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Self-Concept vs. Self-Esteem Term Paper

… Self-Concept vs. Self-Esteem

Two Theories

Outside Circumstances?

Real Definitions?

Inside Out

Gaps

Win... Lose or Tie?

Self-Concept vs. Self-Esteem

Two Theories

Outside Circumstances?

First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do.

Epictetus (a.D. c. 50-c. 138)

A person not only possesses the ability - it is his/her duty to mold his/her character to try to attain self-rule and personal independence of outside circumstances." (Blackburn, 1996) Although Epictetus, a prominent teacher of Stoicism in the past, did not specifically express his thoughts with these words, the introductory quote prior to this statement, on the other hand, does directly disclose words he expressed and reflects concepts related to self-verification theory, one of the two theories compared in this paper.…. [read more]


Self-Esteem and Stress Life Term Paper

… It has also been proposed by the above authors that the effective use of humor ultimately enhances one's view of self, leasing to a more positive and healthier self-concept. Siporin (1986) contends that humor is an instrument in therapy for cognitive, emotional, and behavioral change. In such fields as social work, humor is a creative act helpful in surviving the stress and attacks inherent in the field. Humor can also be used as a coping skill used in ways that are non-hostile and self-accepting. Laughter represents a healthy, broad-spectrum coping strategy.

Aromatherapy, massage therapy, relaxation techniques, and yoga are other possible solutions or stress busters that may be used in order to have a higher self-esteem and therefore less stress. When an individual is feeling…. [read more]


Self-Reflection Life Development Essay

… My self-concept received a beating. Where as my colleagues emphasized their capabilities and talents, I primarily paid much attention to things I did to define my self. My self-esteem which was extremely high before the humiliating incident was brought down to a more realistic level. I can also attribute this to the amount of achievement related attributions that I made. My social competence was also questionable at my formative stages of development (Berk, 2007). I learnt to develop a feeling of misconstrued pride even if my teachers or parents did not commend me. Instead of facing more challenges due to the "false" achievement I gradually became wary of taking on new tasks for fear of being ridiculed by my peers. Sense of guilt clouded my…. [read more]


Theory X vs. Theory Y Research Paper

… ERG theory does have an important footnote for Theory Y concepts, namely that "ERG theory allows the order of the needs be different for different people" (ERG, 2011, Net MBA). Individuals attracted to investment banking, for example, are more likely to be motivated by money alone than engineers. However, a counterpoint to that notion is that after a certain point, in some industries money takes on a significance that transcends its material significance. Money comes to symbolize success and power, and becomes a source of personal esteem. Theory Y suggests that treating all employees with respect and listening to their ideas increases their sense of motivation and desire to invest their time and effort into the organization. At Google, even the lowest-level employees eat shoulder-to-shoulder…. [read more]


Entertainment Industry Concept Aging, Gender Essay

… Some films are famous for their depiction of a psychopath, exemplifying them as cold, calculating monsters, but in reality, this is only a small confine of psychopathy (Hesse, 2009). Psychopaths account for an unappreciable amount of the world population, yet their existence in film suggests otherwise -- a nod to the power of stereotypes. Film and television also depict those experiencing depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and other mental illnesses (Niemiec, 2010). Some of which are infused into character personality, further enforcing stigmas and common understandings.

Conclusion

Film and television, two arms of the entertainment industry capable of reaching large audiences, project numerous human traits and behaviors through the characters inhabiting the screen. Concepts of age, gender, and personality are portrayed by every program, by…. [read more]


Self-Efficacy and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Research Paper

… Commonly, children who receive diagnoses of oppositional defiant disorder in preschool or early elementary school transition to a diagnosis of one of three major categories of disorder: depression, anxiety, or ADHD (Hamilton & Armando, 2008). Then, too, a goodly number of children do not develop co-existing conditions (Hamilton & Armando, 2008). Many children with oppositional defiant disorder continue to exhibit a stable pattern of the disorder as adults (Hamilton & Armando, 2008). In general, the more severe the oppositional defiant disorder is in childhood and the earlier symptoms were recognized or diagnosis occurred, the poorer the prognosis over the life-span (Hamilton & Armando, 2008).

The Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD is the most comprehensive study of children with a diagnosis of ADHD (Hamilton…. [read more]


Coping and Adjustment Essay

… The difference between a life in normal America and the life of a solider in an insurgent-ridden war zone where the enemy is not clearly defined or easy to spot is very hard for Pham. He expresses current and active uncertainty about how he will deal with all of his bad memories but he is soldiering on, pardon the pun, one day at a time (NPR, 2014).

Based on the above, there are three adjustment strategies that are useful in one or both of those stories and the same could be said for many other theoretical or actual stories that were not mentioned above. First, family support is huge for someone with adjustment issues. Whether it be poverty, returning from a war zone or somthign…. [read more]


Employee Motivation Concepts and Theories Term Paper

… Employee Motivation / Concepts & Theories

Employee Motivation: Theories and Concepts

The issue of employee motivation is one that has become a central concern of management and leadership in modern business. There has been an increased realization in theory and praxis that employees are motivated by much more than salary and that in order to get the most from an employee there are many theories and practical motivational aspects that need to be considered. These range from psychological theories, which view motivation in terms of variables such as self - esteem and self - understanding, to more sociological and organizational theories about motivation

Motivational theory in an employment context is a relatively new field of inquiry and research. The importance of motivational aspects in terms…. [read more]


My Interaction in the Social World Self-Efficacy Essay

… Social Psychology -- Self-Efficacy

When I was a child, I suffered from a relative lack of confidence, often shying away from new experiences, and especially from challenges that seemed capable of allowing me to embarrass myself with failure in the eyes of others. My parents always encouraged me and continually provided positive messages to help me build confidence in my abilities, largely by convincing me that I was tremendously bright, good-looking, and special. In some respects, their efforts were successful; in other respects, their well-motivated strategy may have reversed the original problem by inflating my positive beliefs about myself excessively. In retrospect, I realize that their style of encouragement was too positive because it generated pseudo self-esteem or false self-esteem (Branden, 2007). Since that realization,…. [read more]


School Retention vs. Social Promotion Discussion Chapter

… School retention vs. social promotion

Effect of school retention or social promotion on teacher and student performance

From the respondents, it emerged that there is a lot of pressure on the schools to retain students who do not perform well in their academics. However, it emerged that there is little benefit of school retention since though the students are retained, they run the risk of being retained for a second time if their academics do not improve. This is similar to the result that was found by Tsao, Lin, Pitt, and Campbell (2009)

that though nearly three out of every ten students had to be retained or to attend summer school, they still made insufficient progress during their repeat year. Therefore they run the risk…. [read more]


Child Psychology the Movie Willa Essay

… Therefore, this will make the son eat more, and the obesity will further develop.

Behavior disorders

Another concept evident in the film is that of behavior disorders. Although parents, in some cases, may prompt these children, develop it out of carelessness and disobedience. In the case of Violet, she has no respect at all (Craven and Marsh, 2008). This is apparent because she stands on a chair in the living room full of reporters and she is always chewing. She suggests that she hides the gum behind her ear for safety. In addition, her mother tries to make her refrain from this habit, but Violet criticizes her claiming that; instead, her mother yells at her (Dahl and Schindelman, 1964). Similarly, Mike, another ticket winner, has…. [read more]


Math Achievement in African-American Boys Versus Their White Counterparts Term Paper

… math achievement African-American vs. white American

MATH ACHIEVEMENT in African-American BOYS

VERSUS THEIR WHITE COUNTERPARTS

The objective of this work is to focus on mathematical achievement in African-American boys vs. their white counterparts. Addressed will be risk factors such as family income, mother's education, single-parent households, primary language non-English, etc. The theoretical framework will focus on the work of Vygotsky and one other theorist as to how they would tie into the main topic.

