through the theory of the social contract is that people are better off giving up part of their freedom in order to have an authority protect their rights and freedoms instead of living in a state of absolute freedom which would eventually be characterized by a perpetual conflict.

Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau try do explain which is the reason which legitimates the authority of the state since it is the state the structure which organizes individual rights…. [read more]

Rousseau on Smith Term Paper

… Jean-Jacques Rousseau on the Theories of Adam Smith

As a renowned Genevois philosopher, I, Jean-Jacques Rousseau feel obliged to comment on the economic theories set forth by my contemporary Adam Smith in an Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. While Smith and I agree on many points, particularly in regard to the connection between economics and human behavior, there are indeed numerous instances in which our paths of thought digress.

The first of these digressions I will dicuss is Smith's contention that man "man has almost constant occasion for the help of his brethren, and it is in vain for him to expect it from their benevolence only. He will be more likely to prevail if he can interest their…. [read more]

Rousseau on Corruption: Its Causes Essay

… The principal roadblock in that regard was the degree to which private interests (such as the Ku Klux Klan) dominated political, legislative, and judicial institutions well into the 20th century, particularly in the former Confederate states. Rousseau explained that it is impossible to achieve genuinely just legislative goals when private influences are allowed to draft or enforce laws, and this conclusion proved accurate throughout much of the first century after the Civil War by virtue of the Jim Crow-era laws promulgated by segregationists intent on undermining the constitutional rights of racial minorities.

It is not good for him who makes the laws to execute them, or for the body of the people to turn its attention away from a general standpoint and devote it to…. [read more]

Locke and Rousseau Term Paper

… He argued, for instance, that no man had the right to appropriate more than his share, but even in Locke's time (and certainly today) the level of greed and inequality in such a political system can only be matched by the level of exploitation that serves that greed. Locke's arguments advantage those who have wealth. For example, Locke argued that humans are able to own property through their own labor. Labor puts an individual's stamp of ownership on an object. In addition, the individual who picks the apples has ownership of those apples, because his labor combines with the labor of nature. On this point, Rousseau would again disagree with Locke, suggesting that labor is not something that a man owns, in and of himself;…. [read more]

Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau Term Paper

… "

Locke's account of the state of nature leads to a political outcome where if all men are free and independent, and all can act to preserve their own rights, then clearly the only way in which society and government can form is by agreement among men for the sake of more easily preserving their own rights. In the Two Treatises of Civil Government, Locke states that "man seeks out and is willing to join in society with others, who are already united, or have a mind to unite, for the mutual preservation of their lives, liberties, and estate." According to Locke, the power of governments comes from the individual power of every individual to preserve their own rights, in which they give over to…. [read more]

Jean-Jacques Rousseau's the Social Contract Term Paper

… Jean-Jacques Rousseau: The Social Contract

In his book, the Social Contract, Jean-Jacques Rousseau explains the relationship of the individual to society. He emphasizes the natural law of personal rights and sovereignty and argues that any government derives its legitimate power only from the collective choice of many individuals to allow government to act as a proxy for their personal exercise of those rights directly. For similar reasons, Rousseau opposed the concept of "rightful" ownership of slaves, especially those who did not choose to become slaves. He also questions the right of any person to voluntarily pledge his servitude to another person or institution if that choice also applies to his descendants because doing so violates their fundamental natural rights.

According to Rousseau, legitimate governmental authority…. [read more]

Jean-Jacques Rousseau Term Paper

… Madison and the other Framers feared the influence of factions on the body politic, understandable given that he defined a faction as promoting something adverse to the rights of others. He states that there are two ways of dealing with the issue, the first being to remove the causes of faction and the other being to control its effects. Clearly, he does not believe it possible to eliminate factions themselves, and indeed it is clear that any free society will produce numerous factions, groupings of like-minded citizens who wish to promote their particular interests. This is in fact one of the essentials of a democratic system.

Madison goes on to note that there are two ways to remove the causes of faction: 1) destroy the…. [read more]

Concise Analysis of Human Behavior and Society according to Rousseau Essay

… Though they are not explicitly stated, Rousseau views this development as taking place in several stages. From the pure state of nature, human beings start to divide themselves in temporary groups for the purpose of particular tasks such as hunting animals. Basic communication in the form of gestures and grunts started was utilized in these groups. These groups, however, lasted for only as long as the job took to be done, and then they broke as fast as they were formed. The following stage involves more lasting social relationships such as the traditional family. Basic thoughts of property as well as feelings of competition and pride develop in this particular phase too. The next phase in the historical development takes place upon the discovery of…. [read more]

Philosophical Questions About, Jean Jacque Term Paper

… As Foucault says "In modern society, our spaces are organized like so many cages, so many small theatres, in which each actor is alone, perfectly individualized and constantly visible" [Foucault, 79]. Thus Foucault says that the method of surveillance used in modern prisons is used by modern state to execute and regulate its control of society.

