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Rousseau: The Declaration Term Paper

… This political philosophy and concept of social contract greatly influenced the French Revolutionist and the concept of human nature and his insistence on the limited role of the government inspired the French Revolutionaries in drafting out the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen.

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen" passed on August 26, 1789 gave to the world the ideals and principles of the French Revolution in the form of a Declaration. The most fundamental concern of the Declaration was the liberty and rights of man, known as the natural and unalienable rights. The Declaration proposed to develop a society and a form of government which holds these two principles of liberty and natural rights the prior to…. [read more]


Rousseau the Origin of Civil Society Research Paper

… Rousseau

When Jean-Jacques Rousseau wrote the Origin of Civil Society, Europe was becoming enmeshed with its colonial enterprises. Ironically, this was also the time when Enlightenment philosophy and theory spread throughout Europe. The Enlightenment helped to pave the way for the French and American Revolutions and spawned interest in freedom, liberty, and individuality. Slavery -- both real and symbolic -- became the topic of conversation in philosophical circles when the French Revolution and the American Revolution were already being underwritten. The idea that government serves the people and not the other way around, was just starting to take root. Rousseau, like many other Enlightenment thinkers, proposes a humanist vision in which inequality is abolished in favor of the true civil society. The civil society, according…. [read more]


Rousseau's Work on the Social Essay

… Delaney is keen to make Rousseau seem consistent and decent and states that, to properly understand Rousseau's way of handling potential conflict between the individual will and the collective will, "one must take note of Rousseau's emphasis on the equality and freedom of the citizens. Proper intervention on the part of the Sovereign is therefore best understood as that which secures the freedom and equality of citizens rather than that which limits them" (Delaney 2005, n.p.). But nonetheless it is worth noting that Rousseau's political vision does not liberate us entirely from the concept of chains and subjugation is we are still "forced" to do something, even if what we are paradoxically "forced" to do is "to be free."

But it becomes clear by the…. [read more]


Rousseau and Kant Essay

… Rousseau

In the Social Contract, Jean-Jacques Rousseau writes that "in order then that the social compact may not be an empty formula, it tacitly includes the undertaking, which alone can give force to the rest, that whoever refuses to obey the general will shall be compelled to do so by the whole body. This means nothing less than that he will be forced to be free..." (Rousseau 27). The lines are particularly jarring, even when considered in context, because the notion of being "forced to be free" appears oxymoronic on its face, and seems difficult to square with some of Rousseau's more egalitarian statements regarding the general will and the individual's place in society. However, understanding what Rousseau means by this is crucial for understanding…. [read more]


Rousseau, Douglass, Both Prose Writers Term Paper

… He is the arbiter of the diverse and he is the key. He is the equalizer of his age and land... If peace is the routine, and of him speaks the spirit of peace, large, rich... he encourages the study of man, the soul, immortality... his thoughts are the hymns of praise of the things - in the talk on the soul and eternity - God off of his equal place - he is silent - he sees eternity in men and women.

What makes Whitman different - his free choice of subject and his desire to follow his whims and his personal desires. He brings these into his writing - never mind if he violates the sensibilities of his readers.

William Wordsworth - Poet…. [read more]


Rousseau David Hume Book Report

… Rousseau stated that "Discourse is motto" in his book Discourse on Inequality. Does this quotation guide Rousseau's argument in the Discourse? If so, to what extent?

I actually do not see how it is related since 'Discourse' means a lecture or discussion.

On the other hand, it may guide his treatise in that the whole treatise is a critique on the conventional structural and societal differences between man.

According to Rousseau, "man is born equal but is everywhere in chains" by man's own design, meaning that man, in his natural state, is an animal like any other prompted by pity and self-survival for perseverance. Rousseau sounds like a per-darwinist. Man in this state is the ideal human. He is driven by his drive of perfectibility…. [read more]


Rousseau on Corruption: Its Causes Essay

… The principal roadblock in that regard was the degree to which private interests (such as the Ku Klux Klan) dominated political, legislative, and judicial institutions well into the 20th century, particularly in the former Confederate states. Rousseau explained that it is impossible to achieve genuinely just legislative goals when private influences are allowed to draft or enforce laws, and this conclusion proved accurate throughout much of the first century after the Civil War by virtue of the Jim Crow-era laws promulgated by segregationists intent on undermining the constitutional rights of racial minorities.

It is not good for him who makes the laws to execute them, or for the body of the people to turn its attention away from a general standpoint and devote it to…. [read more]


Jean-Jacques Rousseau Section From Confessions Term Paper

… This confessional aspect of Rousseau's work is not prevalent in today's celebrity culture, which has simply retained and encourages the exposure of large amounts of personal information about individuals.

