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Social Psychology Social Beliefs and Judgments Humans Term Paper

… Social Psychology

Social Beliefs and Judgments

Humans are social beings that automatically make assumptions and judgments based on the observable behavior of others. When walking down a street in the downtown area, I have witnessed homeless individuals begging for money or food. Although empathy arises when I see this, I also unintentionally attempt to explain their behavior by either blaming it on the consumption of drugs or to a lack of family support. I also make personal judgments on these individuals without knowing in actuality what this person's life has been up to this point. All of these mind processes are a part of social psychology.

This chapter explains the main theories behind social beliefs. Myers (2012) introduces attribution theory as the way that people…. [read more]

Social Psychology Studies: Explaining Irrational Term Paper

… However, some have questioned whether these results would have been the same if the groups of people had known one another. In the experiment, the boys were not acquainted with one another prior to the experiment. Believing that such a scenario is too artificial to make it generalizable to the population at large, Tyerman and Spencer conducted a similar experiment, but used an existing Scout troop, where the boys knew one another, as the source of the study population (Tyerman & Spencer, 1983, p.519, para.5). Moreover, the divisions in the study were natural divisions. "The subjects had been accustomed to functioning within their four distinct patrol groups at previous camps, meetings and other activities over a long period. At camp, the seven-boy patrol units, although…. [read more]

Psychology Forrest Gump Term Paper

… Psychology

Forrest Gump

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze the film Forrest Gump, directed by Robert Zemeckis. Specifically it will examine the character of Forrest Gump as it relates to human development and psychology. Forrest Gump's character in the film displays several characteristics of psychology, including emotion (Forrest is always emotional and demonstrative), naivete (his innocence is part of his charm), adult development (he matures, but not mentally), limited IQ, behavior and adaptation (he adapts to situations around him with ease). He also displays learning and conditioning (he learns from his mother's wisdom and his experiences), and of course, personality and social and moral development (as he matures he sees the world around him for what it is, and accepts it).…. [read more]

Conceptualization of Psychological Distress Psychology Essay

… They suppose that other people are talking and are afraid of madness (Hayes, 2008).

Cross-cultural and historical evidence shows how the mainstream society feared and excluded the psychologically distressed persons. In the mid-eighteenth century, it is evident that fear emerged in medical terms but moral myths animated them. At the same time, the fear of madness developed as the dread of unreason (Lebow, 2012b). As a result, the two forms of obsession, dependent on each other, advanced to reinforce each other. Longitudinal studies in remote areas of France demonstrate the persistence of exclusionary and alienating practices towards psychologically distressed despite their official and deinstitutionalization integration into the society. The rhetorical acknowledgement of such individuals in the society has not been aligned with the reality of…. [read more]

Social Advocacy in Counseling PhD Model Answer

… " Indeed many of the tenets and precepts of current social justice advocates are aligned with the postmodernist philosophy, which has been associated with Marxist principles by many scholars (e.g., see Johnson, 2009; Nicholson & Seidman, 1995). This is not to suggest that social advocacy is a "communist plot" but instead is an attempt to understand how social justice advocates may instead attempt to promote certain political agendas in the name of science. There is no denying that upbringing, environment, and experience shape who we are (this has always been the fundamental psychological principle of human behavior), but social advocates may attempt to exploit this principle in terms of certain agendas. The issues of social change are tackled by political scientists, social researchers, and sociologists…. [read more]

Cognitive and Affective Psychology Essay

… Cognitive and Affective Psychology

According to Eysenck and Keane (2005, p. 1), cognitive psychology focuses upon how the human faculties make sense of th einvrionment, as well as the processes involved in making decisions regarding appropriate responses to the environment. The specific processes involved in cognitive psychology include attention, perception, learning, memory, language, problem solving, reasoning and thinking.

According to the authors, there are four major approaches to human cognition (Eysenck & Keane, 2005, p. 3): experimental cognitive psychology; cognitive neuropsychology; computational cognitive science; and cognitive neuroscience.

