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Social Psychology Cognitive Dissonance Term Paper

… Social Psychology

Cognitive dissonance

This is the feeling that one has within them when they hold two conflicting feelings or thoughts within them at the same time. This usually highlights the importance of the subject within us. Dissonance is said to be strongest when we believe one thing within us and do directly the opposite. It is also said to be strongest when it concerns our self-image like feelings of immorality, foolishness, respect and so on (Rudolph F.M., 2013). The strategy that I will use to encourage people to buy into the idea of recycling will be more of a social campaign. This will be aimed at educating every member of the residence hall on the benefits of recycling, giving them the actual figures of…. [read more]


Social Psychology Studies: Explaining Irrational Term Paper

… However, some have questioned whether these results would have been the same if the groups of people had known one another. In the experiment, the boys were not acquainted with one another prior to the experiment. Believing that such a scenario is too artificial to make it generalizable to the population at large, Tyerman and Spencer conducted a similar experiment, but used an existing Scout troop, where the boys knew one another, as the source of the study population (Tyerman & Spencer, 1983, p.519, para.5). Moreover, the divisions in the study were natural divisions. "The subjects had been accustomed to functioning within their four distinct patrol groups at previous camps, meetings and other activities over a long period. At camp, the seven-boy patrol units, although…. [read more]


Social Psychology Essay

… Likewise, if a sufficiently large number of "doomsdayers" believe the earth will end on December 21, 2012 and take steps to remove themselves from the grid and vow to kill anyone who comes near, the earth may well end up self-destructing in a self-prophesizing fashion in the near future.

RELATIONSHIPS SATISFY OUR INHERENT NEEDS TO BELONG AND AFFILIATE WITH OTHERS, BUT WHAT SEEMS TO BRING PEOPLE CLOSER TOGETHER?

Humans are social animals by nature, of course, but not everyone wants or needs a sense of belonging and affiliation all of the time. The happenings that appear to shake most people out of any self-imposed isolation from others, though, are shared positive or negative events that serve to forge a lasting bond between people. For example,…. [read more]


Social Psychology Concept Matrix Term Paper

… Applications include the fact that helping individuals gain self-esteem may be preventative to criminal history

Self-esteem can help an individual achieve success in his or her life. Sometimes people have to work against huge odds to achieve their dreams and to become successful. Take KJ Rowlign, for instance (author of Harry Potter). Saddled with so many challenged including poverty and single motherhood, she was rejected time and again until an agent accepted her manuscript. It was her self-esteem in her writing and herself that encouraged her to persist.

Self-Handicapping

People avoid efforts due to the fear that they will be hurt / rejected and their self-esteem will suffer.

Edward E. Jones and Steven Berglas theorized that people place obstacles in their path (both consciously and…. [read more]


Cognitive Dissonance Is Disharmony Manifested Essay

… Everything is truly a state of mind when the proper perspective is applied.

Question 2

Savan (2011) exposed much about the relationships between consumer and product in her article about "MTV-speak." She exposed a deceitful practice of misinforming one consumer base to take advantage of their ignorance. This article, while jovial in nature, does in fact expose the lengths that certain corporations will set to in order to win public attention and appreciation. More importantly, this article provides a useful learning tool that explores the importance of using a balanced mind set when confronted with such trickery.

In Savan's article, she interviewed an executive at MTV about a recent promotion where the company in question placed made up words on posters to promote no certain…. [read more]


Self and Social Psychology Research Paper

… The persuading Self desires to evoke harmony between the message and the audience Self. This is the basic concept behind the power of persuasion and all persuasive techniques: the establishment of harmony between message and audience.

Obedience and Conformity -- What factors lead us to be obedient and to conform?

Obedience and conformity are modes of behavior and belief which are influenced by the way the Self perceives both itself and Others. As the Self comes to identify itself with a particular group or creed or ideology, it may make an effort to conform to that group's behavioral norms and/or sense of identity. The Self is more likely to obey the tenets of a belief system or the laws of a State when it identifies…. [read more]


Social Psychology Research Paper

… Nazi Germany used the images and methods of mass advertising to help Adolf Hitler come into power and to control the mass mind once the Party had taken over the state. E.H. Grimbach, the famous art historian and exile from the Third Reich thought that racist and anti-Semitic images were at the very heart of the Nazi worldview, and that the leaders really believed their own propaganda, especially Hitler. These images always showed the Fuehrer as a powerful man of destiny, a hero, savior and messiah who had saved Germany from its enemies. Very often, it even portrayed him as inspired by God as well. During the 1933-45 period, Nazi images also showed how a "virtuous young Germany fought manfully against evil schemers, above all…. [read more]


Social Psychology Social Beliefs and Judgments Humans Term Paper

… Social Psychology

Social Beliefs and Judgments

Humans are social beings that automatically make assumptions and judgments based on the observable behavior of others. When walking down a street in the downtown area, I have witnessed homeless individuals begging for money or food. Although empathy arises when I see this, I also unintentionally attempt to explain their behavior by either blaming it on the consumption of drugs or to a lack of family support. I also make personal judgments on these individuals without knowing in actuality what this person's life has been up to this point. All of these mind processes are a part of social psychology.

