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Alcoholism Is an Addiction Not a Disease Term Paper

… ¶ … alcoholism is an addiction, not a disease and as such should be treated accordingly by all involved medical personnel as well as government entities and groups who are interested in assisting the individuals affected by this addiction. Some experts have even shown how various and differing drugs and behaviors can modify the amount of alcohol consumption (at least in rodents).

In view of the reinforcing properties of alcohol, it is relevant to consider behavioural studies involving alcohol self-administration in rodents and primates. Low doses of morphine have been found to increase, and higher doses of the opiate to decrease, alcohol consumption." (Herz 1997-page 99)

This study would lead the reader to believe that if medical assistance in the form of drugs can help…. [read more]

Genetics and Drug Abuse Essay

… " (Volkow, nd, p. 1) Because of the chronic nature of the disease, relapse to abuse of the individual's drug of choice is considered to be "not only possible but likely, with relapse rates similar to those for other well-characterized chronic medical illnesses such as diabetes, hypertension, and asthma." (Volkow, nd, p.1) Treatment involves the change of behaviors that are deeply embedded therefore relapse "should not be considered failure but rather indicate that treatment needs to be reinstated or adjusted, or that alternate treatment is needed." (Volkow, nd, p. 1) However, the individual who is addicted must also do their part and "take responsibility to get treatment and actively participate in it." (Volkow, nd, p. 1) Ethnicity is also reported to play a great role…. [read more]

Substance Abuse Treatment Analysis Essay

… The symptom of preoccupation is marked by an individual's tendency to spend a considerable amount of time thinking about, consuming, and recovering from the effects of the substance(s) of abuse. In some cases, the individual's behavior may be noticeably altered by his or her preoccupation with these matters. Such an individual may, for example, lose interest in personal relationships or may become less productive at work as a result of constant preoccupation with obtaining more of the substance of abuse.

Adverse Consequences

Examples of adverse physical consequences resulting from AOD abuse include experiencing blackouts, injury and trauma, or withdrawal symptoms or contracting an infectious disease associated with high-risk sexual behaviors. One of the most serious health threats to AOD abusers, particularly those who inject drugs…. [read more]

Tobacco vs. Other Drugs Term Paper

… Tobacco vs. Other Drugs

Nowadays people more and more intensively argue that our present life is significantly different from that of our predecessors, 100 years ago, for example; we hear all the times about the dangers we are continuously exposed to, because of our stressful existence, combined with other harmful factors such as pollution, bad food and, most important of all in my opinion, vices.

Practically, it has become very hard to find a person who is not addicted to something, whether it is about nicotine, alcohol or drugs. These vices have started to be considered as a sort of refuge from the daily problems and only the fear of the dangers one is exposed to makes him weak and susceptible to them. If one…. [read more]

Harm Reduction Abstinence Motivational Interviewing Essay

… This from the counseling perspective indicates that one would encourage the recovering addict to consider the true benefits of continuing to consume heroin while infected with HIV against the consequences as well as impact that this would have on their health if they continue taking the heroin while infected with HIV. The benefits of embracing alternatives to the situation as wells as the impact that it would have on their health are also explored.

Rolling with resistance

This step is important in helping the therapist to understand the reluctance of the client to embrace change as a natural process rather than a pathological one. One might expect that the user of heroin who at the same time has been diagnosed with HIV would be very…. [read more]

Club Drugs and Ecstasy Research Paper

… The seven are: a) "local community-based club drug surveys collected in 2003 at raves"; b) treatment facilities and "gay-oriented bars and sex clubs"; c) surveys from schools collected in 2002; d) mortality data ("deaths between 2000 and 2002"); e) information from clinics dealing with sexually transmitted diseases (Oct. 2002 to Oct. 2003); f) focus groups (2003); g) men who have sex with men; h) emergency departments (1995 to 2002); and i) drug treatment centers (Banta-Green, et al., 2005, p. 1295).