The disparities in the educational attainment of African-American and White American males is clearly noted in previous research study however, the precise factors or elements that cause African-American males to underachieve in mathematics is not known. The work of Moody states that three theoretical proposals exist that attempt to provide an…. [read more]


Suicide: Duty of Care Essay

… However, there is real need for the expertise of healthcare providers in response to pandemics and disasters. No other segment of society can substitute for them. These healthcare professionals are expected to be well aware of the very high demand and very high-risk levels required of them in their specialty professions. This awareness, though, does not discount the need for them to care for themselves. Hospitals and other institutions where they work are also obliged to provide them safe working environments and conditions. But in times of disasters, resources run short. In many cases, these healthcare providers take in more risks than usual. They must choose between caring for others in adverse situations and their families or friends. They need to strike a balance and…. [read more]


Italian Baroque Art Bernini vs. Borromini Thesis

… Italian Baroque Art (Bernini vs. Borromini)

The present paper has the purpose of analyzing two grand masters of the Italian baroque art, that is Bernini and Borromini. The main thesis to be demonstrated is that their styles and techniques can be observed in two important pieces of art and that by comparing them we are actually comparing the two representatives of Baroque Art. These two works of art are The Fountain of the four rivers, Fontana dei Quattro fiumi- build by Bernini and Borromini's St. Agnese in Agone. In addition, the Baldacchin at St. Peters will also be analyzed.

First and foremost it must be mentioned that Bernini created his works in a period characterized by a strong creative verve, marked by the revolutionary visions…. [read more]


Labor Behavioral Therapy vs. Freud Term Paper

… Later researchers, including the now-famous Albert Bandura, rejected the radical behaviorist claim that internal structures were irrelevant, but they maintained behaviorism's emphasis on behavior and environmentally-influenced learning."

Conclusion

In comparison to psychoanalysis, behavior therapy focuses more on specific problems, such as anxiety symptoms, so treatment is often more compressed. The goal of behavior therapy is to eliminate bad behaviors, or to develop adaptive coping behaviors. Eventually, this combats the problem.

Unlike psychoanalysis, behavior therapy has little regard for the unconscious processes underlying personality disorders. Behavior therapy uses such techniques as aversive conditioning, in which negative habits are paired with unpleasant stimuli, and systematic desensitization, where a stimulus that causes anxiety and negative feelings is paired with a pleasant one.

When psychotherapy was first introduced as…. [read more]


Spirituality Research Paper

… , 2006).

Research, however, does show that there is a disconnect between the sense children make regarding spirituality depending on age, cognitive ability and levels of specific guidance. It appears that children do not really make sense of a personal understanding of religion and thus tend to follow the pathways of trusted adults. Indeed, the understanding of spiritual development is such that it is difficult to be certain of a child's view of spirituality until mid-late adolescence, in much the same way as the abstract concepts of chronology and space (Karlsen, et al., 2013).

None of this should really surprise us as educators. We know, for instance, that there are certain philosophical constructs (utilitarianism, metaphysics, etc.) that are abstract and require a certain level of…. [read more]


Social Structure and the Development of Self-Esteem in Young Children Article Critique

… Pallas, a.M., Entwisle, D.R., Alexander, K.L & Weinstein, P. (1990). Social structure and the development of self-esteem in young children. Social Psychology Quarterly 53(4).

Summarize the major objectives of the study and point out the main hypotheses that the author(s) list.

The authors investigate the structure and differentiation of self-esteem in young children, and trace the development of self-esteem from first to fourth grades. In a longitudinal study using the same population sample, the authors are able to trace the development and differentiation of self-esteem among young children. The authors predict that children will make increasingly finer distinctions in their self-concept as they grow older.

In other words, self-esteem related to body image would be further broken down into perceived weight or perceived height as…. [read more]


Attachment Theory & Self-Psychology Dissertation

… The "Growing" Process



Overview of the Study



Clinical Case Study Dissertation Structure



The Rationale for Clinical Case Study Dissertation



Diverse Contentions



Emotional Abuse/Maltreatment



Winnicott's Relational Model Theory



Bowlby's Attachment Theory



Kohut's Self-Psychology



CASE PRESENTATION



Theoretical Basis for Case



Conceptualization



Winnicott's Relational Model Theory



Bowlby's Attachment Theory



Kohut's Self-Psychology



CHAPTER IV:



