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Social Class How Sociologists Analyze Social Classes Term Paper

… Social Class

How Sociologists Analyze Social Classes

Analyzing peoples' social class is a complex thing that many sociologists consider. The analysis won't just entail the recognition of one's living status in the society, or one's professional degree or background in the workforce. Analysis of social class needs to consider different factors and compare them in a group or collective method. Among such factors include the demography of the different classes, their psychological characteristics, their interaction, their culture, and many others. These components serve special purposes in analyzing and identifying social classes and structure.

Smesler, in his article Sociological Approaches, used five basic approaches in analyzing social classes. These basic approaches are the following.



Collective Approach



Richard Rubenstein, on the other hand,…. [read more]

Social Class Term Paper

… Social Class

The term class and particularly social class continue to be and will continue to be a cause of enormous uncertainty in social science. (Headrick, 1) The writings reveal meager conformity regarding what comprises class. Classes continue to be described by ownership of property, status or responsibility, position class, self-esteem or through intermarriage. (Rummel, 47) Simkhovitch describes classes as categories of people having identical sources of earnings. They are aware of the related or equal monetary benefits. According to him a social class is a structured group of persons having the same economic attainment. This pattern is akin to Marxism, since it regards class as a pressure group. L. Von Stein breaks the classes of society into ownership classes, legal classes and honorific classes.…. [read more]

Sociology Nazi Germany Term Paper

… (Sociology 250: Max Weber)

Karl Marx, born in the year 1818, has been stated as being one of the most important and influential socialist thinkers of the time in which he was living, and even today. His political and social and economic ideas all gained importance during the socialist movement that occurred, unfortunately, after his death in the year 1883. Some people are of the opinion that the ideas of Karl Marx were adapted later on to suit the people of today, and this is true to a certain extent. The great thinker has at times even been compared to the great Darwin who discovered the theory of Evolution of organisms; the theory is that Karl Marx, in a similar way, managed to discover the…. [read more]

Discipline Social Psychology Essay

… This sub-field- Social Psychology- examines what tends to shape people, how we tend to react in social situation, how we form and express attitudes and beliefs about the world, how we attribute causes to phenomena, conformity and racism.

Personality psychology is a disjoined area of probe, but is more and more combined with Social Psychology. The focus of Personality in direct contrast to Social is on qualities we are born with or that form that are maintained across situations and over time. The psychology of Personality tends to examine how people differ from one another whereas Social Psych. will emphasize general laws of behavior or how humans, on average, react to various situations (Howard, 2000).

Difference between Social Psychology and Sociology

While social is the…. [read more]

Sociology and Racism Sociologists Recognize Term Paper

… Instead, people form ethnic groups and racist belief as a result of their socialization and social interaction (Shibutani and Kwan, 28).

The implication of the Shibutan and Kwan book is that racism arises not because the ethnic groups look different physically. Rather, racism results from the different ways that members of various ethnic groups communicate. Different racial groups develop various systems of meanings and communication.

An illustration would be the way members of African-American groups have taken "ownership" of the N word. This word changes in meaning when spoken by a Caucasian person.

The interactionist perspective has its limitations, particularly in its narrow focus. Focusing on micro level research such as symbols and language can neglect the influence of social institutions on the development of…. [read more]

Karl Marx and Class Issues Essay

… Karl Marx & Class Issues

Karl Marx is notorious for having promoted communism in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, but moreover, throughout the 20th century and into the 21st century Marx is respected as an economist, sociologist, philosopher and author. His views are rarely embraced in the neo-liberal community (that promotes free-market capitalism, globalization and the power of the private sector) but his scholarship is generally included in economics and sociological studies. This paper presents his views on class, and responses to those views from other scholars.

Viewpoints & Challenges in Response to Marx' Theory on Class

"Studies of Marx's theory of history are complicated by the fact that Marx himself never provided a systematic treatment of its central principles… [hence] the task…. [read more]

Social Revolution Historical Term Paper

… ¶ … Social Revolutions

Over the 20th century, a very select number of social scientists became well-known because of their concepts, theories or writings that made a major impact on both their specific field of study as well as a wider scholastic area of knowledge. One of these social scientists is Theda Skocpol, a sociologist and political scientist at Harvard University. States and Social Revolutions epitomizes one of her better known books, where she presents her own ideas about why political revolutions occur in some countries but not in others. In order to accomplish this, she analyzes social revolutions that took place in France, China and Russia to determine similarities. She hypothesizes that these three nations experienced uprisings because they all were in the same…. [read more]

Social Issues Civil Rights Movement Term Paper

… Civil Rights Movement

For sociologists, social movements are important agents of social change. It is through such coalitions that people are able to bring about change in society. Conversely, social movements also give people a means of organizing against change, ways of preserving their way of life.

