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Drug Abuse Drug and Substance Term Paper

… Thus whatever is learned during drug abuse is stored in the limbic section of the brain. This again reiterates the point that the biological impact on the brain is the most important cause for drug abuse.

Toneatto, Tony writes that addiction affects or alters the cognitive states of a human being. These 'cognitive states' comprise of events like feelings, thoughts, memories and perceptions. This information is also used in the prevention and cure as doctors expose a patient to changed states so as to alter their perception of certain events and their behaviors. He goes on to describe how the event helps invoke different reactions such as arousal and fear (Toneatto, T 1995). As psychoactive drugs bring out these diverse reactions in people and may…. [read more]


Drug Use and Abuse Research Paper

… The participants averaged 32 years of age and 59% were male; males were more likely to use alcohol, heroin, cocaine, crack cocaine, methamphetamine, marijuana and hallucinogens than females; moreover, males reported using alcohol, marijuana and hallucinogens at "…a significantly younger age than females (Shannon, 98). The reason the study was done in eastern Kentucky included the fact that eastern Kentucky has "…the highest prevalence group when examining illicit drug use other than marijuana" for individuals 12 or over in the United States (Shannon, 99).

The participants were solicited by placing flyers in public locations. Once the initial participants were selected (they had to have been injecting drugs in order to quality) they were then interviewed and asked to bring friends (that were also drug users)…. [read more]


Drug Treatment and Prevention Program Essay

… We are a society of peers. We strive to make known our program of recovery, not individuals who participate in the program." (A.A., p. 1)

This position is also underscored by a core set of values in relation to the funding of the program. The counselor with whom I spoke noted that A.A. does not allow any outside funding because it wishes not to compromise its core values for any political or commercial imperatives. Therefore, the program is strictly supported by its own membership. Within the scope of this arrangement, the organization also takes precautions to ensure that its members aren't subjected to exploitation. The A.A. site supports the information provided by my interview subject. Additionally, it notes that the organization limits the amount of…. [read more]


Meth Addiction and Abuse Problems Research Paper

… This disorder resembles schizophrenia after they stop using methamphetamine. These symptoms last for more than 6 months and do not even respond to treatment (Barr, Panenka, MacEwan, Thornton, Lang, Honer, Lecomte, 2006).

People also develop tolerance to methamphetamine. The development of tolerance is not fully understood. However, it is know that the development is based on a cascade of mechanisms that cannot yet be fully explained. The development of tolerance, its rate and extent, vary from one individual to another. Nonetheless, it has been established that tolerance to this drug depends on its dosage, the duration of its consumption and the frequency of its use.

Methamphetamine is also known to cause short time tolerance in some individuals. This is caused because of decreased levels of…. [read more]


Drug Policies the Legacy Essay

… For example, in the 1950s, illegal drug use was associated with the threat of communism, and then in the 1960s illegal drug use, because it was associated with youth culture, was considered part of the counterculture that was challenging the establishment in the United States. This led many people to take a very negative view of drug use and view it as criminal, even when not associated with criminal activity. went along with what many perceived as challenges.

This fantasy idea that somehow illegal or illicit drugs are more harmful to society than legal drugs simply does not find any support in what is known about the impact of drugs on society. Alcohol alone accounts for £20 billion yearly in costs, most of that related…. [read more]


Drug Test Essay

… Parks (2010) asks whether or not physicians should undergo random drug testing in his article. The author presents differing viewpoints on the fairness of this idea. He suggested that "totalitarian encroachment on what a man or a woman chooses to do in his/her free time is rather disturbing. As a professional class I think it is our own responsibility to identify and report those doctors who have a problem. An impaired physician cannot hide for very long. We just need to stop being such timid cowards and do a better job of self-policing ourselves." The idea of self-regulation within this profession places much of the burden to police the ranks on the doctors themselves. Ultimately, the author claims that drug testing may identify drugs in…. [read more]


Smoking Essay

… This does not only not work, but it is also ultimately unfair and flies in the face of American values and must be stopped. It is ironic that for a country that was founded upon tax revolt, it is becoming one that supports sin taxes as a stealth way to raise money by punishing a captive audience that is addicted to a product that is otherwise totally legal to use. Unfortunately, what has been demonstrated is a very petty and paternalistic determination to change the peoples' behaviors and lifestyles of the country. This has not worked in the past. In the opinion of this author, it is doubtful that it will work now in the present day either.