Affective psychology concerns human emotion and the effect of this upon behavior; in other words, the outward expression of inner feelings. According to Brett et al. (2003), many professionals regard the affective domain as including three subcomponents: feeling,…. [read more]

Post-Modern to Contemporary Psychology Research Paper

… Post-Modern to Contemporary Psych

Psychology: Post-modern to Contemporary

From its foundation as a separate science from philosophy and biology, psychology has been a dynamic and ever evolving discipline with ongoing debate as to how to explain and describe behavior and the human mind. Many attribute the beginning of psychology as a separate discipline to German physiologist Wilhelm Wundt, during the mid-1800's, with his study of human consciousness. Since that time, there have been a number of theories and schools of thought that have served to shape contemporary psychology, and to inform many related fields such as Criminal Justice. Whereas psychologists and philosophers of the past utilized various methods such as logic and observation to define, study, and draw conclusions regarding thought and behavior, modern day…. [read more]

Self-Assessment of My Motives in Social Work Assessment

… Social Work Assessment

From my life experience, growing up in a family that was extremely loving and supportive, it made me realize I wanted to help others with their ongoing issues because by having a supportive environment, I was able to become a balanced person despite the odds of what my downfalls. Furthermore, I want to help people become balanced despite their odds whatever they may be. With that, it has always been my dream to have a career in helping people with their relationships, careers, and daily issues. And, I believe that by obtaining this degree, my dream can be fulfilled within other areas of counseling. After I obtain this degree, I plan to take my education further in psychology/counseling so that I can…. [read more]

Social Psychology Research Paper

… Nazi Germany used the images and methods of mass advertising to help Adolf Hitler come into power and to control the mass mind once the Party had taken over the state. E.H. Grimbach, the famous art historian and exile from the Third Reich thought that racist and anti-Semitic images were at the very heart of the Nazi worldview, and that the leaders really believed their own propaganda, especially Hitler. These images always showed the Fuehrer as a powerful man of destiny, a hero, savior and messiah who had saved Germany from its enemies. Very often, it even portrayed him as inspired by God as well. During the 1933-45 period, Nazi images also showed how a "virtuous young Germany fought manfully against evil schemers, above all…. [read more]

Personality Theories in Psychology Essay

… For Freud's patients, the goal of psychoanalysis was to help mitigate some of these feelings and reconcile some of the differences between the id and the superego. Of course, human beings were able to reconcile these competing differences before the advent of psychoanalysis. They did so in a number of ways, which Freud referred to as defense mechanisms. Defense mechanisms are subconscious ways that a person deals with the tension between the id and the superego. These defense mechanisms include: compensation, denial, displacement, fantasy, intellectualization, projection, rationalization, reaction formation, regression, repression, and sublimation (See generally Freud, 1989).

There are certainly numerous flaws in Freud's theory. First, he was working in a repressive time which did not allow him to focus more effort on uncovering the…. [read more]

Developmental Psychology Body Image Term Paper

… Several psychiatric disorders might lead to increasing risk of eating disorder, including neurotic and depressive symptoms, bipolar disorder, manic depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive personality characteristics, history of sexual abuse, severe family problems, extreme social pressures, insecurity, being controlled by others, distorted body image, etc. (NIMH, 2001). In addition, extreme negative dissatisfaction with their bodies may be a factor in its existence, even though not a predictor of eating disorders (Leon, Fulkerson, Perry, & Cudeck, 1993).

According to Johnson, Cohen, Kotler, Kasen, & Brook (2002), teenagers diagnosed with depression might be at a higher risk for the onset of eating disorders during middle adolescence and early adulthood, because eating disorders and depression in children and adolescents are closely related. Nevertheless, disruptive disorders might also contribute to recurrent…. [read more]

Clinical Psychology / Bulimia Nervosa Term Paper

… In the opinion of Hoshmand and Polinghorne in the year 1992, professional education must always be based on the development of a reflective judgment on the part of the student, who would then be able to effectively control the various existing biases that generally hamper or hinder their full comprehension of the issue, and also lessen their effectiveness as a clinical practitioner when the time came for them to begin their practice as a clinical psychologist. (Practitioner-Scholar Model: The Counseling Centre for Human Development, practitioner-scholar Model)