This paper focuses on one such social movement - the American civil rights movement.

The first part of this paper gives an overview of the civil rights movement's history, based on the five stages of social movements discussed by James Henslin. The next part of this paper analyzes the growth and effects of the American civil liberties movement through the structural functionalist, symbolic interactionist and conflict perspectives.

In the last section, the paper assesses the state of the…. [read more]

Role of Research in Social Essay

… 8. Were the conclusions consistent with the findings? Are the findings generalizable beyond the study? Why or why not?

The conclusion of the research study is consistent with the findings of the experiment as illustrated by the author. In the conclusion of the experiment, the researcher notes on the explicable variation of the forces affecting the growth and development of the children in the context of gay and lesbian marriages. Some of the factors in line with the findings of the experiment include lack of social support, stress exposure thus persistent stigma, and absence of the legal security for the parental and relationship statuses. These are representative of the findings of the research. It is also essential to note on the concept of generalization of…. [read more]

Social Sciences in Education Essay

… "There also are disparate cultural traditions: the pragmatic strand in American social science vs. The stronger pull exerted by Marxism in Europe and Japan. (Jacoby 2005 827)."

Contemporary Issues in Interdisciplinary Educational Settings

Contemporary issues at local, national, and international levels provide social science educators with valuable opportunities to engage students in conversations that instill critical analysis skills. While factual accuracy is always an educational goal, the social science curriculum, particularly within interpretivist constructions, aim to develop less tangible skills in students which are of critical importance in the social sciences: the ability to debate effectively and conscientiously, multicultural respect and tolerance, and the ability to understand a broad and specific social and historical themes and events. Discussion-based learning is a valuable by-product of multidisciplinary…. [read more]

Oppression of Class and Gender Term Paper

… This work has at its reference point the American Association of University Women's 1990 study "Shortchanging Girls, Shortchanging America." The study polled the attitudes of 3,000 young boys and girls and their general attitudes towards their school and society. The book takes into account the very high statistics relating to the drop in self-esteem that occur in young adolescent girls. The author applies these findings to real life situations and people; and profiles female students in two California schools. The book reveals a school system and social structure that has in fact allowed circumstances to compound and led to the low self-esteem and loss of self -- confidence among young girls.

Among the aspects that Orenstein investigates in this book are the different gender biases…. [read more]

Choosing Social Work Over Other Careers Term Paper

… ¶ … Social Work over other careers

Interesting Reason Why Students Choose a Career in Social Work

Do modern-day social work students have different career objectives and goals than the early 20th century social workers?

There are those who measure social work idealism and other factors that influence BSW and MSW students. The study's instrument covered a broad range of ideals to determine levels of idealism as well as influential factors like altruism, professional concerns, and influence of others. Csikai et al. (1997) Other studies produced unclear findings but their focus was different as well. Varley (1963, 1968) measured student's attitudes on specific social work issues. The Wagner (1989) study measured social workers commitment to social idealism and social change. The Abell and Mcdonell (1990)…. [read more]

Boudon 2001 Theories of Social Thesis

… Boudon 2001: Theories of Social

Does the author present a view of society?

Although he does not present his own view of society, the author presents several different views of society, espoused by leading theorists. These theorists do not have one prominent view of society, nor does the author suggest which view he finds the most valid, therefore, it is difficult, if not impossible, to determine the author's view of society.

How does the author discuss the relationship between individual and society?

The author discusses the relationship between the individual and society by discussing the perspectives that different theorists have taken on this relationship. According to the author, Weber believes that sociology needs to be individualistic in its methodology, like economics. In fact, he espoused…. [read more]

Sociology Social Stratification Is the Ranking Essay

… Sociology

Social Stratification

Stratification is the ranking of an entire group of people in order to perpetuate inequality or unequal rewards and life chances. Social Status is the prestige, honor, respect, and lifestyle that is associated with different positions or groups within society. It is often influenced by occupation and schooling. It is possible for one to have a social class that differs from their social status. Behavior patterns, likes and dislikes, success in situations, who you meet, whom you marry, employment choices and chances are all seen as consequences of class. Likes and dislikes of each class are different and need to be learned and applied to those in the case of vertical mobility to be part of that social class. Stratification is motivated…. [read more]

Race and Social Class in the United States Term Paper

… Sociology

Race as it Relates to Class in the United States

Since the country's beginning, race, gender, and class have been very important factors in a person's experience in the United States of America. The meaning of race, gender differences, and the separation of class have changed over United States history. For many Americans, their perceptions of class and race and the degree to which gender affect people's lives, often depends on what their race, gender, and class are, too. There are differences between the reality of America, what is represented as American reality in media, and the perceived reality of America. Americans as well as those looking at America from an outside perspective may have questions and confusions regarding what the real connections are…. [read more]

