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Scientific Knowledge There Lies Question Research Paper

… Biology is an area that has proved science knowledge because the bigger portion of our knowledge bases on investigations and observations of the environment around us. A good example is the knowledge that living things have organs. This proves through dissecting different organisms and identifying the different organs.

This brings about the issue of generalization through reasoning. This is true because it shows at any moment in time. The biologists are able to do experiments and confirm why the leaves on an oak tree grow bigger next to the stem. They will use a random field study to confirm their allegations. However, despite the different methods of experimenting, they cannot confirm the best. Again, weakness reflects when the scientist cannot collect enough evidence. Personal bias…. [read more]

Scientific Revolution Term Paper

… ¶ … Scientific Revolution

In order to answer on the question about the existence of scientific revolution between 1500 and 1700 it's important to study this problem from different angles and different perspectives, because we should also know the situation that happened between those two centuries in other fields of social life with no direct reference to science. As we know this period in culture and history of western civilization is characterized by so called "renaissance" or revival of antique humanistic common values that put man in the center of the world as well as put human mind above everything. Renaissance was a period when people began to refer to material values, rationalism and changing life for the good of society, by expanding moral, social…. [read more]

Scientific Models and Religious Myths Term Paper

… For the evolution theory it is almost 3.5 billion years while for the cosmology theory is almost 15 billion years ago, in the other religious theory, the time is not given although it is believed to be a long time ago. They all appear to give the notion that there is no exact time line on when the earth was exactly created. Secondly the theories are such that out of all of them, there is the presence of life at one stage in the postulates.

The similarities between the theories are very much ideological similarities where all things appear to be much of the same caliber especially when it comes to the earth. All life is taken to have been from a certain source which…. [read more]

Knowledge Management Toolkit a Data Term Paper

… When an individual sees any piece of data, he immediately attempts to find a reference point or context for it, by associating it with other things, and it is only when he does find it that he would find any meaning in the piece of data. For example, if one happens to see the number five written somewhere, then he immediately associates it as the number that comes before six and after four and this is how he manages to comprehend the number five. (Knowledge Management-Emerging Perspectives)

In the same way, an individual will find meaning in the data that he encounters only when he finds a reference point or any other association for it. Neil also sated that a mere collection of data is…. [read more]

Lies Paul Ekman Term Paper

… Another possible explanation of our alleged lie-detecting incompetence is that we often have emotional mechanisms in place which make catching a liar a more uncomfortable event than putting up with the lie, and making provision to work around it. Many people do not want to catch a liar, because a trusting rather than a suspicious stance enriches life. To always doubt, to make false accusations, is not only unpleasant for the doubter but "undermines much chance of establishing intimacy, in mating, friendships, or... work relationships. (p. 342) There are professionals for whom the inability to catch a lie would mean failure at their careers, i.e. police officers, bank loan officers, IRS agents, etc. But for a majority of the population who desires a peaceful, and…. [read more]

Knowledge? Essay

… Ultimately, the value of evidence in the supporting beliefs depends on the means by which a belief is created. The various Areas of Knowledge and Ways of Knowing all require unique tactics. More stringent approaches like Mathematics, Science and Reason necessitate more empirical evidence in order to attain believability. Whereas other more subjective methods like The Arts and Emotion advocate greater levels of faith-based belief. Therefore, while tangible evidence is surely an important tool in securing beliefs, it is not explicitly required.


Landauer, J., & Rowlands, J. (2001, September 9). Reason. Retrieved February 8, 2011, from Importance of Philosophy:

Cooper, J.M. (1970, January 21). Plato on Sense Perception and Knowledge. Retrieved February 8, 2011, from JSTOR:

Dilthey, W. (1989). Introduction to the…. [read more]

Legal and Scientific Review of MRI to Determine Innocence in Cases Term Paper

… ¶ … MRIs



The objective of this work is to research the use of MRIs in court cases and specifically related to the social consequences of the advance in neuroscience, the legal problems and legal perspectives of this use.

