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Social Effects Did the Early Arab Conquests Essay

… ¶ … social effects did the Early Arab Conquests towards Byzantine (632-750) has on Byzantine and Arab society?

Civilization is a process that takes time to reach the point of becoming a norm in the recipient society. From the inception and establishment of the world, it is clear there are several changes that took place. These changes resulted in the creation of the vast continuum of culture and beliefs evident in the society. The propagation of these changes comes in diverse forms, some of which are peaceful whereas others take a struggle to take root. In the ancient worlds, most of the civilizations happened by means of invasions and bloody struggles. As a result, these interactions, took a long period to adopt, and effect to…. [read more]

Motivations for and Effects of European Colonialism Term Paper

… Motivations for and Effects of European Colonialism in Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa

From the 15th century onward, European colonization of Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa, respectively, was motivated by economic greed, and (to a lesser extent) by religious zeal on the part of European nations (e.g., Spain in particular) wishing to spread Christianity to "uncivilized" indigenous peoples. As a result of New World colonialism, Spanish influence, for example, is still strongly felt throughout the Americas today, and British; Dutch; French, and Portuguese influence is all still strongly evident within many parts of Africa. Widespread European colonization (and domination) of the two regions was, from the 15th century on, driven neither by intellectual curiosity nor any desire to help or learn from indigenous peoples, but…. [read more]

Muhammad Ali in Egypt Thesis

… But they took away, for five centuries, the possibility of an independent Arab-dom, and Arab nationalists bore them considerable ill-will for it[footnoteRef:13]. The only 'Arab' state conquered by the Turks which was not in irremediable decay, was the Mamluk state of Egypt and Syria[footnoteRef:14]. The Mamluks themselves were a dynasty of Turkish slaves; and in any case they afterwards succeeded, as did all the North African provinces, in enjoying internal autonomy under Ottoman suzerainty. The claim that the caliphate had been transmitted to the Ottoman sultans was made only late in the history of the Empire. It was as Turkish rulers that they held their power, and only secondarily (if at all) as vice-regents of the Prophet. They preserved and even sharpened the distinction between…. [read more]

Ottoman Early American Relationships to Religious Hierarchy Caliph Church of England Term Paper

… America and the Ottoman Empire

Currently, the United States and the Islamic world are at odds over many issues, and while the policy of the U.S. is to find ways of finding areas of agreement with Islamic countries, there are still basic differences between the two areas and the religions they support. Islam is a hierarchical religion, and to a great extent, the political and social realm in Islamic countries is also hierarchical. The U.S. is a democracy. One area of agreement is found I the origin of each society, for both came into existence as part of an effort to achieve religious freedom and to escape from religious oppression. The two have not always recognized this area of agreement, and in part have been…. [read more]

Ethnic Conflict Why Is Nationalism Relevant Research Paper

… Ethnic Conflict

Why is nationalism relevant to the experience of ethnic conflict? What are the main points Perlmutter highlights about nationalism and ethnic conflict? Which emotions does Moisi identify with specific regions of the world in his clash of emotions analysis?

There are mainly two forms of nationalism that states throughout the world have adopted. The first is civic nationalism that refers to viewing all citizens of a state as members of one nation. The United States is a prime example of a country that exhibits civic nationalism. The second is ethnic nationalism that is based on ethnicity. An example of a country exhibiting ethnic nationalism would be Turkey where the state has identified ethnic Kurds as Turks for the last eighty years, and this…. [read more]

German Imperial Colonialism Research Paper

… German Imperial Colonialism and the Holocaust

Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, Germany was focused on becoming a rival world power. This is because it was always striving to match the influence of many of the other European powers (most notably: Britain, France and Spain). These ambitions have deep historical roots. That date back to the very beginning of Germany after the fall of the Roman Empire. This is when Germany was a divided region and ruled by different tribes. They were united under Charlemagne (via the Frankish empire). This was the first time, the area known as modern day Germany was integrated as a single nation state. [footnoteRef:1] [1: Hagan Schulze, Germany (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998), 1-30]

The Frankish empire did not last…. [read more]

