Viewing papers 1-12 of 12 for sentencing AND disparities AND between AND crack AND cocaine AND vs. AND powder

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Crack Cocaine vs. Powder Essay

… Crack Cocaine vs. Powder Cocaine

The sentencing disparity regarding crack cocaine vs. powder cocaine has been a topic for debate for several years. The War on Drugs has led to lengthier drug sentences and an evolution of drug enforcement tactics that have had a disproportionate impact on American minorities, especially African-American males. According to Henderson (2009), President and CEO of Leadership Conference on Civil Rights, between 1985 and 1995 the number of black drug offenders in prison increased by 700%. This paper will explore the current crack cocaine policy vs. powder cocaine policy, and the disparities that affect African-American males. Lastly, what efforts are being made to reform the current policy will be discussed.

Crack Cocaine vs. Powder Cocaine


The sentencing disparity regarding crack…. [read more]

Crack vs. Poweder Sentencing Disparities Term Paper

… Disparities in Sentencing

As Blacks are the largest users of crack cocaine, and users tend to purchase drugs from those of like race and ethnicity, Black street dealers have been the ones among those who market drugs who have been prosecuted as a result of the punitive laws passed in 1986 that set up sentencing for dealers in crack cocaine.

On January 12, 2006, the New York Times published an editorial, saying that racial discrimination in sentencing of blacks has taken away judicial discretion and created an expensive and regretful policy of imprisoning large numbers of blacks who might have been better off given second chances. The editorial also suggested there is evidence of discrimination in the way the laws are set up and interpreted:…. [read more]

Sentencing Disparities Between Crack Cocaine vs. Powder Term Paper


After a decade of contentious debate regarding the federal sentencing disparities between crack cocaine and powder cocaine, a number of significant initiatives to reform current policy have recently emerged. These include legislation introduced in Congress and a series of hearings resulting in recommendations by the United States Sentencing Commission. This paper provides a comparative analysis of the sentencing disparities with regard to crack cocaine as compared to powder cocaine. It examines the development of federal legislation creating greater criminal penalties for crack cocaine than powder cocaine, and assesses recent developments, studies and research in an effort to resolve the sentencing disparities. Finally, it offers recommendations to resolve this sentencing issue for future legislation, law enforcement…. [read more]

Disparity in Sentencing for Crack vs. Powder Cocaine Term Paper

… Disparity in sentencing for crack vs. powder cocaine

Sentencing Disparities: Crack vs. Powder Cocaine - a Literature Review

Sentencing Disparities

Sentencing disparities are very prevalent when one examines crack vs. powder cocaine, but it is also important here to understand that this is not the only issue where this type of disparity is concerned. In other words, there are sentencing disparities in many different aspects of the legal system, and it is necessary to address this overall issue as well, in order to fully see the magnitude of the concern over this type of disparity. Quite a large number of blacks have been arrested for drug violations involving both crack and powder cocaine (Pope, 1976). Men and women are both included in this issue and…. [read more]

Drug Rehabilitation vs. Imprisonment for Non-Violent Drug Users Capstone Project


Why Rehabilitation Is Favored Over Imprisonment

When an offender is convicted of a non-violent drug offense the decision on whether to incarcerate the offender or rehabilitate the offender will often arise. Rehabilitation is the favored sanction for a non-violent offender and the benefits of rehabilitation outweigh the benefits of incarceration. While the combined cost of rehabilitation has been estimated to be higher than those of incarceration, an offender will be required to contribute to the cost. On the other hand, an offender who is incarcerated will not make any significant monetary contribution to the cost and as a result the cost will remain entirely the burden of the government and the taxpayers. Prison overcrowding has been a problem on the system for…. [read more]

Social Issue Alcohol Drugs Essay

… Society teaches young people act in 'deviant' ways (Goode 2006: 420). For example, the lack of opportunities offered to young people in poor, urban communities increase the incentives to be involved in the drug trade, given the limited venues for self-improvement outside of drugs. A lack of positive role models in the community; family members who abuse drugs; and peer influences can all increase the likelihood of abuse and 'teach' young people to find refuge in substance abuse.

