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Socialization and Societal Institutions: Essentials of Sociology Essay

… ¶ … Sociology: Socialization and Societal Institutions

Norms: These are customary rules that influence the behavior of a particular group of people. According to Henslin (2007), norms are used to judge whether certain behaviors are appropriate or inappropriate.

Values: These are the beliefs and ideas that are considered important and special.

These are procedures and guidelines that are set by, and enforced through different social institutions with the aim of directing the behaviors and interactions of a people.

Mores: According to Henslin (2007), William G. Sumner came up with this term, which defines the most fundamental beliefs and ideas of what is considered right and wrong, and whose violation is considered a moral sin.

Folkways: These are rules that a group of people should follow.…. [read more]

Social Order: Institutions, Socializations Essay

… This leads the individual to behave artificially in a sense, as he feels compelled to emphasize certain actions instead of just behaving naturally. The process of dramatic realization


Goffman's dramaturgical approach also explains the socialization of individuals and the manner in which they perform their social roles. Socialization occurs often, but not always, because of the individual's natural self-interest and the desire for the benefits of societal approval. (46-47). Goffman provides the example of the tourist island town of Shetland, where the employees of a hotel, after initial cynicism about the artificial lifestyle they were expected exhibit for the tourists, slowly began to change their attitude as a result of increased prosperity from the tourism industry (48). According to Goffman, they became "enamored of…. [read more]

Personal Socialization Project Term Paper

… Personal Socialization Project

The objective of this work is to take the discussion about race and apply them in the life of the researcher of this project. This work will address the question if "what is race" and "what purpose does the concept of race serve in contemporary society?" Further, this work will relate what the researcher learned about race and ethnicity and from whom was this learned and in what manner were these instructions given? The experiential knowledge of the researcher relating to educational institutions will be related and finally the consequences of having held this particular view will be related.

"Measuring Race and Ethnicity: Why and How?" states the fact: "Race and ethnicity are constantly evolving concepts, deceptively easy to measure and used…. [read more]

Societal Changes Essay

… S. without ever leaving the comfort of their homes. As dad further point out, the internet has also brought with itself "unimaginable convenience." Today, it is possible to do banking, pay utility bills, and even book movie tickets from your office desk. In dad's own words, "…three decades ago, no one could have even dreamt of these possibilities."

I agree with dad's assertion that the growth of the internet is one of the most important changes that has taken place in the society in recent times. This is more so the case given that such an assertion is coming from a person who was there long before the internet revolution. Apart from easing our access to information, the internet has also made communication quicker and…. [read more]

Functionalism in Sociology the History Term Paper

… In terms of the need for stability the analogy between society and an organism therefore aimed at a situation of homeostasis where " ... social systems work to maintain equilibrium and to return to it after external shocks disturb the balance among social institutions. "(FUNCTIONALISM)

This state of order and social equilibrium is achieved through the socialization process. This means that in order for an institution to function correctly the members of the society must be socialized into or internalize the various norms and values of the institution. This also leads to another significant functionalist concept which is the consensus value that socialization creates. Consensus value is the agreement of the individuals as to the values of the society. "Functionalist analyses often focus on the…. [read more]

Gender Sociology Term Paper

… Gender and Society

The Biologically-Based Gender Argument

There are many biological arguments regarding gender. While controversial at best there are many proponents of the biological perspective on gender differentiation. Biological research suggests that gender is innate. Male homosexuals for example often argue that gender is inborn (Kimmel, 2000). The primary support biological research lends tends to explain the differences between men and women from an anatomical and biological viewpoint. The primary biological viewpoint suggests that biological differences may provide the "raw materials" individuals use to create their identities within a society (Kimmel, 45). While many people want to believe that gender differences can be easily traced to biology it is difficult to prove. Biological studies support the idea that the basic "building blocks of experience…. [read more]

Education Sociology Term Paper

… Education

Sociology and Education

While all three of the major sociological paradigms of the 20th century have provided valuable insight in the ways that education shapes human life and society, ultimately it is the theory of symbolic interactionalism that offers the most liberating and positive view of the human mind for educators today. Education may be defined as the systematic transmission by professional educators of formalized skills -- but how a sociological theory defines professionalism, and what skills it deems necessary for an individual to learn varies widely, depending on the philosophical bent of the theorist or, for that matter, the politician deciding educational policy and funding. The paradigm's view of the student and his or her mind likewise impacts the nature of how a…. [read more]

Sociological Theories Have Helped Widen Essay

… The theory posits that different component that form the society must have shared values and consensus and that social stability and prosperity can only be realized through this (Teevan & Edward, 2005). Conflict theory to the contrary focuses on inequality in the society and social control. Functionalism theory views the family as a single unit a view that is alien to conflict theory.