References

Adda, J., & Cornaglia, F. (2005).…. [read more]


History of Addiction Term Paper

… org, 2014).

Conclusion

Over the years, the perception of the public with regards to dangers of specific substance abuse has changed. It is said that the labels on tobacco packing has gradually made people aware of how addictive narcotics. Recognition of fetal alcohol syndrome brought about the inclusion of warning labels on the alcohol products that were in the market. Addictive nature of some of the prescription drugs like diazepam was now known and caffeine was also scrutinized. Drug laws have tried to keep up with the changing perceptions that people have on drugs and the real dangers of abusing these substances. By 1970 there were numerous federal drug laws as well as state laws that specified a variety of punitive measures that included imprisonment…. [read more]


Drug Abuse the Findings Article Review

… Financial Despair

Addiction has a huge impact on the finance of a person. Based on the addict drug of choice, the financial ramification may turn to be radical and overwhelming, especial when one is addicted to some types of drugs like cocaine. Stocks plus the saving tend to vanish as time goes and it continues to any other liquid assets or disposable income as these items are sold in a bid to finance the heavy purchase of drugs. The outcome is that bills will not be paid, daily expenses will be stressful. Losing their jobs is inevitable as this sign and symptoms will be seen openly, (eHow Contributor, 2012).

Health Decline

When this addiction goes on for along time, it will be accompanied by health…. [read more]


Drug Abuse of Both Legal Term Paper

… There have been a number of initiatives to counteract the negative effect of drugs on society. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), was created in 1973 in order to enforce laws and policies concerning drug abuse. The DEA is also responsible for coordinating information sharing between federal, local, and state agencies (The Columbia Encyclopedia, 2001).

There have also been a number of financial initiatives to fight drug abuse in the United States. In 1999, the United States' federal government budgeted $17.9 billion for drug control. This money was slated to a variety of uses, including prevention, treatment, international law enforcement, prison and prosecution. Over ten years earlier, The Anti-Drug Abuse Acts of 1986 and 1988 provided increased funding for rehabilitation and treatment for drug users (The…. [read more]


Drugs on the Economy History Capstone Project

… S. Department of Justice, 2010). Opiates were the primary drug of choice followed by marijuana and stimulants. A half of the admissions were taken to ambulatory facilities as opposed to residential facilities. Drug users react adversely to drugs including non-fatal overdoses. These individuals have to go to the hospital for medical attention. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) in 2006 posited that out of 113 million hospitals ED visits, 1.5% cases were due to drug abuse or misuse hence causing a massive strain on the healthcare systems (U.S. Department of Justice, 2010).

Cocaine, marijuana, heroine and stimulants abuse prompt these ED visits. The 2007 DAWN survey of 63 metropolitan areas indicated that 12.1 deaths per 100,000 persons were because of drug use. Their records also reflected…. [read more]


Addiction to Alcohol Term Paper

… But most cogent for the current investigation is their finding that "Specifically, there was evidence that women were more impacted by family background variables (both FHA and FHV) in terms of adult problems with alcohol, drugs and violence (for men, family background variables were associated only with adult problems with drugs and violence) (Chermack et al. 2000 845).

