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Enlightenment on American Culture and Political Life Essay

… ¶ … Enlightenment on American Culture and Political Life

The impact that the Enlightenment had on American culture is significant. In fact the American society that "evolved and is dominant today -- including the democratic ideals, capitalism and the scientific method -- all "derive from the Enlightenment ideals formulated in England" (Jandt, 2007, p. 184). The emphasis that Americans have on individual liberties and the dominant language in America and the structure of law were the result of the Enlightenment, Jandt explained (184). The author asserts that values related to democracy -- including separation of powers (executive, legislative and judicial) -- derived from the French philosopher Montesquieu, prominent in the French Enlightenment.

Professor Robert Morse Crunden -- with the University of Texas -- explained that…. [read more]

Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment Term Paper

… Scientific Revolution was a revolution in the way that human life was viewed. Instead of superstition and religion governing human life, the principles of rationalism were viewed to govern human existence. Methodical, empirical observations were used to answer the questions of life, such as why objects fell to the earth or the organization of the cosmos. Instead of deductively assuming certain principles were true, like the existence of God, nothing was assumed and instead scientific principles were derived inductively.

The Enlightenment

The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement spawned by the principles of the Scientific Revolution. Just as the Scientific Revolution applied the principles of rational behavior to the natural world, the Enlightenment applied the principles of the Scientific Revolution to human political and moral life.…. [read more]

Enlightenment Worldview Is the Root Essay

… The Enlightenment was undoubtedly empowering, as it challenged the individual to perform intellectual inquiry into prevailing questions, whether those questions be related to metaphysics, ontology, or political philosophy. This was perhaps the most critical challenge to orthodoxy, and its primary threat. Viewed as a threat, the Enlightenment worldview challenged the legitimacy of the Church doctrine, dogma, and authority. If there were no limits to Reason; that is, if Reason led to the celebration of atheism, then the Church faced serious problems and a general revolution might have been afoot. As it were, Reason did not completely dismantle belief in God as a symbolic authority. The Church become simply an orthodox version of religiosity, and the Enlightenment served sometimes as its handmaiden.

Fundamentalism, the return to…. [read more]

Enlightenment and Scientific Method Robert Essay

… Gutenberg's invention is widely credited with permitting the split within Christian churches in Europe that would occur a half century later with Martin Luther's complaints against the Roman Catholic church. By the onset of the Reformation, though, science was hardly an integrated force, and in the case of the Copernican world system, it was condemned by Catholics for contradicting Aristotle (and thus St. Thomas Aquinas) and by Lutherans for denying the literal Biblical account of Joshua stopping the sun in its diurnal course. Moreover, the Copernican and Keplerian reform still existed in a context when chemistry was still indistinguishable from medieval alchemy, and in which witchcraft was regularly practiced: Kepler's own mother was a professional witch, and was arrested for it, while Kepler himself drew…. [read more]

Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment Term Paper

… Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment

Scientific Revolution is considered as the process by which "new ideas and methods of science challenged modes of thought associated with medieval times and Scholasticism" (Kagan, 1995:514). This social change brought within new ideologies such as the application of rational and scientific thought in the pursuit for intellectual development.

The social change that is the Scientific Revolution differed from 16th century notions of science and intellectual development. Prior to this social and intellectual movement, there is a general agreement that the Earth was the center of the universe, which was derived from Ptolemy's work on the solar system (also called the Ptolemaic system). The Ptolemaic system's earth-centric view of the universe is parallel with the Christian belief that the earth is…. [read more]

Enlightenment Essay

… What Babcock defines as a typical Enlightenment-era Rousseau-inspired notion -- to "think government is the institution that is going to tinker with these bad institutions and [make] things better" -- has been a profound influence on both the rationale for, and the results of, the American Revolution.

But why put a symbol of the Enlightenment on the American dollar bill? Economics as a science is an invention of the Enlightenment, and it is worth noting that the central assumption of most economic theory -- that man is a rational being that makes rational choices -- is precisely what Babcock points to as intellectual overreach in the Enlightenment, where "the modern materialist…believes in the unifying power of human reason" (Babcock 223). Although Babcock suggests that the…. [read more]

Enlightenment in the Late 17th Thesis

… And this also applied to human endeavors, such as society. Therefore, the acceptance that humans are part of the natural world led to the understanding that humans were subject to natural laws.