The main reason why I selected this reading was because of the fact that the text book stated that it "foreshadowed the romantic sensibility of the next century" (Matthews et al. 483). The romantic period (particularly as it relates to British poets) is one of my favored periods in Western Civilization. I was curious to see how the values espoused within Rousseau's work could have produced this sweeping movement that emphasizes nature, truth and beauty.

After reading the excerpt from Confessions in the textbook, I see that the answer is simple. Rousseau helped to spawn the…. [read more]


Locke and Rousseau Term Paper

… He argued, for instance, that no man had the right to appropriate more than his share, but even in Locke's time (and certainly today) the level of greed and inequality in such a political system can only be matched by the level of exploitation that serves that greed. Locke's arguments advantage those who have wealth. For example, Locke argued that humans are able to own property through their own labor. Labor puts an individual's stamp of ownership on an object. In addition, the individual who picks the apples has ownership of those apples, because his labor combines with the labor of nature. On this point, Rousseau would again disagree with Locke, suggesting that labor is not something that a man owns, in and of himself;…. [read more]


Jean-Jacques Rousseau's the Social Contract Term Paper

… Jean-Jacques Rousseau: The Social Contract

In his book, the Social Contract, Jean-Jacques Rousseau explains the relationship of the individual to society. He emphasizes the natural law of personal rights and sovereignty and argues that any government derives its legitimate power only from the collective choice of many individuals to allow government to act as a proxy for their personal exercise of those rights directly. For similar reasons, Rousseau opposed the concept of "rightful" ownership of slaves, especially those who did not choose to become slaves. He also questions the right of any person to voluntarily pledge his servitude to another person or institution if that choice also applies to his descendants because doing so violates their fundamental natural rights.

According to Rousseau, legitimate governmental authority…. [read more]


Marx and Rousseau on Property Marx Term Paper

… Marx and Rousseau on Property

Marx, Rousseau, and the Question of Property

Of all the liberal philosophers of the modern era, the one closest in his views on the question of property to Karl Marx was arguably Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Marx is often viewed as an aberration to the development of liberal thinking on economic relations, but there is a ground for arguing that Marx borrowed heavily from other liberal philosophers, especially Rousseau. This becomes clear when we look at how Marx and Rousseau dealt with the question of property. The views of Marx and Rousseau on property were by no means identical. There were certain similarities but also notable differences. Both viewed private property as the source of political, economic, and social corruption in the…. [read more]


Kant and Rousseau Term Paper

… Rousseau and Kant

The Enlightenment refers to the period in European history when writing and thought were characterized by an emphasis on experience and reason. This showed that there was a mistrust of religion and traditional authority, and one result was the gradual emergence of the ideals of liberal, secular, democratic societies. The Enlightenment is associated with a materialist view of human beings, an optimism about human progress through education, and a general utilitarian approach to society and ethics. The emphasis on learning in the Enlightenment would contribute to the development of various systems of learning, the founding of universities and colleges, and the development of philosophical systems such as the one offered by Kant. Freedom is all that is required, says Kant, and he…. [read more]


Jean-Jacques Rousseau Term Paper

… Madison and the other Framers feared the influence of factions on the body politic, understandable given that he defined a faction as promoting something adverse to the rights of others. He states that there are two ways of dealing with the issue, the first being to remove the causes of faction and the other being to control its effects. Clearly, he does not believe it possible to eliminate factions themselves, and indeed it is clear that any free society will produce numerous factions, groupings of like-minded citizens who wish to promote their particular interests. This is in fact one of the essentials of a democratic system.

Madison goes on to note that there are two ways to remove the causes of faction: 1) destroy the…. [read more]


Rousseau's Opinions on How Young Children Essay

… ¶ … Rousseau's opinions on how young children should be treated to ensure they are going to get a good education? How do his ideas differ from standard opinion today? What is your opinion of his suggestions?

Rousseau stresses the need for the young child to enjoy a 'natural' lifestyle, to prepare him for the rigors of the educational system later in life. Instead of constraining the child, Rousseau says that a child should be allowed to fully exercise his body and free will. This is in stark contrast to contemporary emphasis on preparing a child for entering formal schooling and socializing the child to interact with other children. Programs such as Head Start, preschool programs, and even Sesame Street and Baby Einstein are all…. [read more]


Marx and Rousseau on Bourgeois Society Term Paper

… Rousseau and Marx

French educator and philosopher, Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), one of the Enlightenment theorists, wrote on the fundamental concept of natural law, political freedom, free enterprise and the social contract between ruler and ruled, creating his critique on the origin of man and in the process creating a theory that civilization had been the great unequalizer of the noble savage. His ideas were the foundation for a convincing argument for political equality. Unfortunately for his fellow men and women, Rousseau's ideas did not immediately affect those who so desperately needed them, but his writings became well read and were influential later on, and have affected people throughout the world as they have struggled for equality (Fiero, 1998, 95). Karl Marx's theories, which he expounded…. [read more]


Kant and Rousseau Reducing Conflicts Essay

… The steps include not keeping secrets or secret treaties between states, abolishing standing armies, maintaining the free will of independent states, which includes not interfering with the political system of other states. Although these rules are strict, they have been seen as the most important factors in creating a peaceful world, and as we can see now in the 21st century, most republican, democratically elected and free states never go to war with other likewise states, because the will of the people is never geared towards hostilities with neighboring peoples in democratic systems.