Historically, there have been many folk tales that point the way to discerning whether an individual is telling the truth or whether that individual is in fact lying. The most popular method in detecting lies was developed in the 1930s and is the polygraph machine however; the accuracy of this method is disputed widely. A new method of detection which is called 'brain fingerprinting' looks at the brainwaves of a subject to see if specific…. [read more]

Influence of Women on the Progress of Knowledge Dissertation

… ¶ … Henry Thomas Buckle's original 1858 discourse concerning the contributions of women to the progress of knowledge to determine how relevant these concepts remain today, and to expand on his origins premise that although women reason differently from men, the contributions to the progress of knowledge made by women over the centuries are worthy of further study today. To this end, the study examines different types of knowledge and how women have affected progress in these domains through a critical review of the relevant literature, including open source media such as Wikipedia, but peer-reviewed and scholarly sources as well. A summary of the research and a synthesis of the findings are presented in the study's conclusion concerning the contributions of women to the progress…. [read more]

Heidegger the Question of Technology Term Paper

… Thus, there exists an inherent inadequacy in science to form the basis of social order. Technology does not go away when we stop driving cars, and science does not cease to dictate our lives if we decide to become abstract painters. Science therefore is not a map that can be discarded and replaced by a new paradigm. It mirrors the very configuration of ourselves as modern people. As that which gave rise to a technological understanding of the world, and thereby to science itself, the idea of 'Enframing' is the root of both benefit and danger that accompanies technology. Enframing dominates what is in such a way that denies the possibility of another system of thought. "Enframing blocks the shining-forth and holding-sway of truth that…. [read more]

Mind, Freedom and Knowledge Descartes Essay

… Turing considers the mind to be like an onion skin, with same "subcritical" layers that are purely mechanical or machine-like in that they function automatically, but that other functions were "supercritical" and one idea presented to them would lead to many new ideas (Turing, p. 295). He also argues that machines would not only learn, but mutate and evolve, and much faster than in biological evolution, which is a random process (Turing, p. 296). Strong AI theorists would maintain that they had indeed created a human mind if it was placed in a body that looked identical to a person, and behaved in a ways that was "indistinguishable over a large range from human behavior," then it would also appear to have intentionality (Searle, p.…. [read more]

Search for Knowledge or Data Essay

… ¶ … search for knowledge or data about a matter, investigating the subject via scientific methodology. The primary process of research is to discover, interpret, and (in the case of applied research) use certain methods that will lead to more reliable, evidence-based knowledge about our world.

The research process is based on the following steps: 1. Articulation of the topic and literature review or observations; 2. Researcher's hypothesis; 3. Conceptual definitions and operational definitions of investigated concept; 4. The scientific gathering of data; 5. The scientific analysis of data; 6. Modifying or support of hypothesis, and 7. Conclusion (Trochim, 2006).

Qualitative research is often best used when the sample under study cannot be analyzed in the laboratory and one wants richer information on that population…. [read more]

Politics Since, According to Constructivism, Human Knowledge Term Paper

… Politics

Since, according to constructivism, human knowledge does not reflect reality, it therefore challenges the fundamental beliefs of rationalism.

Constructivism is a philosophy that holds that all knowledge, or how humans view their world, is constructed instead of being based on any actual realities. According to constructivism, knowledge does not necessarily reflect any external realities but instead is contingent on conventions, human perceptions and the overall social experience of an individual. In other word, according to constructivist theory, knowledge is nothing more than artificial reality. If constructivism was to be summarized, it can be said that constructivism defines both knowledge and truth based on a paradigm that uses inter-subjectivity instead of the rationalist objectivity. This being said, constructivism is fundamentally opposed to the premises of…. [read more]