Playwright Israel Zangwill Is United Essay

… This is fascinating because while Muslim immigrants are deeply diverse of their national and ethnic backgrounds, hailing from as far east as Indonesia to as far west as Morocco, their experience especially in view of the events in recent memory has given them a special sense of unity and formed a superset of ethnicity. The broader Islamic culture militates against time honored American traditions and cultural icons. There is no alcohol involved. Muslims do not even eat the same meat as Americans following instead the Kosher traditions of their Semitic Jewish brethren. Pork is a big no! Muslim girls do not go to prom and are not allowed to date or intermingle with boys. Away from their traditional homelands, Muslims cling much more staunchly to…. [read more]

Israel Is a Country Caught Term Paper

… Israel is a country caught in multiple kinds of crossroads. The country is in the middle of the Middle East, an area fraught with tensions literally for millennia. The land currently called Israel has been fought over from Biblical times, and who should and should not be allowed to live on that land remains a topic of debate among some to this day. Many people are acutely aware of the long history of the region. Put the words "Israel" and "History" into GOOGLE, and the first two websites found trace Israel's history back to events in Genesis. Although some groups of people dispute that claim in important ways, the view Israel has of its history plays an important role in the historical events of the…. [read more]

Since 1500 a History of World Societies Term Paper

… ¶ … 1500 History of World Societies

European average income per person began to rise in comparison with the rest of the world beginning in about Answer:

1450 b. 1650 c. 1750 d. 1850

All of the following statements characterize world economic development in the 19th century except:

industrialization generated global inequity in wealth and power.

railroads drastically reduced transportation costs.

the opening of the Suez and Panama canals facilitated trade.

the world's leader in importing foreign goods was America.

All of the following technological innovations were crucial to European imperialist expansion in the late nineteenth century except:

the machine gun.

the telegraph.

c. quinine.

The airplane.

Causes of the so-called new imperialism (1880-1914) include all of the following except:


a. economic competition in…. [read more]

Are Indian-Israeli Relations Useful for India's National Interests? Thesis

… ¶ … Indian-Israeli Relations Valuable to India's National Interests?

Today, India stands at an important juncture in its historical development. Following its independence from Britain in 1948, the years that followed have been turbulent ones for India, with a relentless series of political, military and economic challenges confronting the country time and again. Despite these challenges, India has emerged in the 21st center as an increasingly important actor within the international community and has enjoyed steady economic growth for the past two decades. Notwithstanding its enormous geographic size and population, though, India continues to perceive a number of external threats, most especially with Pakistan over the Kashmir issue and relations with much of the Arab world that have often been ambivalent or even hostile. In…. [read more]

Islamic Civilization Term Paper

… In 619 A.D when his uncle passed away, the successors of the tribe refused to protect him and thus the next few years he feared for his lie. It wasn't until 621 A.D when pilgrims from Medina came for annual pilgrimage and acknowledged Muhammad as their prophet and invited him and those who followed him, to their city. Muhammad was a reformer who was committed to eliminate polytheism and further monotheism just as it was in Christianity and Judaism. After migrating to Medina several events took place. The migration to the city of Medina was known as the Hijrah and the Prophet lived there for 13 years, where he passed away and was buried after he made his final pilgrimage in 632 A.D. (Donner )…. [read more]

Middle East Term Paper

… Middle East

Discuss the difficulties faced by the Middle Eastern empires in adapting to the intellectual, technological, economic, political, and social challenges presented by the West in the 18th and 19th centuries.