Functionalism and conflict theories are similar because they find the origin of social behaviors from the social structures. According to functionalism theory, individuals have fixed social roles something that is very important to the functioning of the society (Teevan & Edward, 2005).

The three sociological theories affect the views of the society as they help examine various behaviors in the society, how…. [read more]

Same-Sex Marriage in Sociological Context Term Paper

… Same-Sex Marriage in Sociological Context

Same-sex marriage has recently emerged as one of the more important and definitional issues in the current U.S. presidential race. In many respects, the emerging pattern of public opinion about same-sex marriage mirrors the mid-20th century controversy surrounding interracial marriage and, more generally, racial equality issues that were the main focus of the 1960s civil rights movement in the U.S. To date, structural-functionalist elements have dominated the legal definition of marriage and the status of married people in American society. Meanwhile, the same-sex marriage issue highlights the most important limitations or criticisms of the structural-functionalist approach. Likewise, while the issue also represents elements of conflict theory, it demonstrates the principle flaw in conflict theory as a predominant macro-sociological framework for…. [read more]

Juveniles Since Biblical Times Term Paper

… Social Forces, Vol. 75, No. 4, Jun 1997. 1,239-69 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina

Akers, R.L. (1973). Law and Control in Society. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Bartol, C., & Bartol, A. (2005). Criminal Behavior: A Psychosocial Approach. (7th Ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall

Juvenile justice panel (2009) Retrieved from:

McCord, J. And Conway, P. (2010). 'Patterns of Juvenile Delinquency and Co-Offending'. In: Waring R, Weisburd D, editors. Crime and Social Organization. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers; 2002. p. 15-30

Puzzanchera, C. (2010) U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Juvenile Arrests 2008

1 I.K. Ben-Amos, Adolescence and Youth in Early Modern English Society (New Haven, 1994).

2. Hugh Cunningham, Children and Childhood in Western Society…. [read more]

Class Status and Power Thesis

… ¶ … Status, and Power

Mass media is one of the most powerful forces shaping public consciousness. In the United States, people spend approximately 30 hours per week watching television (Mantsios 99), and a considerable amount of their time going to the movies, reading newspapers, or listening to the radio. There is a wide consensus on the influence that media exerts on society. To a great extent, this consensus dates back to the interwar period, when many researchers, irrespective of political ideology, subscribed that the media exercised a powerful influence. In fact, it was during this period that the new technology of the rotary press was developed; this led to an unprecedented increase in mass audiences. Also, urbanization and industrialization had generated a society that…. [read more]

English Language Acquisition Among Latino Immigrants Literature Review

… ¶ … Connected Immigrant Communities

Chaney (2010) reports that there has been a large influx of Hispanic immigrants to Nashville, Tennessee over the last two decades. This large number of immigrants to the area has led to the establishment of an ethnic enclave in the community. The proliferation of Hispanic organizations, churches, and other community elements is the evidence for enclave development. This development of the enclave has enabled Hispanic immigrants to operate and live entirely within the Hispanic dominated environment, which include the primary use of Spanish as the main language of communication. Chaney notes that the enclave environment reduces the involvement of Hispanics into the larger English-speaking American culture environment, which in turn slows down the acquisition of the English language among Hispanic…. [read more]

Author Present a View of Society Thesis

… ¶ … Society

Does the author present a view of society?

The author does present a number of competing views of society - with the focus on the interpretivist view of social interaction. Interpretivism refers to the theoretical stance or view that culture and context are central determining factors that need to be understood if one is to truly understand a particular culture. This view is contrasted with more quantitative and objectivist theories about the nature of society - such as the functionalist and Marxist views.

However, the author stresses that the subjective view or the qualitative analysis of society and culture and institutions like schools are essentials if one is to understand the culture and the school. This argument is underlined by the view…. [read more]

Scott 2003 Thesis

… Hall 2003

Scott (2003) offers definitions associated with three perspectives: a rational system definition (which focuses on normative structures), a natural system definition (which focuses on behavioral structure) and an open system definition (which focuses on organizations as component in large system of relation). Which of the three definitions is most helpful in understanding an organization?

In his article regarding organizational structure, Hall suggests that organizations are becoming an increasingly studied subject by a variety of disciplines, as they are extraordinarily important to a variety of cultural and sociological studies and implications. Whether they function as independent organisms, miniscule models of society, or highly formalized institutions, organizations can be classified under a variety of theoretical systems. Hall uses three definitions to discuss the differing views…. [read more]

Human Development in the Environment Term Paper

… ¶ … Asher Lev

Just as one can develop a sociological analysis of the development of a person in the environment in which he or she was raised and make certain judgments about what influenced that development and how, so can one do the same thing with a fictional character, assuming the author has provide sufficient data that can be used for this purpose. A novel that is detailed enough to make such an analysis and that also involves an interesting milieu in which the central character is raised is My Name Is Asher Lev by Potok (2003).