Albert Einstein: Historical and Scientific Icon Science Research Proposal

… Albert Einstein: Historical and Scientific Icon

Science and celebrity rarely coexist but somehow, with Albert Einstein, they found a way to live together and make the man just as iconic today as he was in his own day. Rarely do individuals live to see their impact upon society but Einstein lived to see how his theories could literally change the world in which he lived. While most people may not be able to explain Einstein's theories, they can identify the face of Einstein. While not everyone knows how Einstein's contributions to society work, almost everyone benefits from his knowledge. Historically, the man left a lasting impression on how we understand aspects of the universe. His ideas opened the door to more discoveries that have yet…. [read more]

Broken Down Essay

… ¶ … broken down to the question of 'what exactly constitutes knowledge?' This is a question that has plagued philosophers since the beginning of time. Although the majority of the great philosophers seem to equate knowledge with belief, in at least its most basic sense, questions remain regarding what is fact and what is only believed to be fact. In this essay I will attempt to explain the various philosophical arguments that address this issue, will infusing some of my own personal observations and understandings into the fold as well.

Does Belief Constitute Knowledge?

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Rene Descartes developed a theory of "rational philosophy" that attempted to equate knowledge with reason. In Descartes' view, beliefs are usually constructed on a fragile…. [read more]

Experimental Research Methods in Business Literature Review

… 123). The research approaches to which the authors refer in their definition include, for example, data collection and analysis, inference techniques, qualitative perspectives, and quantitative perspectives. When placing a mixed methods approach in the research -- as a type of research -- the authors suggest research employing mixed methods "would involve mixing within a single study; a mixed method program would involve mixing within a program of research and the mixing might occur across a closely related set of studies" (Johnson, 2007, p. 123).

As we have said, research methods can be described as fitting within any one of three research paradigms: The qualitative research paradigm, the quantitative research paradigm, or the mixed methods research paradigm. Greene (2006) further parsed research methodologies into four domains:…. [read more]

Social Research Activities, Whether Empirical Term Paper

… The instrument employed by the researchers was a non-standardized questionnaire administered by two test administrators. Unfortunately however, no information was presented as to when, where, and how the questionnaire was administered. When test administration is not appropriately administered the resulting error can greatly impact the data collected. For example, administering an alternative medicine questionnaire to a parent who has just learned that a child has cancer vs. administration of the questionnaire to a parent who has known for a long time that a child has cancer can bias the data results significantly. In other words test administration variables and the influence it has on the resulting data was not being adequately considered.

When data collection and improperly administered measurement instruments are subject to error the…. [read more]

Ethical Standards in Research Research Paper

… Ethical Standards in Research

Research has become a part of the modern educational system. In all fields of study, research data and papers are used to test a pupil's knowledge and assess their skills to deal and grip a specific scenario that is presented to them. These scenarios can be in various forms, one such being case studies and research-based papers. For the purpose of completing their research papers, students are allowed to access information from various other resources which can be in the forms of books, journal papers, news articles, etc. All the external data that has been selected to complete a research paper cannot be deemed to be the work of the student writing the research paper. All the authors and owners of…. [read more]

Chemistry and Biology on Christian Essay

… [footnoteRef:12] [12: Forsyth, Robert. "Then a miracle occurs': the blessing and limitations of science A bishop looks at science from the viewpoint of the Christian faith." (accessed March 20, 2013). ]

Science is a field that provides as knowledge about the simplest things but it also tells us secrets about the depths, structure and composition of the universe. It reveals the complex of human organs. Through the advancements in medical field science has been the savior of many of the lives. Previously, precious human life was being wasted due to petty diseases but now due the advancements in the field of medicine people can now fight dangerous diseases such as cancer and can get back to their life. Science gave rise to various phenomena…. [read more]

Management and Theory Leadership Application Essay

… initial success. But that would leave out other variables like geography, econometrics, type of product or service, technology, timeliness, etc. Strictly speaking, this is one of the difficulties in social science research. The internal validity must show that A caused B; while there still might be a trade-off between internal and external validity in certain situations. In general, looking at research into entrepreneurial activity we find that numerous threats exist: interaction of selection bias and treatment (issue may work only on a certain population); there may be reactive experimental arrangements that influence generalizations (e.g. actions between global consumers with different goals and belief systems), (Alvesson and Karreman; Locke).