The Middle Eastern empires had to adapt to the various challenges presented by the West in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries once it was clear that the balance of power in the affairs of the region had shifted to the West, meaning the powers in the West could be neither ignored nor controlled. By the end of the eighteenth century, the balance of power had shifted against the Ottoman Empire and toward the European Christian states. The Ottoman's had shown a progressive shift away from Europe and toward the East, and this was…. [read more]

Egyptian History Ancient Term Paper

… This end of the Old Kingdom Period can be thought of as the Golden Age of Egypt because all of the forces seen in Mann's IEMP Model were present to their greatest extent. After this period there were wars with powerful neighbors, longer periods of famine, the economy was not as reliable and other religions replaced the old religion in the minds of many. The late Old Kingdom saw the greatest growth in architecture, land accumulation, kingly power, political structure, academic achievement, and economic growth. Much of this is evidenced in the enormous building projects, especially in the burial tombs of the kings, that the government initiated. Many now believe that these projects were a form of welfare and public works initiated by the government…. [read more]

Compare and Contrast the End of the Roman Empire to Today Term Paper

… ¶ … Roman empire to today

The issue of the decline and fall of the Roman Empire is a source of fascination for both the broad public and the scholarly world. From a European perspective, the fall of the Empire can be regarded as the end of the Classical world as it brought about a decline in literacy, urbanism, and generally all the indicators of civilization. Roman civilization is seen as the golden age of art, literature and law, a period of flourishing culture and development. In fact, both European and non-European societies have adopted Roman architectural, sculptural and legal traditions. The founding fathers hoped that America would revive the virtues of ancient Rome, and would reinvent the Roman Empire under a new formula whose…. [read more]

Cyprus Problem Ancient History Establishment Dissertation

… This agreement forestalled actual admission as a British possession for a time; Cyprus remained under Turkish control while the British occupied the island for military purposes. The British performed the duty of protectorate nation until 1914 when, at the advent of the First World War, the island was "formally annexed" (U.S. State Department, 2011) by the United Kingdom. The island officially became a crown colony in 1925. During this time period many ethnic Turkish inhabitants left Cyprus for Turkey.

After the Second World War, there was great turmoil regarding who was to gain possession of the island. There remained a large number of Greek Cypriots who were the earliest inhabitants of the island, a smaller number of Turkish Cypriots who had remained during English occupation,…. [read more]

Papyri Inscriptions and Antique History Research Paper

… Papyrus

Rescued from the ravages of time, speaking the language of lost generations, evoking mystery and magic, the ancient papyrus records of Egypt and the Near East are embedded indelibly in the human consciousness just as their semantic meanings are etched permanently there and preserved for posterity. In 1902, Alfred Butler published a book entitled the Arab Conquest of Egypt and the Last Thirty Years of Roman Dominion, and this early historiography during the formative years of the twentieth century illustrated some of the challenges, problems, and potencies of studying the historical record of yonder years of papyrus printing. The "first fruits of spectacular recent papyrus finds were only just then becoming available to historians," according to the authors Sijpesteijn & Sundelin (2004) in Papyrology…. [read more]

History of Muslims in Europe and in the US Research Paper

… History of Muslims in Europe and in the U.S.

Islamophobia - the United States and the European continent

The Islam is at the moment one of the most important religious, cultural, and eventually political entities of the world today. According to studies made in 2009, it represents 23% of the global population of 6.9 billion people

Even so, there are numerous accounts in which the Muslim population is the subject of discrimination or political differentiation. At the moment, this entire phenomenon is defined as Islamophobia. The present paper addresses the issue of islamophobia from the perspective of the two most important regions where it developed and where is most visible. In this sense, the research takes into account the way in which the United States…. [read more]

Compare the Holocaust to Two Other State Sponsored Persecution of a Group of People Term Paper

… Genocide

Despite the fact that humans have been violently killing off humans since the beginning of civilization, the word "genocide," which encompasses that of "holocaust," did not exist before 1944. Raphael Lemkin, a Polish-Jewish attorney, who wanted to describe the Nazi policies of systematic murder, including the destruction of the European Jews, combined geno-, from the Greek word for race or tribe, with -cide, from the Latin word for killing. Lemkin saw it as "a coordinated plan of different actions aiming at the destruction of essential foundations of the life of national groups, with the aim of annihilating the groups themselves." On December 9, 1948, following the end of World War II and the horrors of the holocaust, the United Nations established the Convention on…. [read more]

Education of Abbasid Today Term Paper

… These palace schools also prepared children of rulers for higher education. Like the later town and palace schools in Renaissance Europe, they also taught students the arts of formal speaking and conversation, history, tradition, and ethics. The teachers of these schools were called mu'addi, which means "one who refines manners."