This understanding led to the second element of the Enlightenment, application of knowledge to the world around. This led to advances in agriculture, medicine, machinery, science, religion, politics, and society in general. For instance, some took the rapidly expanding knowledge of nature and used it to develop the modern sciences, the classification of species, a better knowledge of geography, and the development of machinery which resulted in the Industrial Revolution. But others, like John Locke, applied the knowledge of the natural world to human government and developed the idea that governments exist for…. [read more]

Scientific Revolution Term Paper

… It was the time when philosophy appealed to the intellect of many such as the humanitarians, liberalists, and rationalists. Voltaire was one of the famous icons of the Enlightenment. His criticism on the Catholic Church awakened the mind of its believers. Montesquie, another icon of Enlightenment, shared ideas on politics. He argued that the power of the state should be divided evenly among the executive (king), the legislature (parliament), and the judiciary (courts) (The Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment,


Sedivy, Dave. The Enlightenment.

Highlands Ranch High School. 27 Oct 2003.

The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment. 27 Oct 2003.

The Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment. 27 Oct 2003.

The Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment. 27 Oct 2003.…. [read more]

Scientific Revolution the Enlightenment Industrial Research Proposal

… ¶ … Scientific Revolution, Industrial Revolution, and American Revolution demonstrate the power of the human mind as ingenuity. Mankind refuses to be restrained, whether it be within the frame of a small universe, to the old-fashioned way of doing things, or to oppression of any kind. The human spirit is meant to evolve and the human mind was created to think and grow. These revolutions with discoveries of the boundless universe to the steam engine demonstrate what life and history are all about. With new ideas come social and religious change and, while this change might seem frightening at first, it always proves to be one that answers a need and provides hope for the future.

The Scientific Revolution describes the period of time in…. [read more]

English American and French Revolution Essay

… Enlightenment and Revolution

Democratizing institutional trends almost always follow their endorsement by philosophical reasoning. This was true with the governments of ancient Athens and the more modern United States; it was also apparent in many of the Reformation movements that took place within and around the Catholic Church. But arguably the most direct link between individualistic and humanistic trends in philosophy and the establishment of a democratic -- or at least more democratic -- government occurred in the transition of the Enlightenment thinking of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and its lead up to the French Revolution and Napoleon's republican government.

Much of this Enlightenment thinking actually took place across the Channel in England. During the civil war there, Thomas Hobbes wrote his seminal Leviathan,…. [read more]

Scientific Revolution Term Paper

… ¶ … Scientific Revolution

In order to answer on the question about the existence of scientific revolution between 1500 and 1700 it's important to study this problem from different angles and different perspectives, because we should also know the situation that happened between those two centuries in other fields of social life with no direct reference to science. As we know this period in culture and history of western civilization is characterized by so called "renaissance" or revival of antique humanistic common values that put man in the center of the world as well as put human mind above everything. Renaissance was a period when people began to refer to material values, rationalism and changing life for the good of society, by expanding moral, social…. [read more]

Revolutions the History of Modern Term Paper

… Had the French Revolution not occurred, similar impulses elsewhere (especially in North America) would likely have occurred, nevertheless.

The Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution radically changed the lives of millions of people throughout the 19th century. Previously, the vast majority of people across Europe never traveled more than a few miles from their homes during their entire lives and received little timely information about what was happening elsewhere in the world (Riley, Gerome, Myers, et al., 2005). The introduction of the telegraph, telephone, and modern printing processes allowed ordinary people to become aware of important national and international events for the first time (Riley, Gerome, Myers, et al., 2005).

