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Science and Pseudoscience Article Review

… Science and Pseudoscience

Would you describe the claims made in this article on weight loss as having been based on scientific or pseudoscientific research? Explain your answer.

I would describe the claims made in the Sensa article as being made completely on pseudoscientific research. Research that is scientific in nature has a clear hypothesis that is testable and that can be proven to be either valid or invalid (Braithwaite & Jackson, 2006). Because that is the case, it is easy to see that the Sensa article does not offer scientific proof of the validity of its claims. One of the largest red flags is that the Sensa article provides the opinions of celebrities, which is a ploy often used by pseudoscientific articles to make people…. [read more]


Nature of Science Term Paper

… Nature of Science

Even in a technologically advanced society such as ours, there is little common awareness of science and of scientific principles. As a result, many people are blinded by pseudoscience. In his article "The Nature of science," David S. Smith outlines the definition of science, the process of science, and the limitations of science so that readers can better understand how to distinguish between scientific fact and fiction. According to Smith, there is no universal definition of science. However, for the purposes of his argument, Smith defines science as the branch of knowledge that deals with the structure and operation of the universe. Science is only concerned with natural principles, observable phenomena, and verifiable evidence. Science is not, on the other hand, interested…. [read more]


Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle Essay

… ¶ … Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark by Carl Sagan

Carl Sagan makes a number of astute observations in his book the Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark. However, there are a few occasions on which the author misinterprets some information, its importance, and its effects upon the greater world. One of the most salient of these examples is his viewpoint on the influence of television in relation to science and its effect upon an increasingly global audience. Within "Significance Junkies," one of the twenty five different chapters in this manuscript that consists of an independent essay (although many of them allude to points made in previous essays), the author bemoans the fact that true science, powered by…. [read more]


Compare and Critically Contrast the Empiricist Inductivist and Popperian Approaches to Science Term Paper

… Science

Critical Examination of the Empirical Iductivist and Popperian Approaches to the Scientific Method

The pursuit of science is often imagined untroubled by philosophical quandaries. Unfortunately, this is not the case. A number of complications arise in science, especially when intellectuals and academics attempt to ascertain what is known and how it is known that said facts are known. More importantly, distinguishing between scientific and non-scientific conceptions of the world around us can be difficult and not always apparent. Evidence for theories, even contradictory ones, abounds. Determining which theories and approaches are scientific and which are not can be a difficult proposition. The purpose of this study is to examine two epistemological frameworks through which scientific information can be (and has been) categorized and understood.…. [read more]


Karl Popper and Falsification Essay

… In seeing even isolated accounts of falsification in its practical use, one cannot deny these results and their bordering on, if not complete collapse into pseudoscience. In a world in which new knowledge is acquired every day, it seems as though traditionalist methods far surpass the capabilities of falsification in a practical sense, as falsification is surely not the correct way to understand scientific methodology.

Works Cited

Dutch, Steven. "What Pseudoscience Tells us About Science" University of Wisconsin at Green Bay. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs / pseudosc/badmodl.htm [Accessed on 26 March 2012].

Jeffrey, Richard. "Probability and Falsification: Critique of the Popper Program," in Synthese, 30(2): pp. 95-117. Web. Retrieved from: http://dc262. 4shared.com/doc/uYXd4gZE/preview.html [Accessed on 26 March 2012].

Kenyon, Ralph. "Falsification." Popper's Philosophy of Science. 1984.…. [read more]


Rick Houser's Book Counseling Questionnaire

… They are men who have improved and consummated their physical, mental, spiritual, and psychic organizations to the extreme conceivable degree. With the vision they have picked up, have contemplated, and recorded the accurate Science of the Universe. In fact, present-day science tries to get closer and closer to this Knowledge. However, that Knowledge as of recently exists. It gave us a chance to recall that that this aged Knowledge can never show signs of change any more than immaculate math can change, in any event for our present earth-cycle. Current science must be judged with all considerations of Theosophy and not the other way round because science changes with time while Theosophy like everlasting truth is constant.