Immanuel Kant wisely realizes that in order to establish such a system, no single dictator can exist, and al only when all states are freely elected can world peace be achieved. (Munkler)…. [read more]


Fichte Separate Right From Morality Term Paper

… This is through examination of the unique roles of ethics and rights in controlling and determining interactions between individuals within the society. Ethics forms part of the first principle in relation to the illustration by Fichte as he seeks to build on the ground by Kant on the systems of ethics. Rights on the other hand focus on the second principle relating to the recognition of the rights of other individuals and institutions within the society. Ethics aims at promoting relationship among individuals within the society and aspect of self-awareness as a motive for the demonstration of morality. This differentiation is essential in limitation and enhancement of the freedom of the human beings within the society (Fichte 2007). This is through formulation of the laws…. [read more]


History of Human Rights Research Paper

… History Of Human Rights

As social mobility became more available to people around the globe, there was a greater call for enforcing globalized human rights. As evolutions in government and politics have opened up chances for socio-economic mobility there has come a greater demand for the avocation and adherence to basic principles of human rights.

Past Societies were limited by stricter caste and class divisions, which essentially made human rights less of a concern for a ruling elite.

The Caste System in India is a prime example of how strict caste differences can stifle any calls for avocation of human rights.

The caste system deeply divides socio-economic classes and stifles any sort of social mobility (Nelson, 2009).

The Untouchables were a class that often saw…. [read more]


Declaration of the Rights Essay

… De Gouges also calls upon the laws of nature as specifying rational laws of conduct that man should live by (Article V). This idea of laws of nature was an inherent belief of the French nation popularized by their philosophers, such as Rousseau and Voltaire. De Gouges, however, emphasizes the character of the laws of nature showing that they are equally applicable to both sexes and cannot be overruled.

In this way, woman, as men are equally applicable to all positions provided they show merit in obtaining them. No positions must be closed to women solely because of their sex. Likewise women should be equally sentenced to death and, like men, 'should obey this rigorous rule'. Paradoxically, de Gouges herself disobeyed this rigorous rule when…. [read more]


Rousseau's Natural Rights Term Paper

… Political Science

Rousseau's Doctrine of Natural Rights vs. Liberal Political, Social, and Economic Theory

The great philosophe Jean-Jacques Rousseau was one of the foremost proponents of the theory of the Social Contract and of ideas concerning the basic nature of human society.

According to Rousseau, human beings were born neither good nor evil; rather it was an individual's self-interest that determined his or her actions, actions that might be deemed either positive or negative in the eyes of others. As individuals acted naturally in their own interest, larger societies would be plagued by the conflicts that grew out of the conflicting demands of individual women and men. Rousseau proposed to solve this problem by a variant of the social contract - an ostensible agreement between…. [read more]


Rousseau on Smith Term Paper

… Jean-Jacques Rousseau on the Theories of Adam Smith

As a renowned Genevois philosopher, I, Jean-Jacques Rousseau feel obliged to comment on the economic theories set forth by my contemporary Adam Smith in an Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. While Smith and I agree on many points, particularly in regard to the connection between economics and human behavior, there are indeed numerous instances in which our paths of thought digress.

The first of these digressions I will dicuss is Smith's contention that man "man has almost constant occasion for the help of his brethren, and it is in vain for him to expect it from their benevolence only. He will be more likely to prevail if he can interest their…. [read more]


Rwandan Genocide a Philosophical Theory Essay

… The key principle for managing amore proper is to demonstrate an egalitarian attribute that allows one to value him or herself, yet still value those others around him. Doing so would essentially rid itself of its comparative aspect in which one would feel the need to love oneself more than one love's others. To that end, "the strategy for the self-containment of amour proper must be the cultivation of stringent Egalite -- both as a social and economic policy and as a preference fostered in the education of individuals" (Martin).

This egalitarian aspect of amore proper, therefore, has extremely pragmatic implications that can curb iniquitous actions of murder and reinforce an understanding and tolerance of others at a systemic level. An institutionalized education of Rwandans…. [read more]


Natural Law Term Paper

… Natural Law

The concepts of natural law have been composed by a number of well-known philosophers. However, these multiple compositions have created a lot of problems in the context of the authenticity of the natural law. The paper reveals some of the fundamental problems related to the authenticity of the natural law and provides a viable solution.