Treatment effectiveness studies

Beattie found that information concerning the magnitude of the relationship between interpersonal factors and drinking outcomes was inconsistent. Beattie's study investigated that relationship, and provided a review and synthesis of some of the findings of prior research examining the correlation between alcoholism treatment drinking outcomes and social relationships (Beattie, 2001 518). Beattie's article approached relationships from the opposite end of the spectrum from the…. [read more]


Drug Use During Pregnancy Term Paper

… Baer and colleagues have reported that 14-year-old adolescents who had been exposed to alcohol during their mother's pregnancy consumed greater quantities of alcohol than did adolescents without such a history...a regression analysis combining prenatal alcohol use and family history of alcoholism revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure retained a greater effect after adjustment for family history than did family history after adjusting for alcohol exposure. (Hill, Lowers, Locke-Wellman & Shen, 2000, p. 661)

It is clear that there is at least some link between adolescent behaviors and prenatal behaviors of the mother. Though generally when looking at the effects of prenatal drug consumption, medical professionals have assessed the visible medical effects upon the child as an infant. The long-term implications of drug consumption is still very…. [read more]


Should Drug Addiction Be Considered a Disease Term Paper

… Sociology - Drug Addiction Theory

DRUG ADDICTION and THEORIES of DISEASE

Drug addiction is unlike other medical diseases, primarily because it is the result of voluntary behavior rather from exposure to bacterial organisms, viruses, or from genetic disorder. Whereas symptoms normally associated with organic diseases are well defined in strictly objective terms, the symptoms of addiction rely on subjective definition, and to a large degree, on cultural norms and expectations (Reinarman, 2005).

According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), drug addiction is a brain- based disease, but many researchers dispute that conclusion, because the brain studies upon which it is based pertain equally to other non-medical behaviors, such as gambling, exercise, sex, eating, and even shopping, all of which are also capable of being…. [read more]


Should Drug Addiction Be Considered a Disease Term Paper

… ¶ … DRUG ADDICTION BE CONSIDERED a DISEASE?

The objective of this work is to state an argument as to whether drug-addiction should be considered a disease. For the purpose of this work, it will be argued that drug addiction should be considered a disease.

The work of Alan I. Leshner, Director of the National Institute of Drug Abuse - National Institute of Health states that it is all too common that the individual who first experiments with addictive drugs such as cocaine with the intention of trying it only once "enjoys the drug's euphoric effect so much that in ensuing weeks and months he uses it again - and again. But in due time, he decides he really should quit. He knows that despite…. [read more]


Drugs and Alcohol Issues Essay

… Meanwhile, other people become obese or obsessed with computer gaming or alcoholics. There appear to be genetic components to addictive behavior because it is often evident in different generations within families.

However, addiction is probably more of a dysfunctional behavior pattern and the product of various coping attempts of individuals through the wrong means. A person who discovers that drinking dulls the pain of some emotional issue may begin drinking more and more because of that reward. Another person may find emotional solace in eating sugary deserts or doughnuts. They may also exchange one addiction for another. But, in those cases, their addiction occurred as a specific result of the underlying issues and not because the person was necessarily afflicted with a disease of addiction.…. [read more]


Definition Addiction Term Paper

… Addiction

There are numerous definitions of addiction and just what constitutes addictive behavior.

Social observers have applied the notion of addiction to many and varied human activities, including substance abuse, shopping, running, game-playing, working, eating, drinking water to intoxication, sex, and excessive computer use (Shaffer pp). Generally, addiction has most often been applied to substance-using behavior patterns, however, social observers have recently begun to apply the concept to other activities that do not include drugs or alcohol use (Shaffer pp). However, in both circumstances, when addiction is present, then the consequences of the activity are adverse (Shaffer pp). Ironically, addiction may provide positive effects for the sufferer, especially early in the process (Shaffer pp). For example, "an addiction can distract someone from more painful emotional…. [read more]


People's Response to Drugs Term Paper

… Using an example from a research a driver who was dosed with moderate marijuana perceived to be driving at a higher speed than the actual speed. Another issue is that the perceptions of enhanced sex under marijuana are believed only exist in temporary distortions (Galizio & Maisto, 2010).

Drugs may be the facilitating factor behind altered individual perceptions. On the other hand, the occurrence of hallucinations and illusions is not likely to be influenced than changes on other perceptions by other factors that are not related to drugs. Hallucinations including LSD promote the visual threshold in individuals arousing the central nervous system, which prompts hyper-excitation of auditory and visual events. Sounds are likely to appear louder while colors are likely to appear more saturated. Likewise,…. [read more]


Michael Lauren Who Is Struggling Case Study

… Heart, liver and brains are the most effective body organs by drinking alcohol. Alcohol even deprives and robs away the essential vitamins and minerals from the body that are imperative for proper cell functioning.