And while these data bases provided the authors with the fact that there were "…low levels of mortality (very few died) and low levels of "acute morbidity," researchers found several areas of serious concern. Those areas of concern included "…possible mental health effects" and very…. [read more]

Crisis Intervention Definition of Addiction Goodman ) Term Paper

… Crisis Intervention

Definition of addiction

Goodman (2007) suggested a comprehensive definition of addiction in behavioral terms: addiction defines "a condition in which a behavior that can function both to produce pleasure and to reduce painful affects is employed in a pattern that is characterized by two key features: (1) recurrent failure to control the behavior, and (2) continuation of the behavior despite significant harmful consequences." Some of the most common types of addictions are: drug addictions, alcohol and nicotine addiction, food addiction, pathological gambling, sex addiction, shopping, Internet, and computer, work, exercise.

Overview of research on addiction

Researchers have been interested in the various causes and components of addiction. For instance, Glantz and Pickens (1992) investigated social and environmental factors of addiction, Cadoret, Yates, Troughton,…. [read more]

Exist Between Alcoholism Term Paper

… g., Merikangas & Gelernter, 1990). A large-scale twin study of women suggests that the substantial co-morbidity between major depression and alcoholism is also a result of genetic factors that contribute to both disorders (Kendler, Heath, Neale, Kessler, & Eaves, 1993).

Aside from showing a shared variance between depression and alcoholism, studies also have shown a possible causal link in the relation between the two to account for part of that variance....Overall, then, findings show that alcohol abuse and dependence on alcohol can be major predisposing factors to depression.

Tomer (2001), on the other hand, suggests that while alcoholism is certainly not rational (i.e. goes against the best interests of the actor in many cases) this does not mean that it is not learned behavior.

There…. [read more]

Refined Solution a Solution Refinement Essay

… According to the CDC Online News Room, "31.7% used counseling and/or medications in the past year. The use of these effective treatments can almost double to triple rates of successfully quitting.." (CDC Online News Room, p. 1) The article goes on to indicate that smokers who employ the assistance of physicians, therapists and medications can double or triple their chances of cessation success.

Evaluation of the Argument:

This finding is given further support in the text by Jaslow (2011), which reports that there is an extremely limited rate of success documented for those who attempt to quit without these external support groups and methods. Jaslow indicates that experts argue "it might take more than relying on 'cold turkey and sheer willpower.' 'The best data is…. [read more]

Teen Drug Abuse - Prescription Term Paper

… g., social class, ethnic and religious influences, neighborhood values); family and peer (e.g., personalities and interaction patterns of parents and peers, child-rearing patterns, peer socialization, and parental/peer modeling of alcohol use); and intra-individual (e.g., genetic predispositions, cognitive and personality variables) (Morrison, et al. 2007). Drinking is seen as influenced directly only by intra-individual factors. These in turn are influenced by the social variables (directly through intimate groups and both indirectly and directly by the sociocultural and community environment). Conversely, drinking behavior is expected to influence intra-individual attributes, which will in turn influence other domains.

When considering a model for adolescent substance abuse, it is important to incorporate differential effects of factors in relation to the developmental stage of the adolescent. The relative contribution of factors…. [read more]

Smoking These Days Research Paper

… Smoking

These days Smoking is considered as the major cause of the many dangerous diseases and the premature death, because of the hazardous and harmful contents, present in the tobacco smoke, that damage the human body. According to a U.S. Surgeon's General Report published in 2010, 'There is no risk-free level of exposure to tobacco smoke, and there is no safe tobacco product.' ("Smoking statistics: Illness," 2013)

WHO (World Health Organization) conducted a survey which showed that the annual death toll around the world as a result of tobacco use is about 6 million, which could rise up to 7 million by 2020 and even more than 8 million per year by 2030. ("Smoking statistics: Illness," 2013)

It has been estimated that about 8 in…. [read more]

Alcohol Abuse Is a Condition Essay

… As stated above the prognosis for this case is good given the information that we have. The patient should be amenable to education and should be motivated to change; however, if we find that we are faced with a frank dependence syndrome and encounter resistance we can alter the format our plan slightly and be more firm in our education and recommendations. The goal is to work with the patient's needs (better health, need to contribute and learn) and her capabilities (intelligence and desire to improve) in order to assist her to make a healthy lifestyle choice. Successful treatment in helping patients reduce behaviors that can lead to complications with health often involves a gentle combination of education and direction (Heyman, 1996). An approach that…. [read more]

Legalization of Drugs of Abuse: Pros and Cons Term Paper

… ¶ … Legalization of Drugs of Abuse

The topic of drug legalization is one of heatedly contested debate. Both sides of the debate have reasoning that has them firmly entrenched in their beliefs. This paper will review both the pros and cons of legalizing drugs of abuse.