What is of true worth to us is…. [read more]


Superstition Is a Belief Essay

… Superstition is a belief in something that is not based on reason. In other words, it is the opposite of faith -- which, as the medieval world understood and tried to show (in the works of Thomas Aquinas, for example), was based on reason. Superstition is usually associated with what are called "old wives' tales," and they usually deal with luck or things that might occur in the future.

I do not believe that I am superstitious about anything, even though I sometimes play along with superstitions. For example, I might root for the number 8 (which is said to be lucky) and shy away from the number 4 (unlucky).

The difference between science, pseudoscience, philosophy and religion is that in a modern sense science…. [read more]


Falsifiability the Scientific Method Essay

… Falsifiability

The scientific method has been around for millennia, and ensures that knowledge derived by this method is objective and as accurate as the circumstances of experimentation allow. The scientific method exists to make sure that other experimenters will be able to repeat and verify results; if results cannot be repeated, than they are considered invalid. In his book the Logic of Scientific Discovery, Karl Raimund Popper examines many aspects of how we attain scientific knowledge, and somewhat revolutionized the way we think about science and knowledge. One of his most profound claims is that the form of all knowledge "must be such that to verify them and to falsify them must be logically possible" (Popper, 1992, 17). This does not mean, of course, that…. [read more]


Sagan's Argument in the Demon Haunted World Term Paper

… ¶ … Demon-Haunted World

Lighting the Candle: Argument Analysis

What tools are available to sort through a world rife in delusion, half-truths, and undeniable mystery? Should one trust scholarship, faith, or even one's own eyes to discover that which lies beneath veiled agendas perpetrated upon a gullible public? Is there a method by which one might become reasonably educated? Carl Sagan, a Pulitzer Prize winner and author of numerous works, argues in favor of the scientific approach to knowledge. Sagan, in his book, the Demon-Haunted World, successfully establishes his claim that science and its accompanying approach to reasoning is the only way that mankind can hope for long-term survival. He uses his book to build his case. What elements of argument does Sagan use to…. [read more]


Graphology Forensics and DNA Term Paper

… There are some handwriting styles that are correlated with different mental disorders and forensic psychologists use the handwritings to profile individuals that have not yet been apprehended.

Graphology is quite useful within the criminal justice system. When there is a suspect in a crime and part of the evidence is a handwritten note, investigators might call for the assistance of handwriting experts to try and find out if there are a match.in some cases, this can be just one piece of evidence which might get a suspect charged and convicted eventually (Thomas, 2002). This technique is often used in the determination of authorship which means can be used to establish who wrote a particular document or whose signature appears in a document. This is quite…. [read more]


Rxy in Psyc Essay

… However, watch talk-shows on the subject and no one is convinced; low self-esteem is still considered a major causal factor by the media.

Following up with Lilienfeld et al. (2003) and their findings, one of the most commonly held assumptions is that being a sexually or physically abused child leads to growing up as an abuser. There are a number of websites (e.g., http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn7587-early-experience-not-genes-shapes-child-abusers.html) and talk shows purporting this fact; however, the empirical research for this idea is very scarce. Lilienfeld et al. report several empirical studies disclaiming this, especially some well-conducted meta-analyses that were publically ridiculed when these findings were published. In spite of sound empirical evidence to the contrary many lay-people, politicians, social workers, and others refused to accept the findings. It appears…. [read more]


Ethics as With Darwin's Theory of Evolution Article Review

… Ethics

As with Darwin's theory of evolution, gene testing has opened new frontiers in understanding medicine, as it allows us among other things to understand the degree to which we are predisposed to specific diseases and conditions (Miller, 2007). The case of Burlington Northern Railway v. The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) marked the first time the law had addressed this issue. The railway had been conducting gene testing on employee for the identification of a specific disorder that in theory predisposed workers to carpal tunnel syndrome (Schafer, 2001). This example illustrates one of the ways in which companies can use genetic information -- in this instance to find ways to opt out of insurance and disability payments. Miller (2007) argues that such abuses…. [read more]