Shania's Presenting Problems



Early Stage: Development of Therapeutic Relationship and the Holding



Environment



Middle Stage: Transference and Counter-transferenceread more--> [read more]


Sociology/Social Work Questions Research Paper

… The development of intimacy is associated strongly with the development of individual independence, independence from structures and systems that have supported and aided a young person up to this point. Most believe that individuals who fail to develop positive intimate relationships are limited in the capacity to thrive as adults, in a myriad of ways, including but not limited to living on one's own, supporting his or her own social and emotional health and generally becoming a productive adult. The foundational development of intimacy with another adult develops empathy, social tolerance, a strong sense of self-identity, social caring, trust and trustworthiness and several other aspects of important social and human development (Lobel & Winch, 1988). According to Erikson the 6th stage of psychosocial development, intimacy…. [read more]


Emotional Development Well-Rounded Term Paper

… Developing the will to understand is to reconcile one's feelings with his/her thoughts about certain issues and topics relevant and significant to him/her (as stated in the earlier paragraph).

This process of developing self-esteem is characterized by the individual's passing through each stage of socio-emotional development. As an individual learns to cultivate self-esteem, s/he must learn to develop trust and autonomy. This means that an individual who has self-esteem must be able to have better judgment and be able to trust other people and himse/herself as well. Similarly, better judgment entails autonomy, or the ability to harbor feelings and create thoughts and opinions independent from other people's thoughts and feelings. It is only by learning to trust and believe in one's ability to become independent…. [read more]


Aesthetics Norms of Beauty and the Social Term Paper

… ¶ … aesthetics norms of beauty and the social definition of normality vs. abnormality vary from one epoch to another, and their influence over self-perception and over our own psyche cannot be neglected. The contemporary definition of a beautiful female body imposes a certain weight limit and the Rubensian model of female beauty is long gone. These standards and the new times brought to surface multiple new forms of eating disorders, from anorexia nervosa to bulimia. In their quest for beauty and for social acceptance, younger or elder females engage in unhealthy eating practices and develop compulsive attitudes towards eating, many times accompanied by variations in weight or resulting in the condition of under or overweight.

Physical characteristics may affect psychological well-being by way of…. [read more]


Dream Content as Therapy: Ego vs. Repression Dissertation

… For example: a parent has repeating nightmares, and the child "dreams his dreams " because the child is in a psychic resonance with the parent. The child's dreams end when the parent's does. Four, it might be a repetition of a past traumatic event in current lifetime. For example: a person might dream of a recent rape, a childhood assault or a wartime battle. This type of nightmare is so deeply etched in the psyche that it can require heavy use of behavioral dream-work techniques to modify the content and emotional intensity.



A fifth factor could be that the dream is a depiction of a past or probable life. For example: a client might dream the last events prior to a violent…. [read more]


Interrelationship of Self-Perceptions, Culturally-Based Term Paper

… This idea explains "hate groups" and bigotry in which the persons who are members will hold onto ideas about those of other cultures, even if these beliefs are not based on fact. When we are afraid or uncomfortable, this sense of belonging brings comfort and can override other stimulus and logic in many cases.

Now we have discussed the effect that the need for a sense of belonging can have on our perceptions about others and ourselves. We have found that these norms are learned by watching and emulating those around us. We have found that being a member of groups gives us a place to validate our beliefs and that beliefs that cannot be validated can have profound negative effects on an individual. We…. [read more]


Childhood Is a Fascinating Time Essay

… What they excel at begins to take shape as how they define themselves. This results in a more complicated and unique self understanding and conception. Children of this age range spend their efforts "organizing their observations of behaviors and internal states into general dispositions"( Karpowitz 2012 p 1). Descriptions of themselves are in terms of psychological states rather than isolated behaviors that do not reflect what they are feeling underneath those behaviors. This essentially lays a foundational structure for more stable cognitive development. A lot of this stage is spent comparing their own identity to that of the social world around them. They begin to judge their outside appearance, actions, and abilities based on what they see their peers doing around them (Karpowitz 2012). They…. [read more]


