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Sampling, Regression, and Hypothesis Testing Statistical Analysis

… In reality, both Type 1 and Type II errors can be severe. Type I error is unavoidable because every time we reject the null hypothesis, there is a high possibility we have made such an error. This error is costly because Pfizer will incur unnecessary costs developing and marketing Drug B. On the other hand, Type II error may lead to Pfizer abandoning further research on Drug B, which could have generated high profits for the company because it is more effective than Drug A.


a. The null hypothesis is: = 6 (the mean volume of bottles is equal to 6 ounces).

The alternative hypothesis is: 6 (the mean volume of the bottles is not equal to 6 ounces).

b.…. [read more]

Stat Notes Sampling Error and Standard Research Paper

… Stat Notes

Sampling error and standard error of the mean (SEM) measure the error in assuming the sample accurately represents the population; the smaller the error, the more closely the sample can be assumed to match the population.

Confidence intervals (CIs) are ranges in which a value might fall and are limited by the confidence level -- the higher the confidence level (the degree of certainty desired), the larger the confidence interval will be to ensure the data point falls within it.

Null hypothesis is always that there is no effect of an intervention/variable -- that measured groups do not differ significantly on the measured area(s).

Alternative hypothesis states that there is an effect of the measured intervention(s)/variable(s).

Probability Sampling is used to obtain a…. [read more]

Gall's "Figuring Out the Importance of Research Article Review

… Gall's "Figuring out the Importance of Research Results: Statistical Significance versus

Practical Significance" is a good and somewhat indecisive viewpoint on statistical methods used to test the null hypothesis. Perhaps his observations prove to focus more in the importance of research results vs. The unimportance of research results in statistical significance. He goes back and forth on the significance which tells from Gall's viewpoint, that null hypothesis was repetitive due to the level of certainty and that accurate circumstances, for example a random sampling from a defined population, have been satisfied, but are limited. Levin's, "What if There Were No More Bickering About Statistical Significance Tests?" is again a well thought out, somewhat emotional, take on "those who advocate replacing statistical hypothesis testing with alternative…. [read more]

Multiple Regression Analysis Is an Essential Constituent Methodology Chapter

… Multiple regression analysis is an essential constituent of marketing research procedures. Better usability over several kinds of data, the ability to handle failure of pre-defined assumptions and ease of understanding are some its advantages. Predicting research results and analyzing the different variables used in those predictions are the two primary objectives of multiple regression analysis. In a situation where a couple or more of such predictor variables are related to each other, the results can be erroneous. The problems are usually with regards to summarizing results based on the coefficient size, the related t-tests and typical errors. There are several ways to deal with this issue, termed as multicollinearity. The effect of collinearity cannot be interpreted in seclusion. There needs to be other factors to…. [read more]

Supply Chain Management Hypothesis Thesis

… It requires the total dedication from organization within which it SCM implementation is being planned. SCM "expands the scope of the organization being managed beyond the enterprise level to include interorganizational relationships." (Strader et al., 1999)

Supply chain depends heavily on the relationships that organizations can develop and sustain through personal interactions and using the latest technology. Earlier studies in SCM focused on identifying the supply chain network (SCN) developed by organizations. Later, studies focused on supply chain demands, supply chain operation and information sharing. In the present organizational environment, competitive advantages are not just single company or organization-based. Rather, they are supply chain based. (Muralidharan et al., 2002)

There are many independent models within the SCM methodology. Each of these deserve discussion. Some of…. [read more]

Prediction Essay

… 38; median = 3.3; mode = N/A (all values at the same frequency); variance = .692889; standard deviation = .263228; kurtosis = -1.2189; skew = .182109; range = 2.5; sum = 38.3.

Higher reaction time memory score group: being = 9.24; median = 8.85; mode = 9.5; variance = 5.004889; standard deviation = 2.237161; kurtosis = 6.86883; skew = 2.443916; range = 7.9; sum = 94.2.