The people addicted to alcohol also demonstrate the symptoms that include distressing way of walking, shivering hands, blind headaches, and hallucinations. Blurred visions, drowsiness, irritated emotional state and nausea are also few of the widespread effects of drinking alcohol. Other long-term effects observed amongst people drinking alcohol in heavy quantity are lesser desire for food, stomach illness and diseases, memory loss and damage to nervous system.

People, who are in the transition phase of Marijuana withdrawal, they are likely to exhibit symptoms such as depression, craving, change in appetite, weight loss,…. [read more]


Health Science Term Paper

… Those running DARE program must have taken the war on drugs/zero tolerance frame into consideration and that is why they charged the law enforcement agencies with the primary responsibility of addressing illicit drug use. This made the DARE program to be diffused widely without concrete evidence on its effectiveness. Effectiveness of the DARE program should be premised on research findings and not overreliance on loss aversion frame where impending epidemic of drug use among school aged children and the youth is addressed through adopting drug use prevention programs that look good even if there is no evidence that shows that the program is effective. Drug use among school going children and the youth has been an elephant in the room despite the fact that DARE…. [read more]


Implications of Drug Addiction Term Paper

… The public policies of U.S. government are more directed towards punishing and penalizing the victims and related game makers rather than treating and preventing addiction. The outdated public policies such as mass incarceration of nonviolent drug offenders have failed to cope up with the prevalent social demands of a stabilized public health and prevention approach to the drug addiction.

The partner programs have come out to be more successful in meeting the challenges of eliminating drug addiction from society (Friedman, 2006). Their mass awareness programs have mobilized parents to keep a critical eye at the suspicious activities of their children which significantly contributed to the discouragement of teenagers for abusing drugs. Similarly, the NGOs have approached the educational institution to directly communicate with teenagers for…. [read more]


Drug Policies Term Paper

… ..was a disease, not a crime, that harsh criminal penalties were destructive" (Major pp). Yet, the United States has the harshest drug policies in the world and as a result has the largest prison population (Facts). In 1993, over sixty percent of federal prison inmates were incarcerated on drug related charges (Block 2000). In the United State there are approximately 700 people incarcerated for every 100,000 compared to 59 per 100,000 in Denmark (Charts pp).

Netherlands is one of the most densely populated, urbanized countries in the world and firmly believes in the freedom of the individual, "with the government playing no more than a background role in religious or moral issues" (Drug pp). Dutch society attaches high value to the "well being of society…. [read more]


Drugs in Federal Corrections Research Paper

… The continuous growth in the number of prisoners has not gone hand in hand with that of wardens (Exum, 2010). There is a shortage of wardens and training for the wardens has also been minimized. This results in poor staff morale, and demotivated wardens. They will not perform their responsibilities as expected since they are not appreciated. The increase and continuous closure of correctional facilities is straining the few correctional facilities that remain. The drug problem will not end if the ratios are not increased and staff provided with better working conditions and training.

Suggestions for improvement

Having a balanced and integrated approach to the problem would assist in eradicating or reducing the prevalence of drugs. Not all inmates are drug addicts, but only 70%.…. [read more]


War on Drugs Term Paper

… Hence, it was here that many researchers studied the link between terrorism and drugs management not only within the Columbian and Latin American region but also in the United States (The Economist, 2001).

According to study conducted by Falcoff in 2000, in 1998 the Columbian government had huge profit margins from drug trafficking with figures reaching up to U.S.$236 million resulting from kidnapping, U.S.$311 million resulting from extortion and nearly U.S.$551 million resulting from drug links (Falcoff, 2000). The FARC organization alone earned huge percentages that year: 6% resulting from cattle rustling, % resulting from kidnapping, 36% resulting from extortion and 48% resulting from drug sources (Suarez, 2000). This percentage breakdown shows why more and more people are easily recruited by the drug agencies; they…. [read more]


Psychosocial Ramifications of Drug Term Paper

… Abuse and addiction also lead to legal problems such as stealing to maintain the drug dose, dealing drugs and operating vehicles or machinery while under the influence. (NIDA, 2004)

Withdrawal and psychological and physical problems are some of the most important aspects of the addiction cycle. Stimulant withdrawals manifest differently from opiate withdrawals.

