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Psychology Master's Degree: Methodology Degree Concentration Term Paper

… Psychology Master's Degree: Methodology

Degree Concentration:
Master of Sciences in Interdisciplinary Studies with a concentration in
Psychology

Degree Rationale:
By establishing a base education in Psychology that is centered in
interdisciplinary contexts, I anticipate creating a wide array of
opportunities for participation in practice, research or instruction which
can incorporate any number of scholastic subjects. For instance, though my
attention will be on issues derived from the discipline of abnormal
psychology, the courses which I intend to pursue will present me with a
greater understanding of the correlation between psychological disorders
and a host of other subjects themselves justifying a full course of study.

For instance, the relationship between psychology and morality is something
which will be of great interest as I proceed in my…. [read more]


Cognitive Social Learning Theory Research Paper

… Cognitive Social Learning Theory

Social learning theories came into sight along with behavior and learning tradition. These theories were well-demonstrated by three renowned psychologists i.e. Albert Bandura, Julian Rotter and Walter Mischel. However, the three great theorists have not followed the reactive mechanical model of behavior introduced by Skinner who has viewed the individual/person as an agent or instigator of experience. Instead, they have reestablished internal cognitive variables including a person's "subjective interpretation of the environment, into the stimulus-response formula (S-R)" (Engler, 2009).

Albert Bandura was the one who developed social cognitive theory as "a versatile model of psychosocial functioning that highlights the human capacity for self-regulation" (Lent & Brown, 1996). It was a framework for the analysis of human stimulus, thinking, and act and…. [read more]


Psychology Forrest Gump Term Paper

… Psychology

Forrest Gump

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze the film Forrest Gump, directed by Robert Zemeckis. Specifically it will examine the character of Forrest Gump as it relates to human development and psychology. Forrest Gump's character in the film displays several characteristics of psychology, including emotion (Forrest is always emotional and demonstrative), naivete (his innocence is part of his charm), adult development (he matures, but not mentally), limited IQ, behavior and adaptation (he adapts to situations around him with ease). He also displays learning and conditioning (he learns from his mother's wisdom and his experiences), and of course, personality and social and moral development (as he matures he sees the world around him for what it is, and accepts it).…. [read more]


Psychology - Personality Psychoanalysis, Humanism and Existentialism Term Paper

… Psychology - Personality

PSYCHOANALYSIS, HUMANISM and EXISTENTIALISM

Psychoanalysis:

Classical psychoanalysis originated with Sigmund Freud in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. According to Freud, much of outward human behavior is, in fact, driven by completely subconscious urges and fears and repressed emotions. Freud also considered the sexual urge as a major motivation in human behavior and emphasized the importance of the parent-child relationship as the source of psychological difficulties in adulthood. The psychoanalytic method introduced by Freud consisted of conversations between therapist and patient wherein the therapist sought clues to the patient's medical complaints in the subconscious memories of the patient.

The foundational basis of Freud's psychoanalytic approach is that the human mind protects the individual from troubling emotions by suppressing potentially traumatic experiences…. [read more]


Child Psychology Child Development Term Paper

… Child Psychology

Child development is a constantly changing psycho/social discipline with almost countless theories associated with it. The fundamental nature of children and how they develop to become either successful adults or unsuccessful adults to varying degrees is the essential question of the future and therefore the study of child development is a mass of information encompassing theories of all kinds regarding physical, cognitive, personality, moral, social-emotional, identity, and spiritual development of individuals at all points encompassing what we know as childhood. Additionally, this mass of ideas constitutes a collection of many structured theories about all kinds of development. This work will attempt to give an overview of the history of old and emerging child development theories in all their changing perspectives. This work will…. [read more]


Moral or Ethical Difference if the $11 Essay

… ¶ … moral or ethical difference if the $11 savings had been passed on to Ford's customers? Could a rational customer have chosen to save $11 and risk the more dangerous gas tank? Would that have been similar to making air bags optional? What if Ford had told potential customers about its decision?