Aside from the obvious difference is one would expect when separating groups into low and high scores (e.g., higher/lower mean, median compared to the overall group results, different sum, etc.) there are a couple of interesting differences here. First, the lower reaction time group does not have a specific mode (although scores in the distribution at the same frequency…. [read more]

Aviation Industry Flu Pandemic Outbreak Risk Thesis

… In case of the SARS outbreak in China the public transportation wasn't shut down but the amount of passengers decreased a lot as, people stopped using the public transportation to avoid getting infected. Similarly, trends of decrease in the number of employees was noted in the air transportation such as, the flights in Pacific Asia decreased by 45% as compared to the year before and there was a decrease of 69% in the flights between U.S. And Hong Kong (Brigantic et al., 2009).

However, it can easily be estimated from these above given scenarios that if an influenza pandemic did occur and stay for 12 to 36 months what would be the amount of damage that it would cause in the world…. [read more]

Change This Study Analyzes Outsourcing Dissertation

… There are a number of forms of outsourcing. The important forms of outsourcing are information technology outsourcing (ITO), business process outsourcing (BPO) and human resources outsourcing (HRO). The concept of outsourcing reveals a number of research steams. The idea of outsourcing is still unchanged due to scientific diversity. Basically outsourcing and mainly offshore outsourcing are known as noticeable strategies (Harland et al., 2005; Jahns et al., 2006; see also Paju, 2007). Idea of outsourcing makes cause of discrepancy between the researcher and practitioner. Primarily, the scholars (Domberger, 1998; Kern et al., 2002; Ring and Van De Ven, 1992) observe that outsourcing is a development and natural continuation to Williamson's (1975, 1979, and 1981) researches and others who work on contract and the transaction cost economics.…. [read more]

Quantitative Technique and How it Can Be Applied to a Work Situation Term Paper

… ¶ … large defense contractor and am in charge of hiring employees to fulfill customer requirements. My function as a HR manager corresponds to the requirements of my company. I consider my role as a strategic associate, an employee supporter and an adviser for change. In addition, my role includes, recruiting, hiring and training new employees; managing performance of the workforce, providing strategic leadership in the human resource department and lastly, managing employee salary and benefits.

The research question(s) to be addressed.

A number of research studies have shown that employee retention is heavily dependent upon the corporate culture, salaries and benefits, and top management support. These studies will be reviewed later on. However, the focus of this study is on employee retention at (please…. [read more]

Grandparent Caregivers Societal Antecedents as Predictors Dissertation

… Grandparent Caregivers

Societal Antecedents as Predictors of Resilience, Caregiving/Parenting Stress and Coping Strategies in Custodial and Non-Custodial Grandmothers of African-American or African Decent

The past three decades have seen a break from the traditional nuclear family roles. During this time, society has witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of children being raised by their grandparents. Many grandparents assume the role of primary caregiver for their grandchildren and/or childcare provider because of the impact of numerous societal antecedents which cause the parent or parents to be absent from the home. These societal antecedents include child abandonment, and/or neglect, parental employment obligations, parental education endeavors, and parental military obligations. These represent the key reasons for grandparents assuming the care of grandchildren. This comes at a time…. [read more]

Statistical Terms Review Term Paper

… ¶ … statistical analysis in reaching their conclusions and presenting their findings in published literature. These techniques are necessary in order to provide consistency and validity to the data, as well as to provide grounds for comparison with other studies and other data. It is from these needs for consistency and comparability that specific statistical methods and tools have been developed and put into common use by researchers and statisticians of all stripes, including those working in the area of human resource management. Though this field of study also contains a great deal of qualitative information and conclusions, as with any good science there are measurable and quantifiable elements to the study and application of human resource management, and this leads to statistical analysis.

This…. [read more]

Parent Connect Zangle Term Paper

… Zangle or Parent Connect is a system that allows the parent to check on the status of their child's grades as well as what is due and when an assignment is due. The purpose is to increase parental involvement and to reap the benefits that have long been assumed for increased parental involvement. This software is in use in several school districts today and is being considered by many more. What is needed is an examination of the software, what it does and how, and an assessment of how effective it has been in those situations where it is being used. Thus, a research project is to be designed to gather that sort of data and to set standards by which the software can be…. [read more]

Different Preferences in Learning Between American and French Learners in a Multinational Corporate Setting Dissertation

… ¶ … Preferences in Learning between American and French Learners in a Multinational Corporate Setting

