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Sociology Evolutionary Psychology Article Review

… Finally, we conclude by suggesting that mismatches between our evolved emotional responses and the novel modern environments in which they currently operate often lead to outcomes we can legitimately view as suboptimal.

They spend the article elaborating upon this main set or intersection of ideas and theories. Cultural messages throughout time have sent mixed messages about emotions. Evolutionary psychology can help explain how the paradox evolved and why all the advice regarding emotions is valid, not just half or some. They argue within the context of evolutionary psychology that humans have to embrace the paradoxical nature of emotions and learn how to sometimes let emotions take over and sometimes attempt to control them, yet always value and appreciate their validity. This article indirectly is a…. [read more]

Sociology Trey Parker and Matt Essay

… Burke & Banks (2012) point out that sensitivity to diversity is not about being "color blind" or about political correctness. Rather, it can be alright to use stereotypes in a comical manner so long as the underlying structures of racism are not present. This is why Matt Stone and Trey Parker frequently make fun of political correctness. The politically correct attitude is not necessarily one that fosters inclusiveness and egalitarian values. More often than not, political correctness prevents the sociological imagination from being actively engaged in the world.

The sociological imagination is only active when the individual applies it to the here and now. "Fat Butt and Pancake Head" challenges the viewer to step outside the boundaries of self and contemplate prevailing attitudes, beliefs, and…. [read more]

Fathers of Sociology Essay

… Spencer was also known for his defense of the natural rights perspective.

W.E.B. Du Bois' contributions to sociology may be more noteworthy than that of his predecessors, since Du Bois was probably the first major sociologist to investigate the impact of race and racism on American society. He began by conducting empirical inquiries into the conditions of blacks in America (Encyclopaedia Britannica, p.1). These studies were noteworthy for two reasons. First, they studied race in America. However, second, and perhaps more importantly for the science of sociology, they represented the first truly scientific approaches to sociology. Du Bois's motivation was not purely academic; he believed that social science could "provide the knowledge to solve the race problem" (Encyclopaedia Britannica, p.1). However, Du Bois eventually became…. [read more]

Sociology: Changing Societies Book Report

… A union leader in Washington, D.C., isn't a miner, but miner's groups are his reference group because he identifies so strongly with their needs and aspirations.

Primary groups refer to groups where a person received his or her first important lessons about life and social realities - most often, a typical primary group is the family. Individuals develop their self-concepts and their sense of themselves in a primary group. In a secondary group, such as the HR department at work, a person is less emotionally connected, and feels less totally included in the group's values and actions. A secondary group allows for roles to be played in order to carry out that group's utilitarian functions, whereas in a primary group, one's role is pretty much…. [read more]

Humanistic Psychology Research Proposal

… Humanistic Psychology


Psychologists found that a Third Force filled the void left by earlier approaches to understanding the workings of the human mind in its pursuit of genuine fulfillment and personal happiness. This Third Force centers on the unconditional worth of the individual, which guides him in his journey to optimal self-discovery and self-acceptance. But first, he must meet a hierarchy of needs likewise inherent in his body-soul combination. Meeting these, he reaches self-actualization. The Third Force, or humanist psychology, has achieved widespread acceptance and application to current-day disciplines.

Psychology is one of the youngest sciences, which developed into a formal discipline only in the late 19th century (Kassin, 2009). But its foundation pre-existed in the ancient past…. [read more]

Bandura, A. ). Moral Disengagement Annotated Bibliography

… The author asserts that human being "are agents of experiences rather than simply undergoers of experiences. The sensory, motor, and cerebral systems are tools people use to accomplish the tasks and goals that give meaning, direction, and satisfaction to their lives."

English, A.D. (1998). The Changing Face of War: Learning from History. Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press.

A discussion of the evolution of military philosophy in juxtaposition with parallel evolutions in societal development; author theorizes that military tactics and strategies reflect evolutionary change in societal mores. The book is divided into three distinct parts, each focusing on a different time period to examine the changes that have taken pace in military strategies over the decades. The third part appeared most interesting since it relates to our…. [read more]

Stereotyping Inevitable: An Investigation Term Paper

… Public awareness of the tendency to stereotype certain groups can also help break the cycle of stereotyping.

Other things people can do to change their behavior include acknowledging their fears and insecurities about other groups. People must remember that members of outside groups are unique individuals, just as they consider themselves to be unique individuals. People must also evaluate where their judgments and perceptions about a particular person or group of people come from. If for example, one's only experience of a homeless person was watching television shows that depicted homeless people as drunken wanderers, it is likely that the person will grow to have the misconception that all homeless people fit that category. Broadening one's perspective however and realizing that every person is different…. [read more]

Evolutionary Psychology of Gender Term Paper

… Evolutionary Psychology - Gender Differentiation


Gender-based differentiation is nearly universal among all sexually-reproducing biological organisms. Generally, males and females of every known species exhibit characteristic differences; furthermore, in most cases, these differences are consistent across the biological spectrum, with relatively few exceptions. Exceptions do exist, such as where the female is larger and more dominant; in several known species, only the male broods over fertilized eggs. But similar frequencies of exception also exist with regard to most non-gender-specific behaviors and they merely represent an alternate evolutionary solution to a problem rather than a contradiction of general observations of extreme consistency of gender-specific behavioral (Barash & Lipton 2001).

Generally, the most common gender-based differences relate to relative body size, dominance, physical…. [read more]

Carl Jung's Theory Essay

… Jung

Cognitive science is a multidisciplinary field, comprising cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, linguistics, neuroscience, and anthropology. In recent years, cognitive science has become a predominant paradigm in studies of the mind. Cognitive science incorporates concepts and methods from philosophy, cognitive psychology etc., whereas behaviorism dominated the psychological sciences during the first part of this century. Cognitive scientists are interested in mental structures and processes of the mind.