Pros of Illicit Drug Legalization:

Proponents of drug legalization most often begin their debate with the statement that America's drug laws, as they currently stand, are ineffective. Programs such as "Just Say No" and "Zero Tolerance" have been unsuccessful (Linn, Yager & Leake). America, although fighting tenaciously, is losing the War on Drugs, and in fact, current drug policies have actually made the problem worse. A drug free America is simply unrealistic (Eldredge & McCollum). For this reason,…. [read more]

Vulnerability Comes as a Result Essay

… Political

According to a statement from Dr. David Satcher a United States Surgeon General, a number of communities, described by race as well as ethnicity, excessively put up with the trouble of disability from under or if a may say poorly managed mental health issues. For instance, Hispanics in the United States are just about twice as probable as Whites who die as a result of cirrhosis of the liver, regardless of lesser drinking/grave drinking pervasiveness. This is perhaps attributable to elevated cumulative dosage per drinking instance, the pervasiveness of hepatitis C which increases risks to the liver from heavy drinking. For instance, considerable discrepancies in age as well as ethnicity come into view among persons who are served in, as well as absolute, public…. [read more]

Health Advocacy Campaign Essay

… Leg one is the formal lobbying effort which is provided by the independent paid individuals. Leg two is known as the grassroots leg while, leg three is the political leg, this is the one that continuously tries to have an influence on the outcome of the elections.

Leg One: Professional Lobbyists

Lobbying is basically the act through which you persuade a government entity to achieve some specific outcome or legislative. There is no bill that can be made into a law without the input from a lobbyist. Although anyone can become a lobby but most of the time the lobbyist are associated with particular parties or groups. The lobbyists are looked at by the lawmakers as the experts of various issues and are usually contacted…. [read more]

Behavior Related to Drug Abuse Article Review

… Substance use and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are often interrelated conditions. Although globally, injection drug use is related to between five and ten percent of HIV infections, in certain countries in Asia, Europe, the Middle East, North America, and South America, up to 80% of all HIV infections are related to injection drug users (Von Unger & Collins). Following are reviews of three articles dealing with the implications of HIV / AIDS and the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of substance use disorders.

Transforming the meaning of HIV / AIDS in recovery from substance use: A qualitative study of HIV-positive women in New York:

Von Unger and Collins note that for women with HIV / AIDS, recovering from substance abuse is often…. [read more]

Teenagers Addiction to Prescription Drugs Research Paper

… The study was carried out using web-based surveys in 2005. The surveys were self-administered, and 1086 secondary school students participated. The participants were in grades seven to twelve. There were 54% female, 52% White, 5% African-American, and 3% were other racial groups. The results of the study demonstrated that 3.3% of the participants had used prescription drugs without a prescription, 17.5% had used the drugs for both medical and nonmedical, and 31.5% had used for medical reasons. The researchers resolved that it was most likely for medical drug users to abuse the drugs given due to their ease of availability. The contributors to prescription drug abuse amongst the secondary school students was established to be the difficulty in accessing other drugs.


From the reviewed…. [read more]

Ethics and HIV Ethical Considerations and Limitations Case Study

… Ethics and HIV

Ethical considerations and limitations of research design

The issue of HIV and AIDS is a highly stigmatized problem and consequently there are multiple layers of ethical challenges when addressing such an issue. These challenges are not always easy to overcome within the research process, and often result from the amalgam of variables that coalesce to influence the transmission and treatment of the disease. Additionally, because the foundation of ethics is doing no harm, them all procedures associated with the study must ensure that harm does not come to the participants involved in the research.