Natural Law, in simple terms, can be defined as the belief that all the humans are a creation of the Holy Being, God, and they are given certain birth rights under the sayings and principles that have been put down by Him (God) (Natural Law; (http://www.answers.com/topic/natural-right).

These concepts and rights are such that cannot be denied by any form of government or society. The concept of natural law…. [read more]


Vindication of the Rights of Woman Mary Research Proposal

… ¶ … Vindication of the Rights of Woman

Mary Wollstonecraft's book a Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792) was written as a response to the proposed state-supported system of public education that would only educate girls to be housewives, a proposal made by Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord, the French minister of education after the French revolution (Mellor 367). The passion with which Wollstonecraft wrote a Vindication of the Rights of Woman was derived from her personal experience of inequality as a young woman in a patriarchal society and also by the injustice she experienced in her own family growing up, an injustice experienced primarily because of her gender given that she was raised in a home where her older brother, Ned (who by law…. [read more]


Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau Term Paper

… "

Locke's account of the state of nature leads to a political outcome where if all men are free and independent, and all can act to preserve their own rights, then clearly the only way in which society and government can form is by agreement among men for the sake of more easily preserving their own rights. In the Two Treatises of Civil Government, Locke states that "man seeks out and is willing to join in society with others, who are already united, or have a mind to unite, for the mutual preservation of their lives, liberties, and estate." According to Locke, the power of governments comes from the individual power of every individual to preserve their own rights, in which they give over to…. [read more]


Civil Society and the Rights Term Paper

… They had to do with citizens, and they were obliged to study the effects of those habits which are communicated by the circumstances of civil life. They were sensitive that the operation of this second nature on the first produced a new combination." (Burke, 21) He observed that the collective state knew better than man about what rights were important for individuals.

In Burke's mind, then, the state "is not a partnership in things subservient only to the gross animal existence of a temporary and perishable nature." (Burke, 17) The contract between government and man is in Burke's mind, not even a contract. The government and the state is what should be revered first as it keeps the order of things. The basis of Burke's…. [read more]


Jean-Jacques Rousseau Personal Term Paper

… Rousseau also suggests that a system of direct democracy which, "is composed of as many members as the assembly has voices, and which receives from this same act its unity, its common self, its life, and its will" (Crocker, 1967) is the ideal system of government.

Place in Time

Jean-Jacques Rousseau was one of the most influential thinkers of the Enlightenment; a period during which the reliance upon traditionally accepted knowledge was replaced with reason and rational thought. Although he attracted many followers, his ideas also conflicted with many of his contemporaries, in particular his belief that emotion and compassion were as important as reason. Persecuted by the authorities, for his radicalism and his criticism of the Church, Rousseau spent several lonely and homeless years…. [read more]


Kant Rousseau Liberty Term Paper

… Kant, Rousseau, Liberty

Give Me Liberty and Give Me...the Categorical Imperative?"

Different concepts of liberty in "The Declaration of Independence," Rousseau, and Kant

We are a nation founded upon the principle of liberty. This idea of liberty as a universal value underlines almost every American's frame of references and assumptions, even if he or she has never paused to parse what it means to be free. "Give me liberty or give me death," still rings in the ears of our collective unconsciousness. But what is meant by liberty -- whose definition? To take just one sampling of the varied definitions that attach to liberty, a quick sampling of the Merriam-Webster Dictionary yields this:

the quality or state of being free: a: the power to do…. [read more]


Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Edmund Burke Term Paper

… Revolution in Rousseau and Burke: How Different Truly Were Their Views?

Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (June 28, 1712 - July 2, 1778) left a legacy as one of the finest Western thinkers. He was a Franco-Swiss writer, philosopher, political theorist and he also was a self-schooled composer of The Age of Enlightenment. As we know, Rousseau's political ideas served to guide the French Revolution, the development of socialist theory and even the growth of nationalism - some credit him for America's famous isolationism too. Rousseau's legacy as a radical and revolutionary is perhaps best demonstrated by his most famous line, from his most important work, The Social Contract: "Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains."

Rousseau's views on revolution are culled from a…. [read more]


Philosophical Questions About, Jean Jacque Term Paper

… As Foucault says "In modern society, our spaces are organized like so many cages, so many small theatres, in which each actor is alone, perfectly individualized and constantly visible" [Foucault, 79]. Thus Foucault says that the method of surveillance used in modern prisons is used by modern state to execute and regulate its control of society.

Foucault describing the concept of discipline says that discipline is a way of controlling the movement and operations of the body in a constant way. It is a type of power that coerces the body by regulating and dividing up its movement and the space and time in which it moves. Timetables and the racks into which soldiers are arranged are examples of this regulation. The discipline is the…. [read more]

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