Research is a step-by-step process that uses a systematic approach to the collection and analysis, and then…. [read more]

1500-1700 Ad Humanities Term Paper

… Scientific Revolution: 1500-1700 a.D.

The three hundred years between 1500 to 1700 a.D. was a period of a profound change in the thinking of the people (of Europe in particular). During this time, the centuries old beliefs of the people based on dogma and religious belief were challenged by a number of intellectuals who based their thinking on experimentation and mathematical analysis to understand the physical world around them. This revolutionary change in the way of thinking led to the application of knowledge to practical uses and propelled the Western world from the dark ages to the modern age. The significance of the period, which later came to be known as the period of "Scientific Revolution," lies in the fact that the scientific developments of…. [read more]

Market Failure Term Paper

… Market Failure


Weimer and Vining (2004) perceive a perfectly competitive economy as the rational setting for public policy. Public policy is the creation of both positive and negative incentives by the government in order to encourage collective choices. An economic theory assumes that many profit-driven firms and utility-maximizing exist in that perfectly competitive economy. Their interplay leads to efficient patterns of production and consumption. It is described as efficient in that the players' behavior pattern cannot be changed without putting some persons at an advantage over others. They make private choices, which create circumstances, which in turn justify public policy. These circumstances are called market failures or MF, which interfere with efficiency in production or consumption. Social values…. [read more]

Ethics Research the Role Creative Writing

… Ethics Research

The role of research and science is very important in today's society. In many ways, this social class dictates much of what is accepted as truth. With this burden, comes a great responsibility that requires those who do research, on a professional academic level, to exceed normal expectations of ethical behavior. There is simply too much to risk in avoiding ethical mistakes, as this type of exposure rips down foundations of credibility that have taken decades of struggle to construct.

The purpose of this essay is to describe the ethical guidelines that will formulate my research behavior and practices throughout my continued academic pursuits. This report will discuss all aspects of doctoral research and the ethical principles that lie beneath them. Also, this…. [read more]

Social Variables in the Development and Maintenance Thesis

… ¶ … Social Variables in the Development and Maintenance of Business Relationships with Libyan Companies

The Need for the Research

Expected Contribution to Knowledge

Review of the Chapters

Review of Chapter 2 (Literature Review)

Review of Chapter 3 (Research Methodology)

Review of Chapter 4 (Research Findings)

101.5.4 Review of Chapter 5 (Research Discussion)

101.5.5 Review of Chapter 6 (Recommendation & Conclusion)

101.5.6 Review of Reference List

122.1 Why the Business Relationship is Important

132.2 Social Variables in the Development of Business Relationships

142.2.1 Cultural Affinity


202.2.3 Commitment

222.2.4 Experience

252.2.5 Satisfaction

262.2.6 Communication

Stages in the Development of a Business Relationship

322.3.1 Pre-contact

332.3.2. Initial Interaction

352.3.3 Development

352.3.4 Maturity

Research Methodology

373.1 Introduction

373.2 Definition of research methodology

383.3 Research Design

393.4 Research…. [read more]

William James' Idea of Man Essay

… It seems to me that cash value can be defined according to that which helps the individual flourish. The spiritual experiences that James had in mind may have been (in some cases, arguably) healthy and productive. Religious fervor evoked by drugs, cults, and the Nazi Reich were also instrumental but of a different kind. Their value was more destructive and, in this way, the 'cash value' of the religious experience does matter. It should be constructive.


William James makes distinction between the healthy-minded and the morbid-minded individual. The healthy-minded individual is he or she who is 'once-born'. She is born and the circumstances of the world are adequate for her; she is passively resigned to them. There are two types of healthy-minded individuals. The…. [read more]

Taylorism' / 'Scientific Management Term Paper

… However, her program still did not include rewards for a job well done.