This chapter explains the main theories behind social beliefs. Myers (2012) introduces attribution theory as the way that people…. [read more]


Attitude Including Cognitive Dissonance Essay

… However, it is not simply the mind that can limit our ability to react in an effective fashion to our environment. Sociologists also speak of the role of 'situational constraints' or the constraints that our social situation places upon our behavior that we cannot alter mentally or physically. For example, when considering the phenomenon of juvenile delinquency, "we can explain such things as differential educational achievement not by arguing that different classes have different values, but rather, that different social groups / social classes are differently-placed in the class structure (their situation) in terms of their ability to translate values into social behaviour and educational qualifications (the constraints)" (Education case 1, Sociology, n.d.). More important than individual differences and psychology is the way that the…. [read more]


Identifying Three Social Psychological Principles That Appear to Be Operating in the Movie Shrek 2001 Thesis

… Social Psychology Principles in Shrek

Social-Psychological Principles in Shrek (2001)

For most people, movies are made for entertainment. However, there are also movies that go beyond merely entertaining its audience. There are films that have been created making use of psychological principles, which enrich the movie-viewing experience of audiences. This paper will focus on the movie Shrek, which was released in 2001, directed by Andrew Adamson and Vicky Jenson.

Shrek tells the story of a green ogre named Shrek and a princess named Fiona. Shrek was feared by all the people in the town of Duloc. He lived alone in a swamp, which he one day found to be swamped with fairy tale creatures. The fairy tale creatures had no choice but to take refuge…. [read more]


History of Social Psychology Research Paper

… The Supreme Court as evidence to prove that segregation would generate a feeling of inferiority later cited these results. Clark was also the first Africa American elected as President of the American Psychological Association.

Evelyn Hooker studied the psychosocial adjustment of gay men out of prison or hospital. She was the first social scientist to conduct such a study. The results of her study demonstrated heterosexual and gay men did not have any difference, which challenged the antigay stereotypes. Her results eventually led to the removal of homosexuality as a mental disorder from the American Psychiatric Association diagnostic manual (Baumeister & Finkel, 2010). Albert Bandura brought in the notion that it is possible to model behavior in the social world. He developed the social learning…. [read more]


History of Social Psychology: Past Essay

… The cognitive revolution resulted in the inevitable need to search and investigate areas traditionally outside the focus of social psychologists. For example, there has been a recent interest in implicit cognition and how it affects attitudes and behavior. The attention to both explicit and implicit cognition by social psychologists led them to investigate other new areas (new for them) such as neural activity and its association with social psychological processes such as self-awareness, self-regulation, attitude formation and change etc.

So social psychology has become an extensive area with many fields of study. And yet it is still a relatively new discipline as it did not find itself until the 1940s and 1950s. because of its vast focus many other scientific disciplines are regularly incorporated into…. [read more]


Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliance, by Leon Term Paper

… ¶ … Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliance, by Leon Festinger and James M. Carlsmith (1957), (Lesko, pgs. 115-123). Write a brief review of the study, and be sure to answer the following questions: What was the hypothesis in the Festinger/Carlsmith experiment? Describe the experimental procedure in your own words. Compare and contrast the experimental procedure with the control group procedure.

What was the independent variable?

What was the dependent variable?

Was the hypothesis supported by the findings?

The experiment conducted by Festinger and Carlsmith to test cognitive dissonance, or the experience of stating an opinion that is contradictory to private beliefs is fascinating, and relatively inclusive. The work describes the manner of persuasion, that can be used to get the individual to change his internal…. [read more]


Social Psychology This Study Reviews How People Term Paper

… Social Psychology

This study reviews how people react when forced to say or engage in behaviors contrary to their personal beliefs or opinions. According to the researchers, Janis & King (1954; 1956) note often private opinion changes so an individual's beliefs or opinions align more closely with the behaviors a person must engage in, even when contrary to their own beliefs. The authors hypothesized that a person who is forced to change their private opinion will reduce dissonance by bringing their personal original opinion into closer correspondence with statement made against their previous beliefs. Once this happens, the individual would demonstrate a change of opinion after being forced or induced to say something contrary to their original beliefs. The authors secondary hypothesis is that the…. [read more]