Lev is a fully developed character living in a community that is largely unfamiliar to most Americans, the Ladover Hassidic community in Brooklyn. This is a highly…. [read more]

Friedberg 2001 Thesis

… ¶ … limits to behavioral freedom for an adult educator within an organization?

When an adult educator must work within the confines of a specific organization, there are naturally going to be limits on what that person can do from a behavioral standpoint. Some of these also extend out to the community, as people who are in charge of others, especially in the education field, often find that they are held to a higher standard than the people who are not in charge of other individuals in that same type of way. There is a lot of bureaucracy in many organizations, and when this is the case it is often difficult for a person to 'be themselves.' He or she has to limit things like…. [read more]

Gun Control as a Social Problem Research Proposal

… Gun Control as a Social Problem

A recent report in the Washington Post states the following:

More than 4,000 children and teenagers are killed by guns every year in the United States. That tragedy is drawing thousands of marchers to Washington this week. The organizers, who are calling the Mother's Day event the Million Mom March, want stricter gun laws. They say new laws would mean that fewer children -- and adults -- would be hurt or killed ( Shen).

In this context, the calls for stricter gun control laws are therefore not seen as an individual problem but as a social issue that threatens the safety and well-being of the community and which requires action from the leadership and governance of the society.

However,…. [read more]

Long-Distance Learning and Online Thesis

… Distance and Net-Based Learning

Describe and explain in how far distance learning and Net-based learning are likely to change learning at universities drastically.

Just about everyone agrees that Net-based learning represents a more advanced from of learning than previous distance learning efforts and that the Net will therefore have a much more significant impact on the ways courses are developed and taught and the way students learn. Some even wonder if traditional campuses will continue to serve a viable purpose in just a few years time. However, while Net-based learning is likely to revolutionize education, it is unlikely to usurp brick-and-mortar campuses.

The Net will change the learning styles of students as well as how and who they communicate with. Net-based learning using skills such…. [read more]

Individual Identity Essay

… Individuality

Individual Identity is Almost Entirely the Product of Social Structure

The question of individual identity has been debated by scholars for centuries. The question of whether the self derives from society, exists independent of society, or co-exists as an operator of and within society, continues to be the focus of many scholarly discussions and debates. Is there a social structure without individual identity? And can individual identity be defined and exist absent the social structure as a contextual frame of reference? It is possible that the self and society or social structure act in symbiotic relationship to each other; influenced by each other, however, influencing each other as well. Moreover, one cannot exist in total absentia of the other nor parallel to each other…. [read more]

Parents Involvement in Early Childhood Education Research Proposal

… Parents Involvement in Early Childhood Education

Action Research Outline

Description of Community

Description of Work Settings

Problem Description

Problem Documentation

Causative Analysis

Outcomes and Evaluation

Expected Outcomes

Description of Selected Solutions

Improving the success rate of students with uninvolved parents in their education is important. This research is designed to improve the success rate of parents' involvement in their children's early childhood education. The researcher found that 50 of the 100 students in the preschool whose parents do not communicate school and do not support children's education at home. These children are identified as slow learners and not getting ready for the next step of their education. Analysis of the data and a review of student portfolios and progress reports indicate 50 of the 100…. [read more]

Sociology and Feminist Theories Term Paper

… Of particular interest to the casual observer are the differences in relational dynamics and social interaction and perception between African-Americans and white Americans. African-American societies are by far one of the most dominant societies in the U.S., and have also been subject to different stereotypes and stigmas that have been existing for many years.

In fact, racial and gender differences are the most common forms of stratification that society tends to look in an individual. In the case of the American experience, African-American males are perceived differently by society as compared to white American males and females, as well as African-American females. In Myra and David Sadker's article entitled, "The Miseducation of Boys: Changing the Script," the authors discuss the significance of race and gender…. [read more]

Football and Society A- Sports Term Paper

… e. The observer is looking and recording behaviors, without the notice of the subjects under observation (techniques, 2004). This type of direct field observation has kept me aloof from becoming an active participant of the game itself and has helped be to record unbiased observations. Further, this form of direct observation has suggested a more detached and separate perspective of the subjects in concern. Moreover, this form of direct observation is more focused, precised and subject-oriented than a participant observation, in which I have to become the part of the match to obtain some physical data. I am simply observing the football match and the behavior of the players than trying to become immersed in the game. This method is less time consuming and less…. [read more]

Managing Diversity Is a Fact Research Paper

… 15). As Figiel and Kummel Sasser point out, companies are comprised of people and people have prejudices that cannot be easily erased. A third general problem for Diversity is the different attitudes of different cultures. For example, Rich and Mihalek discuss a study involving a fictional job applicant who lies on his resume and showing that different cultures may act differently when faced with ethical problems. Focusing on students in order to determine how they will eventually behave in the workplace, Rich and Mihalek found that minority students "felt much stronger than the non-minority students that the liar was preventing a more qualified person from getting the job...felt a stronger sense of loyalty to the university...are more sensitive to ethical transgressions by their peers and…. [read more]

Social and Economic History Term Paper

… " If the records accessed for this book are being interpreted correctly, the priests came with an organized plan to disrupt the cultures they found and they used the Pueblo people's culture to do it. They replaced cultural aspects with constructs of their own that were presented as being better.