The way training is delivered in a corporate environment has a tremendous effect on results. This study investigates the role of culture in the learning styles of adult French and American students enrolled in online training programs at an international university. Using Kolb's learning style inventory, the learning style preferences of respondents in both cultural groups will be classified as divergers, convergers, accommodators, and assimilators, reflecting their general tendencies toward learning environments as conceptualized by Kolb (1985). The assumption is that Americans prefer to learn from action-oriented methods and are more comfortable learning from activities that are not job related, such as role plays and games, than do their French…. [read more]

Overarching Goal Essay

… ¶ … overarching goal of this study was to develop an improved understanding concerning assessing and developing the survey research methodology within an educational setting in general and the use of the survey research method to determine attitudes and behavioral intentions of the students in a university setting regarding their acceptance of e-learning in particular. The first part of the study presents the breadth component which is used to identify the differences between three important research paradigms which are defined, compared, and contrasted with various types of research methodologies with a particular emphasis on survey research methodology, using a selected bibliography to evaluate the methods.

Identifying Constraints to e-Learning for Rural Nigerian Students

The Breadth Component


This study is organized into three parts. The…. [read more]

Satisfaction of Registered Nurses (Kovner, Brewer, Cheng Research Proposal

… ¶ … satisfaction of registered nurses (Kovner, Brewer, Cheng, & Suzuki, 2006) examines the influencers of the work satisfaction and attitudes of a national sample of registered nurses (RNs) in metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs). Thus, the title is good, but could have been a bit more descriptive by including the geographical scope.

The dependent variables are clearly identified as work attitudes and satisfaction, but the authors never even discuss what they actually mean. For instance, does satisfaction mean that nurses would not leave their present jobs or does it mean something else?

Independent variables are broad, including work related factors such as social support, job stress, promotion opportunities, professional values, disposition, direct patient care, job hazards, pay, and fairness of pay and benefits. The definitions…. [read more]

Workers With in Small Firms Introduction Chapter

… The difference may be material for more than 18 million potential U.S. workers with disability (Erickson, Lee, and von Schrader, 2011, n.p.). Rarely-asked questions of whether workers disclose invisible disabilities to potential employers or if those conditions include only "registered disabilities" for example demonstrate how generalizations like "workers with disabilities" and/or (often at the same time) "small employers" constituting under 500 employees, may mislead perhaps even to the point of harm or foregone productivity from increasingly scarce resources. This project may help demonstrate the value of refining such definitions in an evolving workplace.

Hence the focus on productivity and job satisfaction in small firms, especially under ADA-threshold size, compared to increasingly larger employers. Exhaustive definitions of productivity and job satisfaction are about as elusive as…. [read more]

Crowdsourcing Techniques in Call Centers Dissertation

… [EXCERPT] . . . promising phenomenon that lends itself to call centers' ability to improve their own and their other business units' efficiency is the employment of crowdsourcing. Crowdsourcing is an online, distributed problem-solving and production model already in use by for-profit organizations such as Threadless, iStockphoto, and InnoCentive. Speculation in Weblogs and wisdom of crowds theory assumes a diverse crowd engaged in crowdsourcing labor. Crowdsourcing is the act of taking a job traditionally performed by a designated agent (usually an employee) and outsourcing it to an undefined, generally large group of people in the form of an open call. Furthermore, and as crowdsourcing is in some ways similar to open-source software production, prior research suggests that individuals in the crowd likely participate in crowdsourcing…. [read more]

Social Leader Performance Competency Research Proposal

… Additionally, social capital has an effect on the flow of information, the influence of said information, and its ability to be received by both individuals and groups alike (Parker, Halgin & Borgatti, 2015). As such, social capital has been linked to competitive advantage within an organization (Bolino et al., 2002).

The secondary theory for this study will be contingency theory of leadership (CTL). The second theory to be used within this study will be the contingency theory of leadership (CTL). A prominent theory in the field of leadership, CTL was established by Fielder in 1951 (Fiedler, 2015). The core premise of this inductive theory claims that there is no optimal path when organizing a corporation, managing employees, or guiding decisions. Instead, the…. [read more]

Coleman Et. Al.) Patient Term Paper

… The test compares the observed distribution of frequencies to an expected distribution of frequencies, and then determines whether or not these distributions are similar (and likely to be from the same population). In this sense, it is similar to a t-test (Urdan, 2005).