Foucault describing the concept of discipline says that discipline is a way of controlling the movement and operations of the body in a constant way. It is a type of power that coerces the body by regulating and dividing up its movement and the space and time in which it moves. Timetables and the racks into which soldiers are arranged are examples of this regulation. The discipline is the…. [read more]

Vindication of the Rights of Woman Mary Research Proposal

… ¶ … Vindication of the Rights of Woman

Mary Wollstonecraft's book a Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792) was written as a response to the proposed state-supported system of public education that would only educate girls to be housewives, a proposal made by Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord, the French minister of education after the French revolution (Mellor 367). The passion with which Wollstonecraft wrote a Vindication of the Rights of Woman was derived from her personal experience of inequality as a young woman in a patriarchal society and also by the injustice she experienced in her own family growing up, an injustice experienced primarily because of her gender given that she was raised in a home where her older brother, Ned (who by law…. [read more]

Jean Jacques Rousseau and Karl Term Paper

… .. right the natural equality among men. It is this celestial voice that dictates the precepts of public reason to every citizen, and teaches him to act in conformity with the maxims of his own judgment,"(Rousseau, Jean Jacques Basic political writings, p.191)

This very sentence of Rousseau discovers his philosophical principles, the principles of inequality and "alienation" of society. But "alienation" for Marx and for Rousseau are quite different concepts, and that's why the methods of construction of more ideal and just society are quite different as we would see later.

According to his second discourse the matter of all human vices lies in equality (natural and moral). The first one is about physical differences while the second one is about social position and wealth.…. [read more]

Violence: For God or Liberty the Social Essay

… Violence: For God or Liberty

The social and political ideals of the modern Western world are founded on a notion of liberty, expressed dissimilarly (and with varying degrees of approbation) in the writings of Rousseau, Mill, Burke, Tocqueville and others. As the discrepant views of these various authors, scholars, and philosophers illustrate, liberty is problematic. The French Revolutionaries promoted liberty, yet the streets ran with blood. Tocqueville saw the effects of liberty in America, yet admitted they could easily lead to tyranny. Rousseau advocated a naturalistic liberty -- an overthrow of the Old World religious doctrine -- yet he himself used an aggressive language to make his point. In the modern world of Romantic/Enlightenment ideology, liberty and violence are linked; and their relationship is not…. [read more]

Philosophers and the Development of the Age OS Reason Term Paper

… Age of Reason / Age of Enlightenment

The Age of Reason & the Age of Enlightenment

The Age of Reason is generally considered a separate movement in 17th and early 18th Century Europe, which preceded - and led into - the Age of Enlightenment; it is also commonplace to approach both eras as having overlapping boundaries - and hence, they are more often than not joined as one extended period of intellectual, scientific and philosophical advancement.

But aside from the issue of the co-mingling of the eras, the Age of Reason did indeed come first, and led into the Age of Enlightenment. Among the most prominent philosophers associated with the Age of Reason and the Age of Enlightenment are Voltaire, Jean Jacques Rousseau, and Immanuel…. [read more]

Wealth of Nations Book Report

… Wealth of Nations

Adam Smith, whose Wealth of Nations was published in 1776, was the father of modern economics and capitalism. He argued that the free operation of market forces was the best recipe for a flourishing and growing economy. If everyone is as free as possible to pursue his or her own self-interest, he or she will be led by an "invisible hand" to promote the welfare of society as a whole.

There are many reasons why self-interest is the most effective technique of increasing wealth in society. Within a community/society/countries, there are two main assemblies, the government and the citizens. Both assemblies play an important role in the market place, the government is there to regulate any conflicts and minimize problems and bring…. [read more]

French Revolution When Historians and Others Engage Term Paper

… French Revolution

When historians and others engage in discussion on the French Revolution, they begin with discussions about why the people of France became unhappy and began rioting, bringing about a violent end to France's royal family and many members of nobility on August10, 1789 (Gough 2007 373). A revolution is not just about deposing a ruler or a despot to replace with another whether that other is Church or State. The events that occurred following August 4, 1789, and the events that precipitated the night of August 4, 1789, are matters of religion and politics, and how the French Revolution went terribly wrong (Schwab 1995 221). At the heart of the problem, and the position taken here, is that the revolution collapsed from with…. [read more]

French Enlightenment the Failure Term Paper

… Looking at the country's history of the enlightenment, an observer can say that French society embodied the new, modern society, a model that should have been the picture of an industrialized society.

However, society tells us that the opposite scenario happened in the case of France: while England and the rest of Europe began modernizing and industrializing their societies, France remained far behind, unable to recover from the political and economic downfall that came with the emergence of the French Revolution.

The French Revolution is the result of the enlightenment's philosophies and ideologies, a demonstration of the power of the French society to induce social reform in their country. However, there have been mixed reactions and opinions across Europe regarding this French political event of…. [read more]

Science and How to Save the World Essay

… It may seem a paradox, at first, since language is what differentiates us humans from the animal world. Lopez advises adults to let the environment speak to the children instead of us trying to teach them about something we hardly know anymore. Lopez and Diamond suggest that we continue to fail in acting like an integral and irreplaceable part of the whole universe.