Given the importance of gift giving in Pueblo society, how did the missionaries inject themselves and their gifts into native the calculus?

The missionaries had studied the Pueblo peoples and recognized the purpose of gift-giving was to establish lines of indebtedness between children and parents, between "juniors" and "seniors." Gifts were also part of power structures between leaders of various groups. By giving gifts, the missionaries began to break the traditional ties and create ties…. [read more]

Otto Peters Thesis

… Otto Peters (1997) Industrialized Teaching and Learning is as close to a chastisement of education, and certainly academics, for failing to recognize the potential for distance education and learning. For Peters, the lack of pedagogy on the subject arose out of academia's limited scope of impending change, and academics inability to think out of the box. Peters says that main stream institutions missed the boat by not taking seriously the trend towards distance education and learning. Academics continue to criticize distance education and learning instead of recognizing the opportunities that distance education and learning creates for professors, especially those whose work in teaching is highly sought by students, but limited by classroom and the commitment to a single institution. Peters says that distance education and…. [read more]

Spouse Are Beginning the Search for Good Term Paper

… ¶ … Spouse Are Beginning the Search for Good Preschool

Finding childcare for a small child can be a frightening experience not only for new parents but also for parents looking for the second or third etc. time. There are various ways of looking at the process. One process is by utilizing human development in order to view the process of findings suitable care for ones children. Vandell (2004), reports that child care research has made considerable progress in addressing questions about the effects of child care quality, the effects of amount and timing of early child care, and the effects of different types of care such as centers, child care homes, and relative care. The current paper is to discuss the process of locating…. [read more]

United Arab Emirates (UAE) Term Paper

… In the same way, by adopting a more modern approach to the status of women, UAE aims to provide a more Westernized, progressive society to the large number of foreigners working within its borders. Both Arab nationalism and UAE try to separate themselves from the world's negative view of Islam, which is often labeled as imperialist and reactionary. In the eyes of the world, Islamic states oppress ethnic and religious minorities and treat women as second-class citizens.

To combat these stereotypes, Arab nationalism and UAE try to promote the image of a new Arab state with a secular higher authority that is moving towards a more modern and progressive culture and society. However, in the end, Islam is a fundamental part of Arab identity. It…. [read more]

Professional Student Athlete the Raw Term Paper

… The NCAA argued in several court cases that it does not have to follow the Americans with Disabilities Act. After months of negotiation, the Department of Justice and NCAA signed an agreement in which the NCAA agrees to consider courses with special education designation. However, three cases over the summer raised new questions about whether the NCAA truly has changed its review process.

Recently several state Attorneys General established a committee to examine NCAA practices, prompted by complaints from educators in more than two dozen states. While no one questions the legitimacy of increasing standards, the NCAA is out of its jurisdiction in dictating high school course content. As a New York Times editorial concluded, "The NCAA should be promoting educational innovation, not obstructing it."…. [read more]

Functionalist Social Theory to Answer Essay

… I was at my son's football banquet yesterday and I bumped into to a friend of mine who use to play ball with us and we talked for almost 30 minutes about the basketball that we use to play on Wednesday when he was there.

Sport is both a constituent, and a constitutor, of the broader social context in which it isolated. It is a vehicle through which the forces and relations of societal power are covertly communicated and, if infrequently, explicitly challenged, to the benefit of some groups within society, yet to the detriment of others (Zirin, 2008, p. 29). Sport fans have a connection to their sports or sport teams because they represent their city, state and/or community. They watch their favorite team…. [read more]

Social Bodies Essay

… Foucault and the Current Discourse of Sexuality

The "History of Sexuality" as posited by Foucault, purportedly is an attempt to disprove the notion that westernized society has been inhibited and repressed sexually for centuries and that the notion of sexuality has become something determined unmentionable that is difficult to talk about (Patton 1998). Foucault argued that Western culture has for a long time been fixated on the notion of sexuality as a social convention resulting from a great deal of discourse, certainly making sexuality ubiquitous and seemingly appearing everywhere (McNay 1994). Foucault is described as politicizing sexuality and the role it has within the processes of the formation of self. Foucault bespeaks the notion of heterosexuality structuring and encoding individual's daily lives and that it…. [read more]

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