3. Influence of psychoanalysis

Psychoanalysis can be defined as the virtual family of psychological theories and methods that fall within the field of psychotherapy that has as its basic aim the clarification and the elucidation of the various connections…. [read more]

Psychology of Conformity and Obedience Thesis

… ¶ … Psychology of Conformity and Obedience

Conformity and Obedience:

All human societies maintain social and behavioral norms, expectations, and mores, although the specific value or connotations of various behaviors varies tremendously among different societies. The ordinary process of human socialization invariably generates large-scale social conformity to predominant social values and behaviors despite considerable flexibility (in many societies) for individuality and self-expression. To a great degree, socialization occurs completely without our awareness, particularly during infancy and childhood when we absorb fundamental social concepts.

Obedience is a more explicit or conscious phenomenon that implies a purposeful choice to submit to the authority of another or to conform one's behavior to the directions or wishes of a superior individual (or a larger entity). To a large degree,…. [read more]

Cognitive Bias and Social Desirability Essay

… In addition, the approach may contaminate the sample representatives. The second approach intends to provide accurate data, rather than discarding the entire data. For this reason, there is an approximation concerning the level of errors and the outcomes adjusted. Subjects that report a high score are interchanged with those that have a lower or medium score. In essence, it is true that everyone wants to appear intuitive, because that is our human nature. Everyone wants to appear acceptable in the society, and therefore, try to hide traits that may expose their true personalities.

In conclusion, bias is a type of systematic inaccuracy that affects scientific study and distorts analytical research process. A biased research investigation is likely to lose validity based on the extent of…. [read more]

Social Psychology of Hate Groups Essay

… Writing in 1998 in "Coming Out in the Age of the Internet: Identity 'Demarginalization' Through Virtual Group Participation," they were able to note the way in which gays had adopted the Internet early and strongly to establish a virtual community -- but chose as their point of comparison to marginalized sexual identities the virtual community-building efforts of those with marginalized ideological identities, including hate groups and even anti-gay hate groups. Bargh and McKenna are simply looking for appropriate points of comparison, and so they are willing to consider conspiracy theorists, "area 51" and alien cover-up enthusiasts, as well as "groups on the topic of White supremacy, citizen militias, and the cultural group skinheads" (Bargh and McKenna) "Coming Out" 690). As such, Bargh and McKenna offer…. [read more]

Social Psychology View: What Ensures Term Paper

… Oftentimes, however, these problems are exacerbated by their status as minorities who have less socio-economic power and hegemony than Caucasian women do and incur negative stereotypes as a result (Lott and Saxon, 2002, p. 482). Additionally, "Minorities tend to be concentrated in lower paying occupations or in the lower grades of higher occupations" (U.S. Merit, 2009, p. viii). Within the corporate environment, however, it is worth noting that by virtue of their gender, virtually all women are minorities. Those belonging to historical minority groups, then, may be marginalized due to the fact that they have a double minority status. There is evidence that shows that the effects of this fact may be considerably noxious to these women. For instance, a study conducted by Mascaro et…. [read more]

Impact of Social Pressure on Individual Conformity Research Proposal

… ¶ … Social Pressure on Social Conformity

Even before the conclusion of the Nuremberg Trials a decade and a half after the end of World War II, psychologists began studying the concept of moral responsibility in relation to obedience to help shed understanding into the Nazi atrocities committed during the war years. What had seemed so incomprehensible about the network of more than one thousand concentration camps in which approximately 10 million civilians (more than half of them European Jews from Germany and Nazi-occupied territories) perished was the apparent contradiction between the characteristics thought necessary for cold blooded killers and the sheer ordinariness of the German people (Baron & Byrne, 1993; Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008; Myers & Spencer, 2004). It was shocking even beyond the…. [read more]

Human Memory Literature Review Chapter

… Another intriguing aspect of Conway & Pleydell-Pearce's research about human memory and autobiographical memories is not just that autobiographical memories exist, but how they believe them to function. They contend that autobiographical memories are constantly present, yet are "activated" by events or occurrences in our present lives that trigger these memories, as well as their influence.