Teenage Girls With Eating Disorders Research Proposal

… ¶ … relationship of eating disorders, self-esteem and depression amongst adolescents and teenagers. Both self-esteem and depression and their connection to eating disorder will be thoroughly studied. The aim of this paper is to highlight the major causes of self-esteem and depression on eating disorders in order to assist interventionists in formulating a more profound theory and strategy to tackle this growing social dilemma in the future. The paper will present a sound literature review on the connections between eating disorders, self-esteem and depression that have already been established. The methodology will present the steps that this study will take to formulate its own theories and will use the interview process to attain qualitative data from doctors who treat eating disorders and the patients who…. [read more]


Treatment for Depressed Adolescents Term Paper

… Treatment for Depressed Adolescents

Introduction (Brief section)

Recognition of Depression in Adolescents:

The word "depression" holds a different meaning for all of us. Some might describe it as a bad work or school day, others might be sad over a bad incident while some might be depressed just out of pessimism towards where their life is leading or due to no adventure in life. Most of these depressive moods are normal and don't last for long, while the clinical depressive moods do last for long and affect the individual in their later years.

Some of the obvious depressive elements are the individual's sudden change of mood in a day, amplified weakness, alteration in sleep patterns, deficiency of incentive and force, weakened awareness and recollection, despair…. [read more]


Bulling and Academic Performance Term Paper

… Woodsa, S. & Wolkeb, D. "Direct and relational bullying among primary schoolchildren and academic achievement"

Article Review of Paper by Woodsa & Wolkeb

School bullying is a truly international issue; in Japan there are thousands of children refusing to go to school to avoid terrible bullying while in America children have been known to commit mass murder when pushed too far by bullies. Many pop-psychology theories exist among students and parents as to why bullying takes place. This article by Sarah Woodsa and Dieter Wolkeb, titled "Direct and relational bullying among primary school children and academic achievement," looks carefully at a British primary school's system of bullying and analyze within it the popular idea that bullies are so cruel because of their own inferiority complexes.…. [read more]


Treatment of Women Diagnosed With Dysthymia Term Paper

… Treatment of Women Diagnosed With Dysthymia

This proposal for a clinical case study of the treatment of a woman diagnosed with dysthymia employs a cognitive behavioral approach to identifying effective treatment modalities for patients with depressive disorders. In cognitive behavioral sessions, psychotherapists seek to help a patient identify his or her harmful thinking patterns in order to develop better coping strategies and social skills. The focus of the research in this study is on how people in general think, behave, and communicate in the present rather than on their early childhood experiences.

Proposal for a Clinical Case Study Dissertation - Doctor of Psychology in Clinical Psychology

Chapter One. Introduction

Statement of the Problem

Hypothesis

Rationale

Chapter Two: Review of the Relevant Literature

Background and Overview…. [read more]


Increase in High School Female Bullying and Relational Aggression Multiple Chapters

… Relational Bullying

Contextual Information

The study will take place at a public high school in Florida. The proposed site has a faculty of 184 teachers and six administrators. The faculty is highly qualified and over 90% of the faculty have attained a Master's Degree or higher. Students are from a variety of ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds.

Bullying in schools has become a significant concern of students, parents, teachers, and government officials and has been said to be responsible for a number of suicides and other tragedies involving high school students who were the victims of bullying (U.S. Department of Education, 1999). Bullying is defined as repeated verbal, physical, or psychological actions directed against a person(s) who cannot or will not defend themselves against them (U.S.…. [read more]


Effect of Beauty and Body Image in Advertising Research Paper

… ¶ … Beauty and body image in advertising

It is common knowledge among the advertising world that publicity sells. In order to achieve a high degree of profit in the globalized world, the most interesting and eye catching advertisements usually impact the targeted public and achieve their goals in promotion and selling. However, more and more people are becoming reluctant to certain products precisely because of the sometimes aggressive and even offending publicity. From this point-of-view the present paper argues that the perception of women's body and their comparison to HAMs (highly attractive models) have a negative influence on the advertising efforts for particular products.

The structure of the paper takes into account precisely the impact HAMs and the meaning of the concept have on…. [read more]

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