In an effort to under-price the competition in the increasingly cutthroat automobile industry, under the leadership of Lee Iacocca, Ford cut many corners when designing their newest model, the Ford Pinto. Although design engineers had reported that the alternate placement of the gas tank was a time bomb waiting to happen, Ford stuck with its "under $2,000, under 2000 pounds" initiative and went ahead with the design as planned. Their blunder was…. [read more]


Humanistic Psychology Today, People See Term Paper

… Humanistic Psychology

Today, people see a wide variety of psychologists and psychiatrists for their mental healthcare needs. Although all of these professionals have the same goal of providing the psychological care the clients/patients require, they use different approaches.

The value of different methodology offers people a wide choice in care, since individuals respond better to some approaches than others.

Toward the middle of the 20th century, psychologists such as Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers and Anthony Sutich criticized the mainstream psychology schools for "providing a diminished model of human nature" (Moss, 2001, p. 5). American psychology was dominated by the two ideologies behaviorism and psychoanalysis, and neither fully dealt with personal values, intentions and meaning as elements in conscious existence. Humanistic psychology was founded with a…. [read more]


Moral Dilemma Term Paper

… moral dilemmas saw Julie at a club and she was with a boy other than her boyfriend John. They were kissing and it was obvious she was cheating on him. I knew better than to say something but John is also my friend and he asked me directly whether or not I saw Julie with Garth at the club. He told me that someone saw them together and wanted to hear a second witness's opinion before confronting Julie. I was stuck, torn between my loyalty to two of my best friends. I had known both since high school.

The way I resolved this moral dilemma would have been described both by Kohlberg and by Gilligan as being postconventional. Demonstrating a mature level of moral reasoning…. [read more]


Social Psychology 2nd Morality Term Paper

… Specifically, the research question was to see if competence, when examined alongside morality, might affect ingroup behaviors and the perceived level of threats for individuals within the group.

Study Design

This transition in the design of the study resulted in the researchers once again showing an image of an Italian and an Indian male, and presenting the participants with a variety of information about this individual pertaining either to his morality or competence -- from low scores in these two qualities to high scores. The research design, therefore, was well suited to study the effects of both morality and competence. However, by continuing to utilize the picture of an individual who was different from the 165 participants in this study, the researchers again inadvertently incurred…. [read more]


Moral Philosophy Can Desires Research Paper

… Which type of foundation for such duties do you find more convincing? Why?

Kant deems that certain forms of actions such as theft, lying and murder are extremely prohibited even in situations where such actions would lead to happiness. The wrongness or rightness of activities neither does nor rely on their upshots, but rather on the duty they fulfill. According to Kant, Categorical Imperatives determine moral duties. Imperative refers to a command, and hence categorical imperatives command unconditionally. Categorical imperative is one of the basic struts of Kantian ethics. Kant maintains that imperatives or rule can be categorical or hypothetical. Categorical rules are binding, and they simply suggest that logic would drive the will of all practical beings to accept an imperative. Rules against murders…. [read more]


Moral Theology Term Paper

… Moral Theology

In today's economically driven world where the placement of focus and personal achievement is determined by the size of one's bank account or net worth, churches and theologians have had to come to issue with how one can balance a traditionally moral life in today's often immoral world. Out of this struggle arose the theories of economic justice and financial responsibility. The essence of these combinations is to bring traditional moral values into economics, thus allowing one to live a moral life through the proper use of their wealth.

Yet even within this basic idea of coordinating morals with wealth arise questions of morals. For instance, using one's personal financial success to assist those who are less fortunate is, at least at first…. [read more]


Personality Theories in Psychology Essay

… For Freud's patients, the goal of psychoanalysis was to help mitigate some of these feelings and reconcile some of the differences between the id and the superego. Of course, human beings were able to reconcile these competing differences before the advent of psychoanalysis. They did so in a number of ways, which Freud referred to as defense mechanisms. Defense mechanisms are subconscious ways that a person deals with the tension between the id and the superego. These defense mechanisms include: compensation, denial, displacement, fantasy, intellectualization, projection, rationalization, reaction formation, regression, repression, and sublimation (See generally Freud, 1989).