To What Extent Are Health and Illness Social Rather Than Biological Conditions Essay

… Sociology

Social Influences on Health and Illness

Socioeconomic inequalities in health have been observed persistently over the course of human history. These differences are manifest across individuals, communities, and societies and recent analyses suggest that for the most part they have increased over the past century, and even in the past few decades. The nature and size of these inequalities make them arguably the major problem of population and public health in America and many other societies. Socioeconomic inequalities in health have increasingly become a focus of health policy. It is still not fully understood why socioeconomic inequalities in health exists and persist, nor what policies are most likely and necessary to reduce these inequalities. In seeking this understanding, research has increasingly focused on socioeconomic…. [read more]

Shrinking Middle-Class America Capstone Project

… Also, given that they are constructed in smaller dimensions, they can be delivered to the public in a quicker manner, and they can as such be more relevant in the context of a novel issue. Nevertheless, the journal articles are often constructed on niche subjects, which might have a variable relevance in a specific research context. Finally, the internet articles are the ones of the most actuality, yet they are seldom peer reviewed. In other words, the information they contain might be biased and unreliable, and it is necessary to conduct additional research to validate the findings from internet sources.

2.2. Review of the available literature

2.1.1. Defining the middle class concept

The topic of the shrinking middle class in the United States is a…. [read more]

Communication Term Paper

… ¶ … communication and how it is best to define, classify and relate it to other fields, disciplines and definitions. Overall, it shows that communication is just too broad and complex to easily pigeon hole and define.

Paradigms of Speech -- Bruce Gronbeck

Gronbeck talks about the import of studying speech as a discipline, because of how rhetoric has become such a major part of present-day society. One has to analyze speeches not only phonetically and linguistically, but also psychologically and socially. What is the meaning behind the words? What is the intent? Who makes a speech for no reason whatsoever?

Today the U.S. is involved with a war in Iraq. Perhaps it was not only the horrors of 9-11 that brought about the follow-up…. [read more]

Academic Honesty Sociologist William Bowers Annotated Bibliography

… E. (2010). Business school deals on student academic honesty: A survey. College Student Journal 44(2), pp. 299-308.

Most studies on academic honesty have surveyed faculty and students. This article reports on the results of an online survey of business school deans. The surveys should deans' perceptions of the level of student academic dishonesty were much lower than generally reported in student surveys.

Brunell, A.B., Staats, S., Barden, J., and Hupp, J.M. Narcissism and academic dishonesty: The exhibitionism dimension and the lack of guilt. Personality & Individual Differences 50(3), pp. 323-328.

One hundred ninety-one college students, either self-reported or reported by other students, completed surveys on cheating behavior as well as the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI). Students rating high on the NPI were more likely to…. [read more]

Somalia Social Perspective Research Paper

… Somalia- Social Perspective

On the east cost of the African continent lays a strip of ground surrounded by the Indian Ocean, on one side and by exotic lands like Kenya and Ethiopia on the continental side. This is Somalia and, when hearing about it, most of us would be tempted to refer to the present situation and attributes that best describe this part of the Earth- poverty, hunger, illiteracy and its given qualification as a "third world country."

Yet, what one does not know about Somalia is the fact that it is part of one of the oldest cultures in the world, with the presence of humans being attested from around 9000 before our age and with a dynamic history which relates to the existence…. [read more]

Disability Rights Movement Research Paper

… Using the assistance of psychologists and mental health professionals, candidates will learn new skills that are currently needed in the job market or those that can lead to success incase of self-employment.

The second stage is the development of a candidate's personal go-to-work rehabilitation plan which is developed in consultancy with the centre's physician who will gauge if the candidate is ready or not to go to the rehabilitation work.

The third stage will commence once the candidate return from the rehabilitation work and it would be decide if either he or she needs improvement on his or her work skill, further education or a whole re-train, that could ensure he lands a job in the market.

The last stage involves developing job search skills;…. [read more]

Craig Clunas Material Culture and Social Status in Ming China Research Paper

… Craig Clunas and how he portrays material culture in his writings and how John Fairbanks expresses his views on Chinese culture

The question of portraying culture in writing is inherent to any author. The reasoning and the method of evaluating a subject proceeds from the known -- what the writer has accumulated from his experience; which means the culture that he or she was born into and the contrasts or similarities that strike when an alien culture is explored. It is a theory of quantum physics that this appear as we wish it to be. Light thus is a particle or a wave to the observer and the observer who thinks that it is a wave sees it so. Similarly in comparing art and culture…. [read more]

Birth Order and Juvenile Delinquency Term Paper

… After all, according to the prevailing theory, laterborns are more likely to flout authority while firstborn children are more likely to obey authority figures and to uphold the status quo.