The first ethical concern is securing informed consent. Informed consent is a pillar of ethical research. The participant must be able to engage in the study without coercion…. [read more]

Grumpier Old Men Term Paper

… Grumpier Old Men

This movie is a sequel to an earlier movie (Grumpy Old Men), about some friends, Max Goldman (Walter Matthau) and John Gustafson (Jack Lemmon). In this movie, John has married Ariel (Ann-Margaret) and Max pretends that he is perfectly fine, though he acts jealous and lonely. He claims the only joy left in his life is fishing, but the old bait shop is bought by a beautiful woman, Maria Ragatti (Sophia Loren) and her mother, Mama Ragetti (Ann Guilbert) and he and John try sabotaging her efforts to turn the building into an upscale "ristorante." John's lusty old father (Burgess Meredith) shows up again in this movie and flirts with women in a very raunchy way.

Part of the story involves a…. [read more]

Alcohol Consumption and Symptoms Literature Review

… ¶ … Alcohol Consumption and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression

Depression and anxiety are related to cognitive as well as psychological impairments. Both these disorders not only affect the life of the ones suffering from it, but also that of the people in the surrounding. Similarly, alcoholism is also another multifaceted social and health concern. It has been well-documented that alcohol abuse has inflicted every part of the world with problems ranging from relationship, health and social problems (Newlin, 2010). The roots of alcohol consumption can be dated back to the times human history originated. There exist numerous ancient literatures and scriptures that indicate the use of alcohol as medicinal compound (Liu, 2011). However, alcoholism has passed down from generation to generation as a social…. [read more]

Psychology: Alcohol and Drug Abuse Essay

… " (Feldman, 2009). Adverse reactions to abusing heroin include depression, convulsions, coma, financial difficulties due to the cost of obtaining the drug, homelessness, high risk for AIDS/HIV, violence, suicide, and death (by overdose) (Feldman, 2009; Oltmanns, & Emery, 2010).

Analyzing Physiological Effects & Treatments

Addiction begins when a person feels a craving for a substance, which has activated the "pleasure center" of their brain, which are the dopamine reward pathways and endorphins located in the limbic system (Oltmanns, & Emery, 2010). In chronic abusers of substances like alcohol, heroin, or cocaine, these pleasure centers have been so artificially high, repeatedly, that according to Raymond Anton, the brain has been literally "hijacked" by the floods of dopamine, that when the user is not high the limbic…. [read more]

Smoking Is a Factor Term Paper

… Teenagers who breathe tobacco smoke generated by family and friends are far more likely to take up smoking themselves. (SWAT, Pg 3)

Certainly there have been many studies linking disease and death to second hand smoke, but what about those who do not make the choice to smoke but are still breathing in nicotine and tobacco smoke. The use of cigarettes by pregnant women can have dire effects on their unborn children.

Carbon monoxide - the same chemical which comes out of an automobile exhaust pipe - and extremely high doses of nicotine interfere with the oxygen supply of the fetus. Studies indicate that nicotine easily penetrates the placenta and becomes concentrated in the fetal blood, amniotic fluid and breast milk. These factors may contribute…. [read more]

Opium in China Essay

… ¶ … opium in China with that of the United States after the Civil War? Provide an analysis as to how the early problems with opiates influenced the drug problems of the 1970s worldwide.

Narcotics and drug abuse is common all over the world. The use of drugs dates back to 5000 BC (all the way up to the New Stone Age). Most drugs, at first were used for medicinal purposes. However, over time, they were introduced as being available for recreational use. It is the recreational use of the drugs, in large doses, that not only harms the user but also the community to which they belong. Most of the drugs have been derived from natural plants and herbs, and mixed with other ingredients…. [read more]

Substance Abuse Article

… Substance Abuse Support Group

Substance abuse is a problem that has plagued humankind since man discovered that some substances can alter body chemistry. Various different types of groups have been utilized to try to treat substance abuse, with varying levels of success. The most commonly used groups to treat addiction are support groups, behavioral/cognitive groups, and 12-step programs. Cognitive and behavior therapy can include things like learning to talk about experiences, learning non-drug management skills, identifying problematic behavior, recognizing cravings, establishing methods to deal with cravings (Genetic Science Learning Center, 2011). However, behavioral-cognitive therapy is not generally successful all on its own. Addiction is a notoriously treatment-resistant condition. While almost all treatment programs have some rate of success, treatment success rates for all substance abuse…. [read more]