There are certainly numerous flaws in Freud's theory. First, he was working in a repressive time which did not allow him to focus more effort on uncovering the…. [read more]


Milgram Obedience, Morality Research Paper

… According to Zeigler-Hill et al., "individuals who were the most reluctant to obey the commands of the experimenter to continue with the procedure were those with low levels of neuroticism who reported the highest levels of negative affect during the session. This suggests that our procedure may offer a relatively benign means for examining the mechanisms underlying destructive obedience as well as individual differences in the willingness to obey authority." (Zeigler-Hill et al., p. 161)

Conclusion:

This research strategy above shows that Milgram's experiments were indeed groundbreaking and crucial to our understanding of human hierarchies and morality. Though the state of research experimentation was in a state of evolution during Milgram's time, the refinement of research procedures and ethical standards allows us to view Milgram's…. [read more]


Sociocognitive Metaphors Constraints Essay

… Sociocognitive Metaphors

Constraints on Sociocognitive Metaphors

What prompts people to describe aspects of their interpersonal relationships with terms such as "warm" and "close" and others as "cold" and "distant"? Why are individuals inclined to place "more powerful others higher and less powerful others lower in hierarchical structures?" (IJzerman & Koole, 2011). What is meant when individuals engage in a "heavy" discussion? And why do individuals refer to behavior determined to be morally reprehensible as "dirty"? Are these just figures of speech or is there a greater psychological significance to the connectivity between perceptual dimensions, such as temperature, weight, cleanliness, verticality, and abstract constructs?

Inquiries regarding the grounding of social cognition in sensorimotor systems have become the focus of increased theoretical and empirical efforts over the…. [read more]


Child Psychology Term Paper

… Child Psychology

DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES

The nature vs. nurture theory has been around since time immemorial. Academicians and great thinkers alike had been baffled by the mysteries of the human mind and the human being himself. So great is the mystery of God's most precious creature that various disciplines were established just to solve the mystery. There is Anatomy that studies the matter of man, in its gross and histologic level. Then Biochemistry that studies man down to its molecular form. Physiology goes about how the human body survives. Then Psychiatry that deals with the human mind and its interaction with drugs, and its sister Psychology that study the human behavior.

Developmental psychology is a branch of psychology that is considered one of the most interesting.…. [read more]


My Personal Theory of Counseling Term Paper

… Psychology Counseling

One thing that is so important in counseling is being able to see things through the eyes of one's clients. In fact you could consider it an empathetic way of thinking. When a client comes to the counselor with a concern, it is the job of the counselor to devise a way to help each client. First, they (the counselor) must be able to see the situation i.e. The concern or difficulty for what it is and be able to devise a course of action that is useful for each client. If I were a counselor, this is exactly what I would do. I would you my ability to be an empathetic listener to understand the situation from the view of the client,…. [read more]


Psychology of Happiness Essay

… This sense of nobleness is the outcome of our belief in good and bad. Every religion advocates that animalistic natures within an individual is to be controlled in order to get himself engaged in ethical, just and moral behavior (Wright, 2011).

Aristole's writings are considered as those which have great influence on the mindset of the Western society and civilization. In his work Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle has significantly explored the ideas related to moral values, God, character and happiness. He has debated a number of issues related to the mentioned subject areas. Moral virtue has been defined by him as an outlook to conduct oneself in the desirable way and as a representation of extremes of insufficiency and surplus both of which are considered as…. [read more]


Social Psychology of Gender-Based Sex Roles Term Paper

… Social Psychology of Gender-Based Sex Roles and Romantic Love in American Society

Different human societies define romantic love according to specific cultural beliefs about gender-based sex roles and social mores about sexual expression. In the United States (and much of the Western part or the world), these cultural values include a marked difference in the sexual behavior expected of males and females. Unlike many other culturally-defined values, gender-based sex roles are not generally taught explicitly; rather, they are more likely transmitted informally and learned within peer groups of every age. Even before puberty, social conditioning emphasizes sexual promiscuity as a major component of male self-esteem while preaching the complete opposite value - of chastity - for women (Baker & Elliston 2002).