Likewise, the development of railroads and powered oceanic vessels tremendously increased the opportunities of ordinary people…. [read more]

Enlightenment in Europe Thesis

… ¶ … Enlightenment in Europe

The Enlightenment was a stage in Western philosophy and culture which spanned the eighteenth century, and advocated Reason as the primary source of authority. England anticipated the rest of Europe by decapitating its king in the seventeenth century. In this sense, the task of understanding the character of English literature during the Age of Reason cannot be separated from the social and political context of the movement. Furthermore, it is important to identify the thinkers who influenced, and ultimately helped develop English literature in the eighteenth century. The Glorious Revolution of 1688 was the overthrow which led to the decapitation of King James II of England by a union of Parliamentarians and the help of a Dutch army led by…. [read more]

Enlightenment on the French Revolution Term Paper

… Later, in 1748, Montesquieu published a book called Spirit of Laws, which presented a "comparative political analysis of the conditions most favorable to liberty," according to LEF:EFR's research.

Yet another major 17th Century contributor to what was later to be called The Enlightenment was Rene Descartes, who made famous the phrase, "I think, therefore I am." Descartes, however, while he attempted to use reason in defense of Christianity, "committed so many logical faults that his successors over the centuries were to slowly disintegrate his gains," Brians asserts.

Enlightenment Heavyweights: Voltaire vs. Rousseau

And as the 17th Century evolved into the 18th Century, philosophers like Voltaire emerged; while taking the position that tyranny and dogma were bad for civilization, and that educated and sophisticated people could…. [read more]

Compare the Effects of the Enlightenment on Christianity and on Islam Religions Essay

… ¶ … Enlightenment on Christianity and on Islam religions

Religion and the Enlightenment

The Enlightenment refers to the zeitgeist of the 17th and 18th centuries that originated in Europe and spread to the Americas. The principle values of the Enlightenment advocated logic and reasoning over faith and subservience, and emphasized man and his individual achievement as opposed to supernatural beliefs. Traditional conceptions of divinity and religion, in particular, were challenged by man's intellectual capacity for accomplishment in diverse areas such as philosophy, mathematics and science, and blatantly contested man's unquestioningly subordinate status to God and realms traditionally associated with the divine such as nature, circumstance, and fate. Several religious pretexts were developed during this epoch (such as Deism, which held that God created the universe…. [read more]

Industrial Revolution: Cultural and Construction History Essay

… Industrial Revolution: Cultural and Construction History (1750 to 1900)

Cultural Environment

During the Industrial Revolution machines changed the way people lived and their ways of manufacturing. The advent of steam power and its associated machinery in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries spurred significant changes in farming, manufacturing, mining, and transport. Beginning in England, these developments started a process of using vast natural resources to power economic change, for example in such areas as the manufacture of cloth and in the use of locomotive engines in transportation (Schivelbusch). Europe's socioeconomic and cultural conditions were transformed (More). Technology introduced mechanised production systems that replaced manual labour. One of the principle ways in which the Industrial Revolution altered these different arenas of life was by making it more…. [read more]

Religion French Revolution Term Paper

… Religion

French Revolution

The French Revolution and the resulting Reign of Terror were an attempt to create a government based on ideals from the enlightenment. Enlightenment thinkers were scientific, rather than romantic or metaphysical, and they believed everyone should be equal, and no one was above law or reproach. Many did not believe in God, but believed in scientific explanations for the creation of the universe and subsequent events. The attempt to create a democratic French government followed closely on the heels of the American Revolution, which many people felt was a great triumph of Enlightenment's ideals and values. The framers of the French Revolution were fighting the tyranny of a monarchy and for personal participation in government and lawmaking.

The French Revolution was an…. [read more]

French Enlightenment the Failure Term Paper

… Looking at the country's history of the enlightenment, an observer can say that French society embodied the new, modern society, a model that should have been the picture of an industrialized society.

However, society tells us that the opposite scenario happened in the case of France: while England and the rest of Europe began modernizing and industrializing their societies, France remained far behind, unable to recover from the political and economic downfall that came with the emergence of the French Revolution.

The French Revolution is the result of the enlightenment's philosophies and ideologies, a demonstration of the power of the French society to induce social reform in their country. However, there have been mixed reactions and opinions across Europe regarding this French political event of…. [read more]

Great Awakening Term Paper

… Bass, Randy. "Religion and Community: The Great Awakening." Georgetown University. Center for Electronic Projects in American Culture Studies. 1 Apr 2004.