6. What type of bias was evident in this study?

Sampling bias was a significant factor in this study. The study represents the experiences of patients of only a selection of OBGYNs, and the subset of respondents from each OBGYN may not be representative of that particular OBGYN's practice, as the selection process was not random. Because there was not a process for random selection of physicians or of patients, the results of the study may not be generalizable to the population…. [read more]

Oxygen Use in Hospital Setting Literature Review

… Master in Quality & Safety in Healthcare Management

Year Two, 2010-2011

Oxygen Use Monitoring in Hospitals: Literature Review

Oxygen Use Monitoring in Hospitals: Literature Review

search strategy methods and methodologies application of findings to the writer's organization

Oxygen is vital element in people life.. It is a fact that, in a normal room, the percentage of oxygen is only 21% and this amount is sufficient for healthy people. However, most patients need higher levels of oxygen to circulate blood and allow body tissues to function normally (Thannickal, 2009). Oxygen is frequently used as a form of medication in community and hospital settings by the nurses and doctors employed. Use of oxygen as a medicine is not chosen for specified situations nor it is normally prescribed…. [read more]

Divorce on the Lives Term Paper

… To draw a conclusion, I compared children in the two samples (divorced and intact) on key variables known to be associated with both divorce and adjustment, including the five discussed in the literature review. The effects of divorce were examined through a series of questions on how children viewed their personal and family lives.

Using the answers to the 30 questions, I assessed the information in the form of a t-test. The top part of the ratio represented the difference between the two means or averages of the questionnaire results. The bottom part measured the variability or dispersion of the scores. The t-value will be positive if the first mean is larger than the second and negative if it is smaller. The t-test will determine…. [read more]

Dealing Effectively With Organizational Change Research Proposal

… Dealing Effectively With Organizational Change

This study seeks to investigate how effectively individuals deal with organizational change. This literature will show how changes within organizations can be a stressful event that effects the emotions of employees, thus having implications on the degree of support and attitudes towards change when various strategies and tactics are utilized. A sample of 69 respondents; both military and civilian responded to an employee satisfaction / organizational change survey. Participants of this study consisted of 52 active duty military personnel and 17 civilian government employees; all with diverse backgrounds. All 69 personnel are affiliated with two separate Medical Readiness organizations.

Dealing Effectively With Organizational Change


Organizational change is a growing area of importance for modern organizations' strategic development. Effective organizational…. [read more]

Sports Participation Character Development Opening Research Paper

… In the article, "Justplay: A revolutionary approach to youth sport administration and sportsmanship," Elaine Raakman (2006) asserts that although the potential exists for youth sport participation to build positive character traits, when society diverts its emphasis away from sportsmanship to focusing more on outcome, children as well as communities may experience negative benefits. Raakman relates the following:

The original goals of the first community-organized youth sport programs (Pop Warner Football in 1929 and Little League in 1938) revolved around the development of good citizenship and good sportsmanship. The founders of these programs were actually reiterating principles made famous by the father of the modern Olympics, Baron de Coubertin, who asserted that participation in sport could help develop engaged, balanced citizens. (Raakman, 2006, ¶ 3)

A…. [read more]

Gene's Effect on Criminal Behavior Term Paper

… Gene Criminal

Determining the Effect of Genetic make-up on Criminality and Criminal Behavior

Genetic predispositions to certain behaviors and conditions have been established with increasing regularity over the past decade, causing broad spectrums of what were once perceived as individual failings and personal shortcomings to be seen instead as the result, at least in part, of forces as uncontrollable as hair color or height. Addictions of all stripes, obesity, and certain personality characteristics have all been found to have at least some basis in an individual's unique genetic code, suggesting the possibility that other types of undesired or disadvantageous behaviors and predilections might also have a genetic -- or at least a semi-genetic -- cause rather than coming from purely social or personal origins.

Topic…. [read more]

Passyn, K., Diriker, M., and Settle, R Article Critique

… ¶ … Passyn, K., Diriker, M., & Settle, R. (2011). Images of online vs. store shopping: Have the attitudes of men and women, young and old really changed? Journal of Business & Economics Research, 9(1), 99-110.