This disparity in sexual…. [read more]


Social Skills in Alternative Education Term Paper

… social skills in alternative education: REQUIRED SOCIAL SKILLS of CHILDREN in ALTERNATIVE EDUCATION COURSES

The aims and objectives of this research proposal are focused toward understanding the requirement of social skills specifically for children who are placed in alternative education courses. Certainly, there must exist most specifically within the attentive education environment a requirement that children in these classrooms be capable of tolerance related to the individual differences of other children in this education environment, which is inclusive in nature. This works seeks to make identification of the specific characteristics or social skills required of children in alternative education environments.

METHODOLOGY

The methodology employed in this study is of a qualitative nature, which is held by experts and scholars to be appropriate in studying social…. [read more]


Comparison of the Social Sciences Research Paper

… ¶ … Social Sciences

Background- for centuries, philosophers have puzzled the human condition. Questions abound about why humans act the way they do, why they form groups, what role cultural and social norms have for learning, how societies form, the nature of society, social change, and the way integration and alienation fit in with modern societies. In particular, the changes in urbanization and technology, and access to other cultures, spurred even more study of what it means to be human. Together, these paradigms form a notion of human history in which theories have tried to explain different aspects of human behavior and interaction. We now call the study of society and human behavior social science; a more umbrella term that refers to a number of…. [read more]


Moral Licensing and Morality Term Paper

… Instead, it is an unrelated pro-social behavior. The hypothesis was that the moral licensing would make participants less likely to volunteer, and this hypothesis. What that suggests is that moral licensing has an umbrella effect; so that behavior that is seen as pro-social in one arena can lead to later negative behaviors in other arenas.

This research, like prior research in the field, challenges some of the deeply held assumptions about moral behavior. The general cultural approach has been that requiring people to engage in pro-social behavior would promote more positive behavior. On the contrary, requiring people to engage in pro-social behavior may actually encourage them to engage in negative behavior. The implications of this research could have a significant cultural impact. For example, many…. [read more]


Kohlberg's Theory Term Paper

… Psychology

Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development

Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development is a cornerstone of our understanding of moral development. In the tradition of Piaget, Kohlberg proposed that children form their ways of thinking -- including their moral reasoning -- through their experiences during development. Thus, moral development and reasoning is a function of the usual childhood development and lies well within the realm of psychology. Born in 1927, Kohlberg cemented his theories on childhood moral development in the late 1950s and early 1960s, making a significant contribution to our overall understanding of moral reasoning and its place in the developmental process (Crain, 1985).

Kohlberg's theory of moral development is built on a foundation of Jean Piaget's own work on the question of moral…. [read more]


Specific Mental Disorder Analysis: Cluster B Personality Research Paper

… There are a number of methods through which the health of these patients can be improved by the family physicians. Some of these methods are pharmacotherapy, brief interventions and psychotherapy. There are three clusters that the personality disorders are divided into, these are A, B and C. Schizoid, paranoid and schizotypal personality disorders are included in cluster A; antisocial, borderline, narcissistic and histrionic personality disorders are included in cluster B; whereas, avoidant, obsessive-compulsive and dependent personality disorders are included in cluster C and this cluster has been noticed to be a lot more prevalent than the rest of the two clusters. Family physicians can treat majority of the patients who suffer from these disorders. Omega-3 fatty acids, mood stabilizer as well as 2nd generation antipsychotics…. [read more]


Ethics in Psychology Academic Fraud Term Paper

… Academic Fraud - Psychology

Ethics in Psychology: Academic Fraud

A Notorious Case of Academic Fraud

This paper discusses the "notorious" case of academic fraud by Sir Cyril Lodowic Burt as presented by Beloff (1980). The research will focus on the ethical problem presented, the ethical principles breached according to the Australian codes of ethics, the motives and justifications of a commitment of this breach, justification for such actions and solutions for dealing with instances of academic fraud such as this one. While a brief discourse on the case of Sir Cyril will be provided, the primary purpose of the case is to address motives and justifications for academic breach, and actions or solutions to such cases that academic institutions can implement to prevent fraud from…. [read more]


Life History Case Study

… Developmental Psychology

Abraham Maslow

Maslow was a 20th century thinker based in New York. He developed his famous hierarchy of needs in order to try and encapsulate the underlying processes that drive human development.