Studies regarding birth order and crime, however, are conflicting at best. While some researchers have found links between criminal behavior and birth order, other studies are unable to replicate these results.

In an early study of delinquency among young women, for example, Jill Leslie Rosenbaum examined family background characteristics of 159 female juvenile delinquents who were committed to the California Youth Authority in the early 1960s. Rosenbaum found that 32% of those female delinquents were oldest children (1989: 36-37). While not a majority, this figure represents a substantial portion of the juvenile offenders and belies…. [read more]

Profit Through Investing on Stock Dissertation

… Author discusses various matters in this research and covers the topic of risk, diversification and income investing. Here the main focus is on the financial strategies that can pay off big and highlights the financial structure (Greenblatt, 2006).

Analogous to the spectrum of economics, a lucid person is considered as the instigation of the comprehending phase which endeavors to explicate the functionalities of a marketplace in the behavioral finances. A substitutive methodology has been projected by sociological studies which comprises of the comprehension of a wider communal, organizational, and philosophical persuasive elements at the marketplace. To the preceding sociologists like Weber (2000a; 2000b), the procedures prevalent in the marketplace were of immense significance to them, and this significance can also be tracked effortlessly in the…. [read more]

How Popular Culture Affects Children Research Paper

… ¶ … Popular Culture Affects Children Today

The question of how various social forces affect children today has become an important topic for social scientists. Children are the future of this country and the way children are brought up will fundamentally affect our future. Children at the same time are more susceptible to propagating ideas. And since in today's consumer culture the sexually-oriented products as well as images of violence, impropriety, and adult behavioral traits are sold as consumer goods through mass media, it becomes ever more important to learn and understand how popular culture affects children today. The purpose of this paper is a modest attempt to understand the process and the mechanism of the propagation of popular culture many of which specifically target…. [read more]

Child Custody Family Law Thesis

… This is employed as an alternative to having a child testify directly. The therapist cannot testify on behalf of the child, but can account to the court his interpretation of information gathered from sessions with the child. Psychologists must not give opinions regarding the physiological functioning of individuals who they have not personally evaluated, which implies that the therapist cannot give an opinion of the parents of children if they have not evaluated the parent's themselves. A few ways in which information is gathered includes in-home visits, one on one sessions, and observational methods; or any combination of the various techniques.

The use of counseling is a topic of heated debate with both serious ethical and financial concerns. Some claim counseling is ineffective because children…. [read more]

Sociological Theory Sociology Term Paper

… Relevance of the novel, America to our contemporary reality

The book is set on the leading theme of the societal interactions and changes that the society experiences from the interactions that happen in these meetings. The novel America is exceptionally reflective of the reality in the life of the contemporary America today. The social structural change that the American society experienced in the wake of the civilization era, and, which continues to occur today, is what the novel America covers. The novel tells of a story of the interactions between immigrants into America and the Americans that they found occupying the nation. It is true that the interactions existed long before the presentation depicted in the novel as though the interaction began only when the…. [read more]

Obama N. Racism Term Paper

… By acting together, we can overcome the obstacles that for too long have prevented real change on the critical issues that Americans face day in and day out. Now is the time to leave behind the status quo and build support for real solutions to ensure that President Obama succeeds in fulfilling the promise of change." (Organizing For America) But something else stood out in some of those campaign speeches and photo ops.

Barak Obama often said one thing during the Joe the Plumber events that those who understand Marx, even if they never become socialists or communists, may feel is relevant to the question of racism after a new administration. The point is that President Obama often said that people like 'John and I,'…. [read more]

Durkheim's Division of Labor to Social Structure Term Paper

… Durkheim's Divison Of Labor To Social Structure

There was once a time when the societies (feudal societies) of the world were nothing more than just a class that was ruled. For every individual within each class was set a routine for each day and there was little change in the lives of individuals of these societies. There was monotony in their work and their work did little more for them than keeping them alive. In those societies, there was scarce chance for self-actualization.

After these times came another time, marked by drastic changes. The concept of industrialization and Capitalism was introduced to societies all over the world. Some societies accepted it while others not and even condemned it. Those that accepted it became what was…. [read more]

Term Paper

… Poverty has always existed, but defining poverty must always be considered in relative terms. Poverty in the modern day United States differs dramatically on its face from poverty in many African nations; it is the relative lack of resources when compared to a prevalent social group and social ideal that establishes the definition of poverty. Therefore, the industrial revolution, which greatly increased affluence in many ways, also helped drive the underlying conflict between the haves and the have-nots. In fact, "By the mid-nineteenth century, the industrial revolution had produced enormous demographic dislocations, extreme poverty, and a wide gulf between worker and owner" (Bartos & Wehr, 2002).

However, the industrial revolution, which gave the opportunity of upward mobility for some also helped establish one of the…. [read more]

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