Nation Is One With Finite Resources Research Paper

… ¶ … nation is one with finite resources. In the midst of our current economic recession, every tax dollar spent counts. This leads one to wonder why so much money is spent incarcerating low-level and nonviolent drug offenders, who essentially need medical treatment above criminal punitive punishment. In today's judicial system, drug offenders are treated like criminals, and not the addicts and medical patients that they are. Our nation is dead bent on a war with drugs, physically forcing these addicts out of their addiction. However, "Getting tough on drugs may be good politics but inefficient public policy," (Kim et al. 1993:174). Typical solutions tend to gravitate towards either harsh criminal punishments or an increase in drug awareness education, both have their own successes and…. [read more]

Suicide Drug Abuse Term Paper

… Suicide and Drug Abuse

There is a current trend to support the right to suicide or to die with dignity. This trend does not reflect popular view and I do not support the view that one has the right to commit suicide or in other words the right to die or to die with dignity. There are several reasons why I believe that no one has the right to take their own life. The first and foremost reason is that suicide in today's world is looked upon by society as the symptom of a social illness. Thus the possibility of committing suicide or of the person being a danger to oneself or to anyone else and this normally refers to being a threat to oneself…. [read more]

Psychopharmacology, the Goal Term Paper

… It can have powerful effects on the brain, causing the person to have a greatly exaggerated sense of his or her abilities. PCP can cause a temporary psychotic break. It is sometimes dusted on marijuana to make the marijuana seem more potent.

Marijuana is another naturally occurring drug, related to the hemp plant. Its active ingredient is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolm or THC, and is believed to bind to synapses in several parts of the brain (Kimball, 2003). It has several effects on the brain. It can make the user drowsy, acting as a sedative. It can decrease sensation of pain, and if used in large amounts, distort perception somewhat like a hallucinogenic. Unlike sedatives and opioids, however, marijuana use does not result in addiction or increased physical…. [read more]

Heroin, Like All Drugs, Knows No Social Term Paper

… Heroin, like all drugs, knows no social, ethnic, or economic barriers. Although most people think of a heroin addict as some 'junkie' shooting up in an urban back alley, he or she is just as likely to be a corporate CEO or high school student. Heroin users can be found throughout the world. They include all ages and race, rural and urban. Once prescribed for common respiratory ailments, heroin today is prescribed as a potent pain-killer, however used illegally as a street drug, it can prove lethal.

In 1898, a German chemical company, founded by Friedrich Bayer, marketed a new cough medicine called 'Heroin,' a drug that now floods illegally throughout the world in record amounts. During the early nineteenth century, medicines were prepared by…. [read more]

Substance Abuse Intervention for Homeless Youth Research Paper

… Substance Abuse and Homeless Youth

The focus of this research paper is to discuss the connection between homelessness in youth populations and substance abuse. "Homeless young adults are defined as individuals between 12 and 24 years of age who are without stable housing and who identify with the culture and economy of living on the street [1, 7-9]. Identification with street culture includes engaging in accepted practices for earning money (such as panhandling), adopting unique slang language and developing strategies to prevent victimization" (Gomez et al., 2010). Thus, with homeless youths, the homelessness is not a temporary flirtation with time away from home, but a complete and thorough transition to life on the streets. This distinction is important to make, as this paper is will…. [read more]

Heroin Abuse Essay

… ¶ … Hardships of Breaking Heroin Addiction

In 1971, President Richard Nixon declared a war on drugs. Most targeted was heroin, because as young men who survived their tour in Viet Nam returned to the United States, many returned as heroin addicts. The addictions were acquired in Viet Nam, where there was what has been described as a free-for-all access to heroin, marijuana, and cocaine. When Nixon declared the war on drugs, he created the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), and instituted the drug schedule, which listed by classification drugs and prohibition of drugs that were deemed of a certain class. The schedule included marijuana and heroin on the same level of dangerous drug, which demonstrates how little we knew about heroin.

In addition to the…. [read more]

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