It is appropriate to envision Maslow's hierarchy as a pyramid with several progressive levels of human desires, with the base level the most prevalent and superficially essential, and the tip of self-actualization hardest to balance.

Step one in the hierarchy is physiological needs. These are needs we share with animals and are biological imperatives, pursued without thought. Included on this level is the need for oxygen, water, and other vitamins and minerals. Further, there's the need to sleep, avoid pain, get rid of wastes, and have sex. It is only once…. [read more]


Hot Seat an Ethical Decision-Making Simulation Article Review

… ¶ … hot seat; an ethical decision-making simulation for counseling students," authored by Frame, Flanagan, Frederick, Gold and Harris (1997). The main concern of the article is to demonstrate how a counseling ethics computer simulation tool may influence students' consideration of their actions in a realistic ethical counseling dilemmas and how decision-making processes are influenced. Classroom debriefing activities are used to help students improve ethical decision making, on the other hand, the simulation provides ethical decision-making practice and helps students acknowledge the ethical dimensions of their future roles as professional counselors.

The main themes of the article are: computer-based training, counseling, ethics, and simulation, decision-making. The article starts from the premise that "in a world with multiple perspectives on what is the right thing to…. [read more]


Psychological the Most Creative Person Term Paper

… Psychological

The most creative person I know is my friend, Clinton. He is a graphic artist but also does some prop design and animation. His work style is very different than that of my less creative friends. He is very deliberate in his actions. When he gets an idea about some project, he will research and prepare before he starts anything. He loves to brainstorm about projects and write down different ideas - he calls it "blue skying." He will He has the ability to look at a problem and see it from many different angles and with many different solutions. He has the ability to move forward in whatever project he is working on with a lot of confidence and very little concern regarding…. [read more]


Pedophilia - Efficacy of Combination Therapy Term Paper

… Pedophilia - Efficacy of Combination Therapy Using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Combination with SSRIs for Treating Therapy-Resistant Pedophilic Behaviors

Pedophilia demonstrates a higher recidivism rate when compared to other sexual offenses. Pedophilia does not respond well to traditional treatment programs. The primary reason for this lack of response lies in the willingness of the pedophile to change their behavior. Unlike other sexual offenses, pedophilia involves cultural issues that could affect the willingness of pedophiles to change their behaviors. This study investigates the long-term recidivism rates among pedophiles that have undergone four of the most prevalent treatments available. The study compared groups that received group therapy, cognitive therapy, SSRIs and Chemical castration. It compared single therapies, as well as a number of combinations. The study indicated…. [read more]


Leadership in Professional Counseling Term Paper

… Leadership in Professional Counseling

Look at the history of what is required in Professional Counseling:

The State of Wisconsin's Department of Regulation & Licensing defines professional counseling as: "Applying a combination of human development, rehabilitation and either psychosocial or psychotherapeutic principals, procedures or services that integrate a wellness, pathology and multicultural model of human behavior." A professional counselor works with families, groups of individuals, an individual couple, an individual, an organization, the Wisconsin Web site explains; and the counseling service is designed to achieve "mental, emotional, physical, social, moral, educational, spiritual, vocational or career development and adjustment" through the entire life span of the person or group being helped.

The Pennsylvania Counseling Association, meanwhile, points out that the minimum degrees necessary for a license are…. [read more]


Enlightenment Ideas Challenged Term Paper

… Enlightenment Ideas Challenged

The philosophers shared the Newtonian belief that the universe is a machine governed by simple mathematical laws, a machine whose constituent parts (matter, energy, space, and time) are the same absolute and unchanging realities that we experience in everyday life. How was this belief undermined by Albert Einstein and Werner Heisenberg's theories?

Werner Heisenberg stated that contrary to Newton's assumption that the natural laws that governed the real world existed independently of human observation, concepts like the predictable orbits of electrons did not really exist until humans observed those orbits (Cassidy, 2006). No one can really know the precise position and momentum of a particle at a given instant, so the particle's future cannot be determined exactly, only guessed at over a…. [read more]

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