Arab women studied, practiced and taught medicine, mysticism, poetry, teaching, and oratory and even took active roles in military conflicts. However, due to false Arab stereotypes, women do not receive much credit for their accomplishments and contributions to Arab history.

In these early mosques, teachers did not follow a specific format or curriculum. Instead, teachers were allowed to teach freely and use a variety of methods of instruction. Some teachers would teach from a text…. [read more]

Southeast Asian Bamboo Flutes Dissertation

Traditional Southeast Asian Bamboo Flutes: Studies on Origins and History

The study investigates the bamboo flutes found in Southeast Asia, as well as their history and origin. The earliest known extant bamboo flute, a chi, or ancient Chinese flute, from the Zhou Dynasty, discovered in the tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng, dates from 433 BC. Southeast Asian bamboo flutes, diverse in shape and size, vary in the way musicians play them. During the ethnography, a qualitative study, the researcher utilizes an extensive literature review to explore the development of bamboo flutes in SEA and examines the link between these instruments and music, as well as traditions from and beyond Asia.

As the study focuses on the flutes from three main areas: Mainland…. [read more]

Song of Roland or La Chanson Term Paper

… ¶ … Song of Roland or La Chanson de Roland, whose author is unknown, is the greatest, oldest and a very popular medieval epic poem in French, believed to have been written between 1098 and 1100. It relates and presents events that supposedly happened several centuries earlier and during the reign of the Christian emperor Charlemagne (Crosland 1999) as a narrative that omits and ignores historical records. This study will investigate and analyze the epic as a literary work and as a propaganda material. It will explore its historical authenticity as well as establish its literary worth. Previous studies found that the first extant version was rewritten to inspire a holy war against the Muslims of Spain and that this finding is replicated today in…. [read more]

Islamic Technology Cultural and Construction Essay

… Another contribution from the Islamic world was its modifications to libraries. The libraries in Muslim countries had collections of ancient manuscripts that made the scientific discoveries of ancient cultures accessible. In addition, they introduced the public library and the ability to borrow books on loan, thus giving some the opportunity to increase their knowledge. Libraries also served as places to discuss scientific theories and discoveries, rendering science more understandable to the public. Finally, the organisation of books into categories and genres in a catalogue was first introduced in medieval Islamic libraries (Francoise 988 -- 91).

The Islamic Golden Age nourished public education by creating the university. The world's oldest university to grant diplomas is at Al-Karaouine in Morocco. No doubt different than European universities, the…. [read more]

History of Management of 12 Periods in Western Civilization Essay

… ¶ … management and leadership strategies were utilized by civilizations. Oftentimes, civilizations-based what services to provide and how to provide them to their citizens upon the particular needs of that particular civilization at that time. In this case, the vast majority of these societies existed long before there were terms or coursework offered in the management or leadership arena. Herein, beginning with Ancient Mesopotamia, this paper shall trek around the world to varying civilizations noting how the societies managed the particular needs of their citizens given the particular resources at hand and then figuring out how best to manage the particular needs of each country

Ancient Mesopotamia

Through the organizational behavior of the Sumerian priests and the leadership of Hammurabi, the Ancient World of Mesopotamia's…. [read more]

Historical Background Relationship and Contribution of 12 Periods in Western Civilization Essay

… ¶ … society as if it were essentially autonomous: There were the Egyptians, and the Greeks, and then the Romans, and so forth. But while, of course, there are core practices, habits, and beliefs -- and historical moments -- that set off these and other societies from each other, there are many key connections as well. Societies borrow from each other all the time; indeed, one might argue that the level of "borrowing" from one culture to the next arises to the level of grand larceny.

When one thinks about it, though, there is every reason for societies to borrow from each other in the same way that one generation learns from its predecessor, and passes on what it has learned. Some of what different…. [read more]

Anthropology Review and Critique: Gender Term Paper

… This again is the value of a book like this, giving worldly cultural perspective and knowledge to the student who lives in America.

