Viewing papers 1-10 of 10 for sleep AND deprivation AND and AND its AND neurotransmitters

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Sleep Deprivation and Its Neurotransmitters Research Proposal

… REM Sleep Deprivation

The complex neurochemistry of the sleep wake cycle has been researched much over the last few decades. It is clear that REM deprivation causes the brain cellular machinery to trigger various neurobiological responses involving selective expression of genes, down regulation and upregulation of neurotransmitters, as well as reorganization of excitatory synapses.

Sleep is an indispensable physiological function for all living beings. The rejuvenating and refreshing effects of sleep are well-known and over the last few decades there have been numerous research on sleep. The negative effects of sleep deprivation or sleep restriction have been analyzed by many researchers and we now understand some of the basic neurological mechanisms of sleep. It is well-known that sleep deprivation affects the thalamocortical circuits that are…. [read more]


Psychoactive Drugs the Drug Chosen Essay

… Most likely because cocaine gives the user such an instant feeling of euphoria and well-being that only lasts for short while, once the drug has worn off feelings of depression and lethargy replace any feelings of happiness (Emery, & Oltmanns, 2010).

Given that cocaine increases the sympathetic nervous system, an action that is normally activated in people who are in flight or fight mode, the body itself is in a constant state of disruption and deprivation (Emery, & Oltmanns, 2010). Most likely, a cocaine abuser would not be eating and not be sleeping while using the drug, and while the user is high on cocaine, the sympathetic nervous system is working overtime during the entire episode of use. "Studies indicate that sleep restriction [deprivation] can…. [read more]


Fibromyalgia Syndrome (Fms) Term Paper

… Some scientists believe that central nervous system dysfunction could be the cause of these unexplained conditions. Muhammad Yunus referred to these comorbid conditions as "central sensitivity syndromes." (Facts of Life, 2002).

Present Understanding of FM: (Again General Concept for the Concept Paper)

The diagnostic criteria for classifying fibromyalgia were finally established and published in 1990 by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). These criteria were widely accepted because they reflected the results of research published by 20 clinical investigators throughout the United States and Canada.

The ACR criteria for the classification of FM are:

History of widespread pain (must be present for at least 3 months)

Pain is considered widespread when all of the following are present:

1. Pain in the left and right side…. [read more]


Chronic Fatigue in the Aviation Research Paper

… Increased concentration and effort might assist the workers for a few minutes, but this does not compensate for fatigue during the entire shift. People need to understand that fatigue is real and can have a detrimental impact especially on safety in aviation. Employees need to balance between rest, work, and play for them to continue performing safety-critical tasks. Fatigue is not a sign of weakness, and it can reduce the flight crew's ability to fly safely John A Caldwell & Caldwell, 2005()

When fatigued a person's attention reduces, which makes the person leave out steps in the performance of their tasks. In aviation, leaving out a single step could have adverse effects on the aircraft. It is vital that the workers maintain their attention to…. [read more]


Dream Content as Therapy: Ego vs. Repression Dissertation

… For example: a parent has repeating nightmares, and the child "dreams his dreams " because the child is in a psychic resonance with the parent. The child's dreams end when the parent's does. Four, it might be a repetition of a past traumatic event in current lifetime. For example: a person might dream of a recent rape, a childhood assault or a wartime battle. This type of nightmare is so deeply etched in the psyche that it can require heavy use of behavioral dream-work techniques to modify the content and emotional intensity.



A fifth factor could be that the dream is a depiction of a past or probable life. For example: a client might dream the last events prior to a violent…. [read more]


Relationship Between Stress and the Human Body Essay

… Stress & the Human Body

I caught common cold after a close friend's death that caused psychological stress to me.

You are more prone to sickness when under stress - at least that is how it appears. Research too is showing this to be true. The body's immune system and the stress system are linked and immune system is vastly affected by stress response. The stress response involves activating many neuroendocrine systems plus the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes and HPA as well as the sympathetic nervous system. Discussions on the topic of immune system and the neuroendocrine have found that the two utilize certain similar receptors and ligands to support an inter-system and intra-system communication network. It is understood that the communication happening between the systems…. [read more]


Reinforcement the Post-Reinforcement Pause a Behavior Pattern Essay

… Reinforcement

The Post-Reinforcement Pause

A behavior pattern that is typically bimodal is produced by a constant ratio schedule of reinforcement (Ferster and Skinner, 1957). It has been observed that the response rate is at a high terminal at some occasions; meanwhile it is at zero at others. The "post-reinforcement pause" represents the most consistent period of zero response that normally occurs right after a period of reinforcement. The common observation is that when the post-reinforcement pause becomes greater, the response rate has the potential to decline to some extent since the ratio requirement also escalates. The aforementioned conclusion finds its basis on the cumulative data that was represented by Skinner and Ferster (1957) as well as distinct records of behavior that are on this schedule.…. [read more]


Depression All in the Mind? Term Paper

… Depression

ALL in the MIND?

Depression and Physical Activity

Depression has been described as a lingering feeling of sadness and hopelessness, characterized by low mood, and directly or indirectly linked to an external cause (Gianoulis and Rose 2002). It can be casual or serious. Either way, this "common cold of psychiatric illness" lasts for weeks or months. Despite the awareness of the disorder for hundreds of years, the number of people with its symptoms continues to rise since the start of the 20th century. Many psychiatrists consider depression an organic disease developing from chemical imbalance in the brain. Social analysts, on the other hand, attribute it to psychosocial stress. Psychological stress, they said, is the inevitable product of current-day industrial and technological society. Support systems…. [read more]


Neurological Disorder Epilepsy Term Paper

… In some particular complicated cases, the lack of full standardization (devices, methods, etc.) also make difficult confrontation of two or more different cases, methods, devices, which ultimately reduces the extent of efficacy of this treatment for epilepsy.

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for the treatment of epilepsy tends to be a treatment which involves no side effects. It can work even if it is not beneficial in reducing the seizure frequency among patients. Psychotherapeutic strategies such as CBT can be combined with pharmacological treatments for attaining gainful results among patients suffering from severe epilepsy syndromes. This however requires a close collaboration between epileptologist and psychotherapist (Ramaratnam et al., 2008).

After having an idea about three major ways of treating epilepsy, one needs to approach psychological therapies…. [read more]


How Schizophrenia Affects Development and Aging Research Paper

… ¶ … Schizophrenia Affects Development & Aging

Although schizophrenia is a mental disorder known for developing in late adolescence or early adulthood, recent studies reveal differences in brain chemistry beginning much earlier. While children at risk for developing schizophrenia may function along the "normal" range of the continuum, early signs and signals such as excessive shyness, lack of interest or attention, blank stares and awkward movements, or avoidance of affection may hint at a more serious illness to come (Heinrichs, 2001). From adolescence through early adulthood, the burgeoning disorder becomes unmistakable and treatment is necessary; later in life some symptoms may become less severe. But regardless of when a formal diagnosis is made, there is evidence that schizophrenia affects all stages of development and aging…. [read more]

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