Correspondence Bias Essay

… 2. As a comparison, the Yale approach model is similar with the elaboration likelihood approach for the reason that it falls under the social psychology study that will allow people to change their attitude through persuasion. The contrasting issues is that it does not concerned with the personal activities and the explanation of a certain issue because it is more concentrated with persuasive approach. This model will try to emphasize the importance of having the aspect of persuading an individual or a group that will enter a specific event or an issue using different communication styles. In the same manner, the comparison with elaboration likelihood approach is the manner of emphasizing the use of social application in the field of social psychology to focus on…. [read more]


Deprivation Essay

… ¶ … deprivation and when does it lead to aggression?

Relative deprivation is when a person is denied access to something or someone when they see other people having access. The individual believes they have as much right to this variable thing as a person who actually has it. It leads to aggression when the relative deprivation is felt too keenly for too long in too large a population.

Should you pay children for getting good grades? Why or why not?

You should not pay children for getting good grades. Most research focused on the issue has shown that bribery benefits in the short-term, but that children lose out in the end. They are not motivated to succeed for their own intellectual benefit, but for…. [read more]


Primer in Positive Psychology Term Paper

… Christopher Peterson is one of the founders of the discipline of positive psychology. As professor of U. And Michigan since 1986, he has become one of the most noted psychologists of the 20th century. His textbook "Primer for Positive Psychology" is a witty and insightful look into the new study of positive psychology. He not only attempts to define positive psychology, but also show how it can be applied to our daily lives and how it will be instrumental in our understand of happiness. Positive psychology is a new and emerging field, it is the "scientific study of what goes right in life, from birth to death and at all stops in between." The following is a comprehensive review and analysis of this influential book.…. [read more]


Psychology Testing: Psychometric Emotional Intelligence (Eq) Durrenmatt Term Paper

… Psychology Testing: Psychometric Emotional Intelligence (EQ)

Durrenmatt (1996) may have had it right when he said, "Emotions have no place in business, unless you do business with them." Or perhaps, he was wrong. Only the test of time, however, will tell. At this time, nevertheless, this researcher proposes to invest time to:

Define EQ and expand on its role in today's global world.

Compare questions asked in EQ tests with questions asked in IQ Tests.

Identify current tests and/or theories are available for assessing EQ.

Assess accuracy of EQ's assumptions for individuals.

Examine numerous studies testing the reliability of EQ.

This research is expected to gather and assess relevant data from literature related to EQ to determine its scope of accuracy, acceptability and availability. Determinations…. [read more]


Dr. Daryl Bem Term Paper

… Bem was a critic of cognitive dissonance theory. He designed a replication of the original Festinger & Carlsmith (1959) study. In Bem's (1967) version participants listened to a tape recorded description of the cognitive dissonance experiment of a man enthusiastically describing the boring task. Some of the experimental participants were told that the man had been paid $20 for his description, whereas another group of participants was told that the man only been paid one dollar for his description. Thus, there was no dissonance created in the participants of the experiment; however, the results were still the same. Those that had heard the description of that the man had been paid one dollar believed that he must have liked the task more than the man…. [read more]


Self and Others the Manner Essay

… Population Sample: Two samples (a nonclinical sample defined as subjects who were attending a public high school at the time data were gathered, and a clinical sample defined as subjects who were under the care of a psychiatrist and admitted to a psychiatric facility at the time data were gathered) were collected from five different institutions. Inclusion criteria included: (a) all subjects were required to be living with two parents and (b) received parental consent and given their own assent to participate.

Nonclinical sample. The nonclinical sample consisted of 165 students who were enrolled in English classes at a large Southwestern high school; all told, 119 students satisfied the inclusion criteria for this sample with ages ranging from 14 to 17 years (m-15.2 years), with…. [read more]


Emotional Intelligence: Issues in Theoretical Construct Term Paper

… Emotional Intelligence: Issues in Theoretical Construct and Measurement

Business Administration)

This dissertation proposal examines the relationship that exist between the role of 'emotional intelligence' and 'effective leadership and job success.' In the terms of conceptual definition, Peter Salovey of Yale University and John Mayer at the University of New Hampshire view emotional intelligence as a set of skills hypothesized to contribute to the accurate interpretation and expression of emotion in oneself and others; also the effective regulation of emotion, and the use of feelings to motivate, plan and achieve success. The better known Daniel Goleman has popularized emotional intelligence to a more vast audience outside the world of academia. The definition applied to 'emotional intelligence' by Goleman is 'the ability to rein in emotional impulse,…. [read more]


Psychological Concepts. In Some Questions Essay

… Hence it can be concluded that it is up to Beth use operant conditioning to not make any friends or to increase her number of friends.