Intuition in Judgment and Decision-Making Article Review

… The authors describe a study where participants were supposed to assess values of shares while paying attention to strategic ads. "Across a number of studies, the astounding finding was that evaluative judgments consistently reflected the sum of return values… The results indicate that the mere encoding of value laden information (monetary outcomes) was a sufficient condition for instigating the integration of this input information" (Betsch & Glockner, 2010). Another issue that the authors examine is the use of the Mouselab when examining things like mental processes and cognition and how this method is flawed in gauging these things because it requires motor behavior to uncover hidden information and places constraints on information acquisition (Betsch & Glockner, 2010). However, when the authors used things like the…. [read more]


Bleep Do We Know Traveling the Road Essay

… ¶ … Bleep do we Know

Traveling the Road to Divine Inspiration: Enlightenment or Pseudoscience?

In this essay, a discussion ensues which involves the book "What the Bleep Do We Know" by William Arntz, Betsy Chasse, and Mark Vicente, published in 2005. First, the essay provides a book review style discussion of the concepts presented in the book. The rest of this report will expound on some of the ideas and concepts presented in the book, with supportive literature to fully explore those issues. Included in this outline are the conceptual underpinnings of the quantum physics, metaphysics, quantum mysticism, quantum information theory, and related ontological precepts. Finally, a conclusion is offered on whether the ideas presented in the book are more closely related with enlightenment,…. [read more]


Psychology's Rodney Dangerfield Problem Discussion Chapter

… Psychology's Rodney Dangerfield Problem

The essence of psychology's Rodney Dangerfield problem is that this particular academic discipline and science incurs a definite lack of respect as compared to that of other sciences. The public view of psychology and of those who practice it is not on par with its view of other scientific disciplines, such as physics or chemistry, which are generally viewed as being more substantiated in hard facts and official scientific processes and methodologies. Psychology, however, is generally viewed as being a lot more subjective and given to individual interpretation. As a result, psychological findings and conclusions are a lot more likely to be received with skepticism, cynicism, and in some instances, frivolity (Stanovich, 1997, p. 15).

There are several factors that can…. [read more]


Polygraph Does it Work Research Paper

… ¶ … Polygraph Testing

Polygraphs have fascinated law enforcement members ever since they were first proposed, seemingly offering a silver bullet for uncovering dishonesty in suspects and possible law enforcement applicants, and it remains wildly popular among United States law enforcement agencies to this day. However, the polygraph has been shown to be unreliable, failing to catch dishonesty while delivering false positives incriminating honest people, and in fact the polygraph is so unreliable that it is regarded as pseudoscience by the respected scientific community, something fit to intimidate suspects or otherwise encourage confessions but which has no more substantial ability to detect dishonesty in suspects than the average person. By examining critical research regarding the effectiveness of the polygraph in different contexts, this study demonstrates…. [read more]


Contemporary Issues in Bioethics Term Paper

… Bioethics and Morality: An Examination

In this short paper, the author will be dealing with the issues of bioethics (in effect medical ethics) such as justice and autonomy in health care, autonomy rights and medical information, end of life decision-making and eugenics and human genetics. Each of these issues will be examined separately or together as they relate to patient rights and ethics in on more expansive concerns that touches upon the philosophy of science and issues of biotechnology. The implications of the new technology and their impact upon the above issues will be explored as well as the fears and concerns of the author about the slippery slope represented by the eugenics movement and the promise and yet peril of human genetics if it…. [read more]


Theory of Evolution Term Paper

… ¶ … Evolution

The concept of evolution embodies the belief that existing animals and plants developed through a process of gradual and continuous change from previously existing forms (Evolution pp). Also known as descent with modification, this theory constitutes organic evolution, while inorganic evolution is concerned with the development of the physical universe from unorganized matter (Evolution pp). As opposed to the belief in the special creation of each individual species as an immutable form, organic evolution conceives of life as having had its beginnings in a simple primordial protoplasmic mass (most likely originating in the sea) from which through the eras of time, arose all subsequent living forms (Evolution pp). Evolutionary concepts date back to early Greek writings and can be found in the…. [read more]


Ndes a Near Death Experience Essay

… Therefore, it is highly likely that researchers working with the assumption that near death experiences teach us about life after death work under a biased presupposition.