Benedicktus, R., Brady, M., Darke, P., & Voorhees, C. (2010). Conveying trustworthiness to online consumers: Reactions to consensus, physical store presence, brand familiarity, and generalized suspicion. Journal of Retailing, 86(4), 310-323.

Rajamma, R.K., Paswan, a.K., & Hossain, M. M. (2009). Why do shoppers abandon shopping cart? Perceived waiting time, risk, and transaction inconvenience. The Journal of Product and Brand Management, 18(3), 188-197.

To what degree do visions of difficulty, confusion, or frustration inhibit adoption of online purchasing?

Does manipulating generalized suspicion provide an especially challenging test for the effectiveness…. [read more]

Intravenous Nursing Implementation of an Intravenous Medication Research Paper

… ¶ … Intravenous


Implementation of an Intravenous Medication Infusion Pump System: Implications for Nursing

The journal article title is, Implementation of an Intravenous Medication Infusion Pump System: Implications for Nursing. The title immediately makes one think that this article will discuss intravenous medication pumps in regards to nurses. Even though the title is clear, it does not offer the reader any information about the group being studied or the location of the study. In addition, the title does not refer to what the implications are for nursing in regards to the intravenous medication infusion pump and whether these implications are good or bad.

The abstract is in an excellent representation of the main points that are contained in it. The journal article's abstract is…. [read more]

Nursing Review of Quantitative Research Term Paper

… Nursing Review of Quantitative Research



The purpose of this research is to review the work entitled: "Profiles of Self-Rated Health in Midlife Adults with Chronic Illness" which is a study conducted by Finnegan, Marion and Cox (2004)

Cognitive appraisal of one's health or SRH 'self-rated health' appraisal has been established in earlier studies to be indicative mortality, morbidity and health service utilization in midlife adults with chronic illnesses. The study of Finnegan, Marion and Cox (2004) seeks to understand the differences that exist in midlife adults with chronic illness in relation to cognitive appraisal of their own health and specifically as related to risk of further illnesses over the lifetime of these patients.


The objective of…. [read more]

Children With Conduct Disorder Research Paper

… All of this would have to be rated with the Conduct Disorder Scale (CDS), an efficient and effective instrument for evaluating children exhibiting severe behavior problems who may have Conduct Disorder ( They would then be rated a week following the culmination of the program in order to assess whether their initial rating has improved, stayed constant, or declined. In order to assess whether or not the program has long-term impact, the students will also be examined after the lapse of a year using the same instrument. As possible supplementation, parents and teachers may be approached for their feedback of improvement of child during the past year. As per requirement of empirical experiments, guardians of child will be approached before program for permission of child…. [read more]

Distance Learning an Evaluation of the Effectiveness and Student Progress in Florida Virtual School Dissertation

… Distance Learning Intro Revised

Hello Kevin

Thank you for submitting the initial draft for my review. Here is my reply.

INTRO -- Is uploaded with requested revisions

Working on it -- when do you need it?

Waiting for your overview of the research problems, etc., the raw data, and the data from the state or national testing statistics that you refer.

Quotes: The original instructions did not say anything about not including direct quotes. I will do my best, but if you find they are not useful, then please, remove them and paraphrase in your voice.

Thank you for incorporating the questionnaire. I like the concept of the questionnaire, rather than using only database statistics. It shouldn't be a problem to obtain data; it could…. [read more]

Mixed Research Solution to Help Research Proposal

… Risk statistics supply the probability that the certain student is going to be classified under a particular domain or personality type inside his/her respective group. On the other hand, the aim of the composition statistics is to recognize and highlight the probability that the certain student inside a certain classification (as indicated in the risk analysis) - e.g., mentally retarded-- will be of a particular race or ethnicity. He claimed this confusion results in the regrettable stereotype that the large proportion of African-Americans have been in special education. This isn't the case, he asserts, as nearly all African-Americans have been in general education structure (Reschly, 2007).

In majority of the stats, the white and Asian schools, however, have managed to provide special education services that…. [read more]

123. . .
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