Answer 5:

Retroactive Interference is when new information learned makes it difficult to recall information stored earlier. The public park picture was shown first to the participants and they stored whatever they could from the picture. Immediately after that, they were shown several other pictures thus, they had to store new information. This bombarding of new information into the storing system of the brain makes it difficult for the participants to recall what they saw first in the public park picture. The result was that most of them mistook the man to be the oppressor and not the woman.…. [read more]


Amir and Ariely ) Shows Essay

… In an ironic way, a psychopath is more honest than the average person in the sense that the average person pretends to be honest even when he or she is not, and does so with a great degree of self-deception. The psychopath, on the other hand, eschews conventional morality and therefore rarely if ever engages in self-deception. This is why a psychopath would respond differently to most of the cheating tests administered in the Mazar, Amir & Ariely (2008) set of studies. Most of the studies use some form of motivation or stimuli that the psychopath would not respond to in the same way as a typical individual.

Furthermore, Mazar, Amir & Ariely (2008) show that most people, not just psychopaths, are opportunistic. When a…. [read more]


Social Policy in Australia Term Paper

… We want our governments to protect us - from foreign armies, from refugees who (if they come in sufficient numbers) can break the social services system. But we also want our government to take care of all of the dirty work without involving us - even as we want to be informed.

The anger that is apparent in the articles used for this paper must thus be seen as arising from two different sources. One is these is a legitimate anger arising from the events in and of themselves: People believe that the government that they elected acted in their name that was far from civilized. But the other arises from a sort of cognitive dissonance, from the fact that most people understand that it…. [read more]


Adolescent Suicide Integration of CBT and Self-Psychology Term Paper

… Adolescent suicide integration of CBT and self-Psychology

Adolescent Suicide: Integration of CBT and Self-Psychology

Determining why children and adolescents commit suicide is a concern that many individuals in the helping professions face. Obviously, they commit suicide because they are depressed in many instances, but it is also accurate to say that there are other reasons why many of these adolescents choose to take their own lives. Some of them are involved in substance abuse and other issues that cause them to think suicide is the right idea. Others are involved with crowds of other adolescents that drag them down into painful issues and problems that they have trouble facing. When this happens, some of these individuals begin to feel that they are trapped in these…. [read more]


Consonant and Dissonant Cognitions Term Paper

… 3).

TWO: analyze the influence that consonant and dissonant cognitions have on attitudes and behavior: Dissonance becomes apparent when two cognitions "…generate mutually incompatible behavior dispositions," Frijda writes on page 188. Two incompatible behaviors could be the tendency to both avoid and approach the same object: an alcoholic experiences dissonant cognitions when he sees a vodka drink being poured by a bartender; he remembers how good the taste of alcohol was and yet he knows he can't go back to his days as a lush.

Author Bertram Gawronski explains that when a dieter (trying hard to lose weight) polishes off a "fattening meal, he would likely be in a state of dissonance" because his cognitions as to his recent behaviors "…are most resistant to change"…. [read more]


Consumer Psychology in Today's World Term Paper

… Using generally accepted images of medical and scientific authority could also carry out the transfer technique. Studies carried out by the Institute for Propaganda Analysis suggest that, from the simple image of an 'expert' in a white coat, to the incorporation of medical statistics, advertisers can utilize the public's acceptance of such authority to influence consumer behavior, either for or against a product.

As the transfer technique shows, strategies that appeal to a broad range of the population can prove highly successful. The following technique adopts the idea of group persuasion as its basis.

Group Influence.

This technique exploits the fact that humans are naturally social beings, and that individuals have a psychological need to belong. Many consumers fulfill this need through group membership.

By…. [read more]


Behaviorism Concept Essay

… Behaviorism:

Common Phobias and Common Characteristics in Trauma

As I have proceeded in my education on the subject of human psychology, I have become increasingly fascinated with the way that certain experiences and dispositions can influence significant behavioral differentials from one individual to the next. Indeed, it is fascinating that cognitive dissonances such as anxiety disorders and phobias which can lead to dysfunctional behaviors are so directly rooted in personal experience. The field of behaviorism seeks to produce a fuller understanding of these psychological phenomena and for this reason is the framework through which the study proposed hereafter will be delivered.

The primary focus of the study will be phobias. The present research is primarily driven by an interest in tracing the root causes of…. [read more]

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