Potential for Future Research

Because it can be studied from a scientific, spiritual, psychological, or cultural perspective, the near death experience offers the means to bridge the gaps between these disciplines. Scientists studying the near death experience "support the need for a radical revision of mainstream views concerning the relationship between the brain and consciousness," (Braithwaite, 2008). Near death experiences have been linked with experiences of telepathy (Blackmore, n.d.). The link with telepathy suggests that studying the person's brainwaves and psychological state before, during, and after the experience could yield potent information about consciousness and reality; these are the…. [read more]


Native American Solutions for Global Warming Capstone Project

… Native American Solutions to Global Warming

The world faces a crisis of unprecedented proportions, one which threatens not only our future economic, social, and political well-being, but the very life force of the planet itself. Beyond the now well-known threat of global warming, we face a mass extinction the likes of which have not been seen for hundreds of thousands of years, one precipitated by our unceasing exploitation of the environment. The current response to these crises while noble and well intentioned, are usually the products of a combination of ignorance and optimistic naivete. This is because the problems we face are not simply the result of bad economic choices, they are a natural outgrowth of a particular way of looking at the natural world,…. [read more]


Pyramid Power Essay

… Pyramid Power

The use of mind's reasoning skills can be very helpful in detecting useful bits of information that are presented to one's senses. The usage and power of words and language has great impacts on the way we interpret the world making reasoning a very important method of achieving some balance in the world. There are many claims being presented that claim many different points-of-view. One such viewpoint suggests that the pyramid shape has certain powers that are beneficial to health and well being. The purpose of this essay is to apply reasoning skills to investigate the hypothesis that the pyramidal shape has health benefits for humans.

In order to test the validity of that statement, the scientific method must be applied to fully…. [read more]


Man of the Crowd Term Paper

… As a social structure, London produced a large number of workers, especially clerical workers; clerks were an obvious occupation of the time, and the obvious aspect of the metropolitan economy. Although a large part of the population are working class, there are also nobles and rich merchant plying the social circles of upper social class London, but they are outnumbered by the poorest class in the city. In Psychology, Pseudoscience's of physiognomy and phrenology-which pertains to the ability to read the character of people in a crowd- influenced the author's perspectives in classifying people in the story. The popularity of written text appearing sporadically in the modern urban landscape of that time influenced the writer in the way he mused at things and developed his…. [read more]


Scientific Approaches to Learning, Behavior, and Brain Questionnaire

… Scientific approaches to learning, behavior, and brain function are part of a tradition of methodology that is based on a set of standards, empirical knowledge, and experimentation. Cures, brain improvement technologies, etc. that are advertised are often pseudo-science and have not been tested in a robust environment that has peer-reviewed experimental results that can be duplicated. They are typically based on anecdotal evidence, and while some may indeed have some value, often lack "proof." A scientific basis, however, requires a more rigorous hypothesis testing rubric.

In general, pseudoscience is a belief that claims or appears to be scientific, but does not use appropriate scientific methodology. Astrology is one example; it has millennia of tradition, wraps itself up in numerous details, and keeps claims rather vague…. [read more]


Physiognomy: False Impressions Essay

… In the online magazine of the Getty Museum (a well-known museum in Los Angeles) the author of an article on physiognomy, Sarah Waldorf, explains that physiognomy dates back to 500 B.C. Aristotle believed that "…large-headed people were mean…small faces were steadfast, broad faces reflected stupidity, and round faces signaled courage" (Waldorf, 2012). And again in the 16th century, external appearances indicated one's potential to become a doctor, or professor, Waldorf writes.