NUMBER THREE: Articles dealing with male gender roles.

The essay by Gilbert H. Herdt discusses the role of males in the fascinating Third World culture of the Sambia mountain people in Papua New Guinea ("Rituals of Manhood: Male Initiation in Paupa New Guinea). Boys are removed from the nuclear family in the Sambia culture at seven to ten years of age, and kept in a "men's clubhouse" until marriage - because, as Herdt writes, "strict taboos based on beliefs about menstrual pollution" still keep boys and girls separate.

The uninitiated Westerner might, upon reading about "menstrual pollution," say well, don't these primitive…. [read more]

iran and saudi arabia proxy wars Research Paper

… The United States worked with religious leaders to foment a coup, thus planted the seed for the Iranian Revolution of 1979 ('Sunnis and Shia: Islam's Ancient Schism' 1). The Iranian Revolution had one of the biggest and most significant impacts in starting what are now the proxy wars between Iran and Saudi Arabia. Whereas before 1979, the Sunnis enjoyed near-complete control, the Revolution meant that Iran was going to wield power economically and politically, using religion as an important 'tool of power' (Koelbi, Shafy and Zand 1). Strategically forming religious ties with Shia groups scattered throughout the Gulf and other oil-producing regions, Iran started to exacerbate the sectarianism that was growing increasingly evident as wealth disparity grew. Oil fueled sectarianism, as Sunni governments grew fat…. [read more]

John Grierson the Documentary Film Developed Term Paper

… John Grierson

The documentary film developed alongside the narrative film, though largely during the sound era. It was shaped most profoundly during the 1930s as filmmakers began to record sociological an anthropological studies of different populations. Some of the early films were treated much as narrative films were and were widely released in theaters, achieving some popularity. In the early 1930s, this included such films as Nanook of the North and Moana, both by Robert Flaherty. These films were different not only because they presented real people in real situations but because they were filmed on real locations and not in studios. The silent film had sometimes gone outside the confines of the studio, but the advent of sound tied the camera to the soundstage…. [read more]

Tone in That it Is "A First Book Review

… ¶ … tone in that it is "a first attempt to gain a perspective on the discourses on women and gender at crucial, defining moments in Middle Eastern Muslim history (Ahmed, L., 1992, p. 4)." In other words, her history is the first to take into account women in Muslim history. The Koran speaks little about women as women and more as sinful annoyances that tempt men. Her book is meant to reverse this. In chapter 1, the treatment of women in Islam grows out of what was already there. Here, Ahmed states that "The subordination of women in the ancient Middle East appears to have become institutionalized with the rise of urban societies and with the rise of the archaic state in particular (ibid,…. [read more]

Nationalism and Martyrdom Symbolic Deaths in the American Revolution Thesis

… Nationalism and Martyrdom: Symbolic Deaths in the American Revolution

The symbolic and ceremonial importance attached to the American Revolution and its martyrs, due to the beliefs held within the 'Nationalism' of the patriots of the American Revolution did not extend to include the African-American martyrs of the American Revolution who also died for this cause. It is the belief of this writer that this is because the freedom and liberty sought by those who fought the American Revolution was for the freedom and liberty of the practice of the Christian religion solely and not for the purpose of religious freedom itself and that the African-American martyrs did not fit into the symbology and ceremony associated with the beliefs of those adhering to the Christian religion…. [read more]

Armenian Genocide Term Paper

… Armenian Genocide, Turkish Excuses

Children dead or dying in the street. Trenches filled with corpses. Thousands of villages destroyed. The countryside cleared of its inhabitants. A people herded into concentration camps. Organized terror. Foreign diplomats look on and do nothing. A government at war is protecting itself from the ravages of the enemy within... Or so it claims. These are not scenes from Iraq, or Darfur, nor are they images of the horror of the Jewish Holocaust carried out by the Nazis in conjunction with the Second World War.

Man's inhumanity to man has a long history. This nightmare dates to an earlier "war to end all wars," - the first war to be so called. In 1914, an Austrian archduke was assassinated at Sarajevo,…. [read more]

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