Brian, Paul. "The Enlightenment" 17 Dec 1998. Washington State University web site. 1 Apr 2004.

Comtois, Marc. The American Enlightenment. 2004. 1 Apr 2004.

The Declaration of Independence. 4 July 1776.

Hawke, David. The Colonial Experience. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1975.

Jonathan Edwards." Great Men of God. 1 Apr 2004.

Matthews, Terry. "The Great Awakening." Lecture Four. Wake Forest University. 1 Apr 2004.

McLoughlin William M. Revivals, Awakenings, and Reform. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978.

Middleton, Richard. Colonial America: A History, 1585- 1776. Cambridge: Blackwell Publishing, 1996.

Nettels, Curtis Putnam. The Roots of American Civilization: A History of American…. [read more]

Post Enlightenment Political Thought Term Paper

… ¶ … post-enlightenment period we see the increasing acknowledgment, both for better and worse, of groups who had historically been marginalized or ignored by traditional European political thought. Where before Jews had been marginalized due to religious Christian anti-Semitism, now they were being marginalized because they had introduced conscience and dampened man's natural ardor. Ironically, post-modernist analysis has contributed to and/or exacerbated persecution of Jews in the post-enlightenment period when liberalism has been the most widespread by giving anti-Semitism a patina of intellectual respectability. Indeed, the earlier anti-Semitism was very simply based itself in religious exclusion. Now, Jews were subjected to this philosophical ghettoization in the garb of sociology and economics.

While on both extremes of the argument there is an attempt to lionize or…. [read more]

Optical Revolutions How the Telescope Essay

… Optical Revolutions

How the Telescope was a More Significant Invention to the Microscope

Advances in optical technology made it possible for early modern scientists to explore both the vastness of the universe and the minute complexities of the microbial world. However, while the invention of the microscope has transformed medicine and, ultimately, the lives of virtually every living person on Earth, these advances took decades to play out and were initially considered trivial. In contrast, the telescope may have had a less profound impact on everyday life, but, through its influence on a seminal figure, sparked an explosive revolution in early modern European thought, challenged the intellectual hegemony of the Church, and, ultimately, shifted our sense of the universe and our place in it.

The…. [read more]

French Absolute Monarchy Essay

… The French were severely affected by these changes and their views on society and on nature became more complex as a consequence.

The sixteenth and the seventeenth centuries saw much turmoil and this reflected on political ideologies, artistic tendencies, and on people's interest in experiencing technological progress. The idea of absolute monarchy was gradually built throughout these two centuries and was at its apogee during the reign of Louis XIV. Kings who ruled before him and Cardinal Richelieu built a system where the aristocracy became weaker and the power of the monarch became greater. This made it impossible for the French nobility to have a word in most of Louis XIV's decisions. The baroque style emerged as Christianity went through a critical stage in most…. [read more]

Philosophy: Enlightenment and Fahrenheit 451 Term Paper

… Other pumped all the blood from the body and replaced it with fresh blood" (Bradbury 14-15). The operators are not phased by the events of the evening, they are just systematically doing a job. Another example of how the machines control reason in this society is apparent in Mildred's need for the television parlor to be complete so she can visit with her television families. She finds more joy in interacting with them than her husband and allows the script to do her thinking. Having the four wall installed will bring this made-up world closer to reality for her and therefore causing her own isolation.

Montag meets a young woman who remembers when books were not burned. Clarisse acts as a catalyst for change and…. [read more]

Frankenstein and Enlightenment the Danger Essay

… While the Creature may believe that everything "good in him" comes from nature and that everything evil in him is a result of social rejection, his experiences are biased because of who and what he is (Lipking 325).