Gantt introduced an organization chart, which set specific goals and broke them down into time frames. He introduced the idea of employee incentives for reaching the desired goal. This made the goals concrete. Gantt introduced the idea of incentive programs for reaching goals. This chart helped with time management and motivation as the employees could see their progress as they neared the end of a task.

Now let us compare the Human Relations Movement Theorists of the 1920-1930s to the Classical Theories. The Human Relationists focused more on the emotions that drive worker motivation, with less emphasis on performance and more on motivation. The Human Relationists are a stark contrast to the…. [read more]

Printing Press and the Internet Essay

… Printing Press and the Internet

The internet has completely revolutionized the way that people access knowledge, just as the printing press revolutionized the Renaissance era by exposing people to concepts that they had not heard of until the discovery. Despite their similarities in causing a great change among their respective generations, their direct impact varies greatly. The printing press was the original computer and Internet. It allowed a greater audience access to different perspectives. The printing press gave everyone equal access (to a degree) to ideas that they might not even have heard of until they became published. Because of people's fascination with knowledge, their literacy grew and their ability to grasp different stories grew into something that began the literacy era; everyone wanted to…. [read more]

Green Provides Some Clear Guidelines Term Paper

… e. via telephone, email, marketing, direct face-to-face communication, focus groups, interviews, etc. (Perko, Module 4).

Step 6/7: Create messages/Develop promotion programs

- The messages and development programs are created and implemented with the help of professional marketing or advertising companies (Perko, Module 4)

Step 8: Implement communication strategies

- This is done primarily following the internal organizational structure of the hospital (discussed late in question 6 under health communication) (Perko, Module 4)

Step 9/10: Assess Effects/Feedback

- This is a long-term monitoring process of the management whereby statistical, qualitative and quantitative data and facts are collected to ensure the success or failure of a promotion strategy employed (Perko, Module 4)

3. Discuss three examples of health promotion techniques that can effectively achieve environmental change.

Ethical…. [read more]

Morality of Statistics Ethics/Business Term Paper

… However, when the context suggests a higher degree of veracity and the results can be potentially misinterpreted, greater moral questions once again arise: a Gallup poll is assumed to be objective, as is an advertisement that 'looks' scientific, even though it might be produced by a biased party.

On a personal level, the analysis of both Ostapski & Superville and Geertsema are a reminder of the limits of objectivity, even in a numerically-driven science and the fact that an understanding of both the principles behind the analysis applied to the final result and also the consequences of the interpretation must be taken into consideration. The Christian belief in human rationality must also be tempered with an understanding that humans are fallible creatures and are prone…. [read more]

Passion Lie? Answering This Question Essay

… Through my fifteen years of past experience in the healthcare field, of which the most recent has been as a surgical technologist in labor and delivery for nine years, I have developed excellent interpersonal and analytical skills that could be effectively applied in a career as a radiation technologist. My top-notch communication skills help me to work well in team environments and to effectively diffuse conflicts and problems as they arise. I work efficiently and always approach my work, colleagues, and patients with a positive attitude. Through my experience I have learned the importance of positivity within the workplace and how negative attitudes result in toxicity that affects everyone around you in a ripple sort of effect. I have also learned through my healthcare experience…. [read more]

Intelligent Design Man Essay

… " In other words, there are elements of "intelligent design" that are not very intelligent, and thus, in their eyes, the theory totally collapses.

Carter and Welsh (2010, p. 48) note creationism is still taught in many school systems, particularly in traditionally conservative areas such as the South and Midwest. Science teachers in Dover, Pennsylvania, took their case to the Supreme Court several years ago when the school board demanded they teach intelligent design as an alternative to evolution. Clearly, the long-standing debate is not over and is likely to continue into the foreseeable future as scientists and non-scientists try to reconcile God and our beginnings. For some, the distinction is clear, but for many others, including scientists, the lines are blurred. One wonders if…. [read more]

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