In the former case, depression, hypersomnia, fatigue, headache, irritability, poor concentration, restlessness and, in severe cases, suicide attempts are typical. Paranoia and psychosis are also present. Very often psychological support is called for in these cases. The withdrawal from opiates occurs in different stages. At the first level, there is an intense craving for the drug. This is associated with extreme anxiety for fear of not finding the drug. In the next…. [read more]


Drug Abuse in Nursing Nurses Research Paper

… These are:

1. You dread going to work because the nurse on the previous shift often leaves you with incomplete charts and patients complaining about pain and lack of care. Often this colleague has worked in several hospitals in the last few years.

2. A nurse on your shift has become moody, takes frequent bathroom breaks, and no longer wants to socialize with colleagues. She or he is often late for work, late to return from breaks, and their hand-writing and organization have become sloppy and lacking.

3. This person becomes suddenly the best and most helpful nurse on the floor. Patients, hospital administration, and physicians all place their trust in him or her. Also, she or he often volunteers to work extra shifts or…. [read more]


Addiction to Prescription Drugs Term Paper

… Prescription Drug Addiction

When people think of drug addiction, they usually picture the use of illegal drugs such as heroin or crack cocaine, but people who use prescriptions drugs for non-medical purposes -- and become dependant and preoccupied with a compulsive need for them -- have become a serious problem in the United States (Meadows, 2001).

Ukens (2005) reports that controlled prescription drug abuse nearly doubled between 1992 and 2003 -- from 7.8 million to 15.1 million. Prescription drug abuse among teenagers has risen by 212%. There has been an 81% increase in prescription drug abuse in adults over 18. The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration reported 146 deaths attributable to OxyContin abuse in 2000 and 2001. Former U.S. Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, Joseph…. [read more]


Drugs and Society Term Paper

… Drugs and Society

Why do people use drugs: A historical and philosophical overview

The word 'drug' can have either a positive or a negative connotation. On one hand, legally-prescribed drugs have saved the lives of many people: antibiotics can cure infections; drugs can alleviate pain and the symptoms of many common illnesses spanning from allergies to the common cold; drugs can curtail the advancement of serious illnesses, and make living with chronic diseases such as diabetes feasible. But there is a clear dark side to drug use: drug addiction. Several models have been suggested to explain why people use illegal drugs and abuse legal drugs, none of which are entirely persuasive.

The oldest model, which still has a great deal of traction today, is that…. [read more]


Drug Legalization of Drugs Term Paper

… Drug Legalization

Legalization of drugs

Legalization of Drugs of Abuse

The legalization of drugs of abuse has been an ongoing controversy in the United States for quite some time following the development of a widespread belief in the failure of the current prohibition regulations. It is not one that has found any significant resolution with strong arguments being made on both sides. There have been arguments made for the medicinal use of some drugs such as marijuana in the treatment of persons with severe and life threatening illnesses. Yet this is only part of the debate. While some proponents of prohibition claim that there will be a significant increase in drug use as the result of legalization, there are many reasons to doubt that a…. [read more]


Theories and Models of Addiction Substance Abuse Essay

… Psychology

Theories and Models of Addiction/Substance Abuse

A lot of people do not know why or how people become addicted to drugs. It is sometimes implicit that drug abusers lack moral principles or willpower and that they could stop utilizing drugs merely by choosing to alter their behavior. Some people believe that drug addiction is a multifaceted illness, and quitting takes more than good objectives. These people believe that drugs alter the brain in manners that promote compulsive drug abuse, and quitting is difficult, even for those who are ready to do so. Because of scientific advances, more is known about how drugs work in the brain than ever before. It is also known that drug addiction can be effectively treated to help people to…. [read more]

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