The different narrators in the novel, Walton, Frankenstein, and the Creature, provide various perspectives of how education and tutelage impact the formation of an individual and influence the actions that they take. While Frankenstein and the Creature are polar characters, one who is dependent on their formal education and the other on experience, Walton is neither at one extreme or the other. He recognizes the need for formal education, as well as experience, and understands the need for guidance. Because Frankenstein and the Creature were forced to…. [read more]

Environmental History Adam Smith's Contribution to the Enlightenment Term Paper

… Adam Smith & the Enlightenment

Adam Smith and the Enlightenment

The Industrial Revolution was like an explosion of economic activity that erupted worldwide as a result of enlightenment thinking and the coalescence of many societal trends. In his book The Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith documented the revolutionary paradigm shift from agricultural feudalism to mercantilism to capitalism. The world shifted from an agricultural way of life, managed by nobles and aristocrats for the "glory of God" and benefit of the church, to an urban life that involved the production of goods and products for economic consumption by the masses. Smith observed and recorded what happened. "Smith saw the economic potential of industrial technology, the specialization of labor, the factory system, and the entrepreneur" (p. 91).…. [read more]

Industrial Revolution Changed the World Term Paper

… The economic development triggered by the industrial revolution, thus, made the European nations and the United States, the most powerful in the world in the 18th and 19th centuries.

The Industrial Revolution in some European countries and the U.S. And the surplus goods produced by them as a result created the need for global markets. The accompanying military power of the industrialized countries enabled them to dictate terms on a global level and the European imperial expansion in the 1800s was one of the consequences of the Industrial Revolution. (Stearns 56) The effect of the Industrial Revolution is amply illustrated in the following example. Until the late eighteenth century, India was one of the largest exporters of cotton textiles and was famous for the fine…. [read more]

Western Civilization 2 Final Research Proposal

… ¶ … Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment were significant turning points in history and led to religious and political upheaval.

A a) the Enlightenment emerged from the Scientific Revolution. Describe how Enlightenment thinkers viewed human society and behavior and how their approach freed intellectuals to approach politics, policy, the economy and religion from wholly new perspectives.

The Age of Enlightenment is a period in Western history that first emerged in Germany, France and the Great Britain, to then expand to the other corners of Europe. It represented a crucial moment in the history of mankind due to the ideology it implemented and the consequences of this ideology. The primary concept at the basis of the Enlightenment thought was liberty - liberty of speaking, liberty of…. [read more]

Middle Ages, Scholastic Thinking Term Paper

… Other cities that valued scientific inquiry, such as Paris, realized that if they stifled such inquiry that they would face a 'brain drain,' and so instead they embraced new scientific ideas. The Jesuits, often associated with horrible purges of Protestants in areas such as modern-day Slovakia, became some of the strongest advocates of scientific research.

During the Scientific Revolution, the mechanics of logic became more intuitive and Aristotelian methodologies of analysis were modified or abandoned.

Aristotle saw causation in reverse from the way we see it today; for instance, the 'final cause' was the aim or goal of something. Thus, it was common to see the purpose of grain as being human nourishment. Nature was seen as a system of 'goals' rather than being derived…. [read more]

Darwin Had the Enlightenment Adequately Essay

… It is now the process that is "endless" rather than, say, the power of God. And moreover, Darwin makes it clear in his final sentence that the process is ongoing -- the human perception of time is such that one cannot observe, necessarily, the emergence of a new species instantaneously. But the evidence of the finches of the Galapagos which Darwin observed firsthand surely shows that the process is occurring in minute and observable ways. But Cosans notes that, in some sense, Darwin's religious hints in the book's conclusion are a necessary aspect of its structure:

Although usually ignored by neo-Darwinists, Darwin's hint about the supernatural origins of life is actually a critical aspect of his framework of analysis. Throughout the Origin, he usually contrasts…. [read more]

1500-1700 Ad Humanities Term Paper

… Scientific Revolution: 1500-1700 a.D.

The three hundred years between 1500 to 1700 a.D. was a period of a profound change in the thinking of the people (of Europe in particular). During this time, the centuries old beliefs of the people based on dogma and religious belief were challenged by a number of intellectuals who based their thinking on experimentation and mathematical analysis to understand the physical world around them. This revolutionary change in the way of thinking led to the application of knowledge to practical uses and propelled the Western world from the dark ages to the modern age. The significance of the period, which later came to be known as the period of "Scientific Revolution," lies in the fact that the scientific developments of…. [read more]

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