A fundamental premise of our approach is that autobiographical memories are transitory dynamic mental constructions generated from an underlying knowledge base. This knowledge base, or regions of it, is minutely sensitive to cues, and patterns of activation constantly arise and dissipate over the indexes of autobiographical memory knowledge structures. Such endogenous patterns of activation may not coalesce into "memories," nor do they necessarily or even usually enter into consciousness;…. [read more]

Rick Houser's Book Counseling Questionnaire

… They are men who have improved and consummated their physical, mental, spiritual, and psychic organizations to the extreme conceivable degree. With the vision they have picked up, have contemplated, and recorded the accurate Science of the Universe. In fact, present-day science tries to get closer and closer to this Knowledge. However, that Knowledge as of recently exists. It gave us a chance to recall that that this aged Knowledge can never show signs of change any more than immaculate math can change, in any event for our present earth-cycle. Current science must be judged with all considerations of Theosophy and not the other way round because science changes with time while Theosophy like everlasting truth is constant.

What is of true worth to us is…. [read more]

Mental Illness Is a Highly Debated Social Term Paper

… Mental illness is a highly debated social issue that has far reaching consequences for all of society. Within this debate, in the philosophical front are countless challenges to the validity of diagnosis and repercussions of labeling an individual with "mental illness" which is often socially and emotionally destructive and based on fundamental judgments about what is within and without acceptable social and cultural norms. (1. Edwards, CC2010, pp. 0087) Szasz in "the Myth if Mental Illness" even goes so far as to claim that "mental illness" and its current proponents are false and that mental illness, as it is viewed today is simply a construct, not at all unlike the beliefs of antiquity that blamed behavioral deviations on the devil, a convenient myth that allows…. [read more]

Dr. Daryl Bem Term Paper

… Bem was a critic of cognitive dissonance theory. He designed a replication of the original Festinger & Carlsmith (1959) study. In Bem's (1967) version participants listened to a tape recorded description of the cognitive dissonance experiment of a man enthusiastically describing the boring task. Some of the experimental participants were told that the man had been paid $20 for his description, whereas another group of participants was told that the man only been paid one dollar for his description. Thus, there was no dissonance created in the participants of the experiment; however, the results were still the same. Those that had heard the description of that the man had been paid one dollar believed that he must have liked the task more than the man…. [read more]

Bandura Personality Research Paper

… Bandura: Social Cognitive Theory

Albert Bandura is one of the most prominent psychological theorists of the modern era. Bandura developed a foundational theory he calls Social Cognitive Theory, though is also often referred to as Social Learning Theory. In this theory Bandura contends that individuals produce behaviors based on their environmental cues, in agreement with behaviorists, yet he also contends that human behavior is not that simple and that "learning" and/or "cognition" internal information also plays a part in behavior and that behavior also influences environment in a reciprocal fashion. In this addition, Bandura departed from traditional behaviorists in that he contended that people are not at all that simple and though they might model behavior these behavioral decisions are more complex and are influenced…. [read more]

Controlling Our Emotions? Emotional Literacy Research Paper

… g., Ekman & Friesen, 1975; Nowicki & Mitchell, 1998; Scherer, Banse, & Wallbott, 2001). When focused on the self, this dimension is related to greater emotional awareness (Lane, Quinlan, Schwartz, Walker, & Zeitlin, 1990), lower alexithymia (Apfel & Sifneos, 1979), and less ambivalence about emotional expressivity (King, 1998; King & Emmons, 1990). When focused on other people, this dimension encompasses what is meant by affect sensitivity (Campbell, Kagan, & Krathwohl, 1971), affect-receiving ability (Buck, 1976) and nonverbal sensitivity (Rosenthal, Hall, DiMatteo, Rogers, & Archer, 1979).