What I saw and felt

The first thing I noticed was that people on the street did not want to make eye contact with me. The well-dressed woman on her way to work (I went out between 8:00 A.M. And roughly 10:20 A.M.) quickly looked the other way when she caught me looking at…. [read more]


Psychology Foundations for Graduate Study Discussion Chapter

… Psychology - Foundations for Graduate Study

Prompt: One of the great breakthroughs in the past 50 years has been the widespread availability of the personal computer. This powerful learning tool has revolutionized everything from commerce to education and changed the very way everyone conducts his or her daily lives. And most notably, where only a few years ago people wrote about the "digital divide" between those who could afford computers and those who could not, there is almost no discussion along these lines any longer. and, in fact, why would there be? Poor people can now save enough to buy their families a computer for home and school use. In fact, an article in Business Week in 2001 estimated that more than 80% of all…. [read more]


Workplace Assessment: Corporate Banking Essay

… Measurements to Assess Individuals for Corporate Banking

Assessing someone for corporate banking can be done in several ways. Among the ways to do that are through the Myers Briggs Type Indicator and through the Five Factors Model of personality.

The Myers Briggs Type Indicator

The Myers Briggs Type Indicator is a personality test. Through a series of questions, the test looks for commonalities and can provide a person with a good assessment of his or her personality type (Matthews, Deary, & Whiteman, 2003). It looks at how people make decisions about various things, but it also considers how people see the world (Matthews, Deary, & Whiteman, 2003). By addressing both of those issues it is much easier to see whether a person would be well…. [read more]


Allopathic Osteopathic Allopathic Approaches Essay

… " If this is true, a society with more DOs would perhaps be prevalent with more family practices which would be a distinct change from the clinic/hospital/ER-based practices that supports most of the healing methods.

An attractive benefit of osteopathy is that it typically poses little risk of producing negative interactions with other medications and treatments. This makes make it an excellent supplemental treatment, which doctors, physical therapists and other medical practitioners often prescribe in addition to more mainstream, primary treatments, such as surgeries and painkillers or other drugs. This would suggest that less of these types of accidents would appear in a medical world with more DOs.

While many mainstream allopathic medical approaches, such as surgeries and pain medications, are known for their fast-acting…. [read more]


Dissociative Identity Disorder (Did) Research Paper

… However, the diagnosis is much more common in women than men and the ratio of women to men with DID is somewhere from 5:1 to 9:1 (APA, 2000). The cause of DID is unknown; although inevitability people suffering from this disorder have experience some form of traumatic event, most often childhood abuse (APA, 2000). Ross (1996) discusses four types of causal factors associated with DID: 1) a traumatic life event, 2) a vulnerability for the disorder to develop in the person (e.g., susceptibility to being hypnotized), environmental factors such as poor coping skills or role models and, 4) a lack of or absence of external support.

On examination patients with DID will not appear to be unusual except for some instances of forgetfulness. Often a…. [read more]


Genetic Testing Work Place? Expectations Essay

… "In the rapidly developing universe of genetic intelligence, the employer is faced with a staggering dilemma" (Duke & Tech).

All things considered, hiring a candidate appears to be costly regardless of the techniques used during the employment process. An employer ultimately deals with an ethical dilemma when hiring a person: Is it right to hire someone who has no genetic flaws or is it right to hire someone who is likely to inflict great costs on the company?

Works cited:

MacDonald, Chris & William Jones, Bryn, "Ethics and Genetics: Susceptibility Testing in the Workplace," Retrieved July 31, 2011, from the Ethics for the Biotech Industry Website: http://www.biotechethics.ca/wgt/index.html

Claire, Andre & Velasquez, Manuel, "Read My Genes:

Genetic Screening in the Workplace," Retrieved July 31, 2011, from…. [read more]

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