The difference between them is that Lopez hints at a third dimension: spirituality. The mind and the heart are present in Diamond's writing, the soul joins in the conversation in Lopez' essay. They both advise readers to get read of the background noise that impedes one of hearing what really matters.

Lopez takes us into the woods, not for isolation reasons, but…. [read more]

World Civilization From 1500 CE to the Early Twentieth Century Assessment

… ¶ … History 1500-Present

World Civilization from 1500 AD to Present

Worldwide trade from 1500 to 1800 AD: the Rise and Implications

Europe was expanding its boundaries at the end of the medieval world: Spain and Portugal had navigated the globe. The Crusades had opened roads to the East, and the sea lanes had given way to a new world in which nations sought God, gold, and glory. The world has always become smaller with the advent of new technology -- and the new technology in 1500 was navigational and nautical; by 1800 that technology had become increasingly more "scientific" and even militaristic. America had been colonized and the trade routes from East to West to East and back again were flourishing.

Italy saw the…. [read more]

Price Beauty? Term Paper

… These ideas provide an excellent overview of that Age's understanding of the subject. In the second edition of his Enquiry (1759),

Burke addressed the idea of Beauty, by which he meant "that quality or those qualities in bodies by which they cause love, or some passion similar to it." Burke's goal of identifying the physiological relationship between external objects and their emotional apprehension is most apparent in Part Four [of the Enquiry], where he hoped to "discover what affections of the mind produce certain emotions of the body; and what distinct feelings and qualities of body shall produce certain determinate passions in the mind."

Physical beauty, therefore, was seen as inspiring an emotional response; specifically a feeling of love and affection on the part of…. [read more]

Pharmaceutical Industries Have to Operate Term Paper

… The data that was evaluated was a combination from book, journal articles, review papers and the Internet. The information reviewed pertained to a wide variety of situations and industries. There were some common trends observed in all the material. The commitment of the management and the involvement of the worker are critical no matter what the condition of the external and internal environment the company faces. Integrating the core function -- marketing and sale of products along with the goals and the objectives of the organization is the new route the organization has to now follow.

A distillation of the interviews will be provided in Chapter 2.


Understanding the main…. [read more]

Utopian Socialism Journal

… Utopian Socialism


This is the theory or system of social organization, which places all the means of production from private owners to the community as a whole (Heilbroner 2008). The government controls these means. Socialism was deemed the solution or remedy to economic and moral defects of capitalism. The concept has popularly been attributed to Karl Marx but it really owes to Vladimir Lenin, who confronted the practical difficulties of setting the system up. The main difficulty was removing the profit-seeking incentive, which fuels competition. Lenin dreamed of a less complex economic organization, which was premised on the elimination of the profit motive. It would be operated by the four simple rules of arithmetic. When the theory was implemented following the Soviet revolution in…. [read more]

Ottoman Early American Relationships to Religious Hierarchy Caliph Church of England Term Paper

… America and the Ottoman Empire

Currently, the United States and the Islamic world are at odds over many issues, and while the policy of the U.S. is to find ways of finding areas of agreement with Islamic countries, there are still basic differences between the two areas and the religions they support. Islam is a hierarchical religion, and to a great extent, the political and social realm in Islamic countries is also hierarchical. The U.S. is a democracy. One area of agreement is found I the origin of each society, for both came into existence as part of an effort to achieve religious freedom and to escape from religious oppression. The two have not always recognized this area of agreement, and in part have been…. [read more]

Plays of British Dramatist, Pam Gems Dissertation

… Edith once engages two marines she meets in a pub in a menage a trois; it is possible, that the bartender formed the fourth of this group. There is no indication that Edith is particularly gifted in the art of making love. She just makes her self available as a willing sexual partner. Except with Marcel Cedran, the married boxer, Edith manages to dissociate physical pleasure from any emotional foundations. With Marcel, Edith is truly in love. But this union is not to be. Anecdotes abound, that Edith's jealous sister informs Marcel's wife of her husband's "philandering." Edith's sexual proclivities and escapades are not a manifestation of her femaleness. Her sexual nature transcends gender. It is a flaw in most superstars. In Edith's case, particularly,…. [read more]

Feminist Jurisprudence Term Paper

… Feminist Jurisprudence: Landmark Decisions Relating to Gender

Feminist jurisprudence as a philosophy and practical enterprise began in the 1960's. It is a philosophy of law based on "...the political, economic, and social equality of sexes." (Feminist jurisprudence: Cornell law School)

Among the issue that are dealt with under the rubric of feminist jurisprudence are, "...sexual and domestic violence, inequality in the workplace, and gender-based discrimination." (Feminist jurisprudence: Cornell law School) These include aspects such as general issues relating to laws affecting employment, divorce, reproductive rights, as well as domestic violence, and sexual harassment.

The foundation of feminist jurisprudence lies in the struggle for equal rights and against gender discrimination.

It is essentially based on the view that societies have shown a tendency towards gender subjugation…. [read more]

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