Conflict-based theories of abuse stress the role of poverty exacerbating the problem of drug addiction. "Conflict theory argues that inequality is the root cause of drug use, at least the heavy, chronic abuse of and dependence on 'hard' drugs such as crack cocaine and heroin" (Goode 2006:…. [read more]

Ethics in the Justice System How We Treat Minorities Versus Whites Research Paper

… Ethics in Justice System-How we treat Minorities vs. The whites.

Ethics in the Justice System- How We Treat Minorities vs. Whites

Ethics or the moral philosophy is the study of right and wrong. The Criminal Justice System is comprised of numerous participants who include police, prosecutors, defense counsel, probation officers and judges (Ohio Commission on Racial Fairness, 1999, p.36). When it comes to the process of procedural fairness, Americans are highly sensitive. The single most important source of popular dissatisfaction with the American legal system is the perception of unfair or unequal treatment (Burke and Leben, 2007, p.4). The public's dissatisfaction with the judicial branch can be alleviated by the judges paying critical attention to the key elements of procedural fairness. They should also be…. [read more]

Privatization of the Prison System Term Paper



In 1986 and 1988, the U.S. Congress passed federal sentencing laws related to crack cocaine that differentiated the sentences imposed upon defendants in powder and crack cocaine related offenses in what is known as the 'Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986'. These stricter sentencing guidelines were passed to address the emerging issue of crack cocaine which was perceived to be."..a social menace that was categorically different from powder cocaine in its physiological and psychotropic effects." Crack cocaine is powder cocaine mixed with banking soda and then cooked into hard rocks, which are then broken up into…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Policy Practice Essay

… The dichotomy with which this situation may be viewed, of course, is an intrinsic component of utilitarian thought and which may be evinced by one of its champions, Jeremy Bentham. One may posit just as convincingly that those condemned to lengthy prison sentences via the crack law would simply return to being detriments to society if released, by engaging in illicit behavior (the selling of street narcotics) and leading subversive, counterproductive lifestyles. All people have this duality of choice, which Bentham referred to as pleasure and its antithesis, pain, which he believed "govern us in all we do, in all we say, in all we think" (Bentham 1).

However, while such a debate may be largely settled by the particular opinion of the voice that…. [read more]

Representative System of Government Research Proposal

… Arrest Rates. In 1990, more than 10 million criminal counts were logged. Although only comprising 12% of the general population, arrest rates for blacks were disproportionate for every offense except drunken driving. Blacks, for instance, accounted for 61.2% of all robbery arrests, 54.7% of the suspects arrested for murder and manslaughter, and 43.2% in cases of rape. (Interestingly enough, the annual victimization survey conducted by the Census Bureau found that only 33.2% of the women who said they had been raped identified their attackers as black. Because the race of the rapist does not seem to affect whether a report will be forthcoming, this disparity suggests that attacks by whites are less apt to lead to arrests) (Ayres & Steven, 2008).

The racial disparity in…. [read more]

Ethics Criminal Justice Research Paper

… There are some organizational policy ethics impacting the criminal justice system, which are more generalized due to their being universal among all government agencies. For example, gender discrimination, sexual harassment, and equitable pay are all issues that play a role in criminal justice administration. Corruption in law enforcement and in the judiciary, as well as in correctional institutions, is also a managerial issue. Regulations can be in place to prevent ethical infractions, but ultimately criminal justice leaders need to be committed to preventing ethical infractions from taking place and using disciplinary procedures when they do happen. Unfortunately, criminal justice officials often do have conflicting duties, roles, and ethical frameworks to work with and within (Banks, 2012).

Ethics is one of the most fundamental aspects of…. [read more]

America Has the Largest Incarceration Rate Term Paper

… Crime & Inequality

There is no doubt that the United States has a crime problem. Indeed, the United States has a prison population of about two million people. While many to most people would argue that people should pay for what they have done wrong, there are others that say that the criminal justice system is very dysfunctional and/or that there needs to be more care taken as it relates to what happens to people once they get out of prison. Finding jobs and establishing a steady life is sometimes quite hard for ex-convicts and this leads some rather damning outcomes such as perpetual unemployment and recidivism. There are others that push the issue further and say that inequality and other social injustices leads to…. [read more]

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