Use of emotion to facilitate thought

The second branch of El concerns the ability to use emotions to focus attention and to think more rationally, logically, and creatively. Using emotions may require the ability to harness feelings that assist in…. [read more]

Polish Culture Group Essay

… The phenomenon impedes the recovery and rehabilitation of the mentally ill individuals in a significant trend. Mentally ill individuals in Poland are subject to negative treatment by the general society. Consequently, these individuals respond in a high tone of aggression (Michlic, 2006, pg). They are perceived as defiant and harsh due to the negative treatment. The methodologies of treatment are also a key contribution to the negative behavior of the mentally ill individuals. The mentally challenged undergo treatment in isolated hospitals. These huge psychiatric hospitals map at segregated locations. In this case, they do not have an attachment to the general society. They feel abandoned and secluded in the isolated confinements of the hospitals. This factor contributes to the behavioral characteristic of the Polish.

Mental…. [read more]

Organisational Psychology This Chapter Reviews Term Paper

… Goldman (1995, p 149) stated that 'Corporations have gone through a radical revolution within this century, and with this has come a corresponding transformation of the emotional landscape.' When exploring the current changes taking place within organizations, an important consideration may be the impact of these changes on the underlying emotional system within the organization. It can be demonstrated how crucial emotions are to the welfare of the organization when considering the impact that emotions such as anxiety and fear have on work and the individuals involved (Briner, 1999), (Lord, 2002).

Rational self at work

Organizations are usually studied from either rationalistic or normative perspectives, suggesting that they are immune to emotion (Flam, 1990).(e.g. is this a point of fact you are making that is…. [read more]

Eckensberger 2001 Thesis

… Eckensberger 2001- Discussion Questions

Does the author present a view of society?

Yes, the author presents a view of society, largely based on action theory. However, because action theory looks at the entire range of human action, not all theorists use the same terminology or even agree on how to define actions within society. Therefore, the author discusses the various viewpoints espoused by different theorists, as well as the different terminology they use. More importantly, while action psychology provides insight into society, its focus is not on society, therefore it would be erroneous to label action theory a sociological theory or even a psycho-social theory, though it can be used to help explain both sociological and psycho-social behaviors and norms.

However, because action theory is…. [read more]

Ethics, Torture and Psychological Issues Term Paper

… Ethics, Torture and Psychological Issues


Who is the chairman of the APA Ethics Committee and under what circumstances should a professional consultation be sought?

The American Psychological Association Ethics committee has the power to receive, initiate and investigate reports of unethical conduct to members of the profession; to recommend or dismiss action on such incidents; to formulate rules and principles of ethics as they surround the profession; and to interpret, apply and administer any rules regarding ethical behavior and professional psychology. The current Chair of the committee is Dr. Nadya Fouad of the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, and there are seven other standing members of the committee (American Psychological Association, 2012, par. 3).

The Ethics Code applies only to psychologists 'activities that are…. [read more]

Carl Rogers Essay

… That having been said, it is important to note that in Rogers' approach ("c" above) the therapist should not "uncover totally unconscious feelings" because that might be far too "threatening" to the client (Goodman, 192). Additionally, Rogers believed that empathy was not just a process, and empathy was not just a condition for healing -- "it is the healing agent itself" (Goodman, 193). It is the empathy -- not the therapist -- that does the healing, in Rogers' viewpoint. But how does empathy heal? Empathy helps "dissolve alienation," in Goodman's words, and using this strategy allows the client to feel "…truly understood for the first time in the deepest parts" of his being (193). This gives the client confidence that he indeed is "a connected…. [read more]

Ethics in School Psychology Counseling and Consultation Term Paper

… Ethics of School Psychology

The development of systems and subsystems that ensure the health and well being of children in and out of the school setting goes back hundreds of years. Children are members of the worlds most vulnerable of populations, and in this population there is a subgroup of people who fall into a category that leaves them even more vulnerable, that of the mentally ill. (Fagan & Warden, 1996, p. 58) (Lowen, 1993, p. 22) Many mental illnesses stem from childhood and begin to show symptoms in children giving light to what might be lifelong problems, and many situations of childhood create the need to seek out those who might possess abnormalities or are simply in need of early intervention to stave off…. [read more]

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