Several individuals have attempted more rigorous definitions of cognitive science. A computational view emphasizes that, cognitive science, sometimes explicitly, and sometimes implicitly, tries to elucidate the workings of the mind by treating them as computations, not necessarily of the sort that is carried out by the digital computer, but of a sort that lies within broader theory of…. [read more]

Self-Reflection: Completing a Psychology Course Reaction Paper

… During my undergraduate studies, I engaged in group projects. These team assignments showed how I have fulfilled the core competencies in collaborative research that ultimately contributes to the evolving knowledge base.

Current Researcher: Barbara L. Fredrickson

In a world that is frequently filled with pessimism, fear, and resentment, the work of Barbara L. Fredrickson almost seems iconoclastic. When I first came upon the work of Barbara Fredrickson, I was intrigued by the researcher’s ability to use scientific inquiry to study positive emotions and proclivities in human beings. While there has been an abundance of research in social psychological functions of altruism, Fredrickson has expanded the field considerably by showing how positive emotions contribute to social interactions and group behaviors. Fredrickson’s work interfaces with…. [read more]

Reductionism in Cognitive Neuroscience Term Paper

… Memory consolidation refers to the early stage in memory formation when a memory can be disrupted through distraction.

The Extended Mind Hypothesis

Anthony Chemero and Charles Heyser present a radical critique of psycho-neural reductionism, claiming that some cognitive processes extend beyond the bounds of the body. In light of this, they argue that cognitive and behavioral sciences are not reducible to neuroscience, even in principle (88).

To illustrate their reasoning, Chemero and Heyser critique a type of memory experiment which has been conducted on rodents. The experiments investigate the animals'exploratory behavior when objects are placed in their environment. When a novel object is introduced to the cage, exploration increases. In order to locate the brain regions responsible for the behavior, experimenters would examine how recognition…. [read more]

Is Gambling Pleasure or Addiction? Term Paper

… Gambling has long been a pass time for people around the world. Many people use gambling as a way to relax and enjoy the company of friends. However, some people who gamble become addicted to this activity. Such an addiction can lead to high levels of debt and can lead people to spend a significant amount of time gambling which can have a negative effect on their personal relationships. There has long been a debate concerning whether or not gambling is for pleasure or whether or not it is an addiction. The purpose of this discussion is to determine whether gambling is an activity engaged in for pleasure or an addiction. The research will also share some recommendation as it pertains to how to deal…. [read more]

Traditionally, Researchers in Various Fields Term Paper

… In other words, the potent and pervasive fear of public speaking can plausibly be the consequence of evolutionary history.

Providing assistance to those in need is frequently perceived as an ethically correct behavior; it is socially promoted and valued. Many consider themselves the proverbial Good Samaritan and undoubtedly some embody this ideal. However, 'sociobiologists predict that helping decreases with kinship distance' (Boeree, 4). Said differently, 'it should occur only when the sacrifice you make is outweighed by the advantage that sacrifice provides the genes you share with those relations' (Boeree, 4). This is an observed phenomenon with honeybee workers (Wilson). An obvious illustration of this statement is parent-child relationships where the former will undergo considerable risks, even death, to guarantee the survival of the latter.…. [read more]

Social Psychology of Hate Groups Essay

… Writing in 1998 in "Coming Out in the Age of the Internet: Identity 'Demarginalization' Through Virtual Group Participation," they were able to note the way in which gays had adopted the Internet early and strongly to establish a virtual community -- but chose as their point of comparison to marginalized sexual identities the virtual community-building efforts of those with marginalized ideological identities, including hate groups and even anti-gay hate groups. Bargh and McKenna are simply looking for appropriate points of comparison, and so they are willing to consider conspiracy theorists, "area 51" and alien cover-up enthusiasts, as well as "groups on the topic of White supremacy, citizen militias, and the cultural group skinheads" (Bargh and McKenna) "Coming Out" 690). As such, Bargh and McKenna offer…. [read more]

Freud Conformity and Obedience While Many Current Essay

… Freud

Conformity and Obedience

While many current day psychologists and sociologist often dismiss many of the view of Sigmund Freud as outdated and outmoded, certain relevant factors still apply. In fact, I the world of sociology, Freud may have had more substantial input than originally given credit for. Freud's primary belief in his psychoanalytic theory is that the ego must protect itself in all cases from experiencing overwhelming anxiety and to do so it has developed certain defense mechanisms, which may or may not function adequately, to resolve the psychic turmoil. (Moser)

In a society that is based on long evolutionary line from the pack mentality of our ancestors where there was one Alpha Male and then various positions down the line. Displeasure in the…. [read more]

Structural Inequality and Diversity Term Paper



The work of Jeffrey R. Dafler (2005) entitled: "Social Darwinism and the Language of Racial Oppression: Australia's Stolen Generations" stats that "Alfred Korzybski often encapsulated the main idea of abstracting as formulated in the discipline of general semantics by stating that 'the map is not the territory, and the map does not represent all of the territory.' Dafler explains that 'territory' was defined by Samuel Bois as 'what is going on' (WIGO), the realm of external phenomena experienced by an individual." (2005) Therefore, to the individual "the map is the…. [read more]

Karl Marx Term Paper

… Karl Marx was one of those who finished classic political economy theory and who left his influence in the development of economical thought. But his ideas were not limited by the margins of economical problems; they correlated with philosophical, sociological and political questions of that time.

The sociology of Marxism is the theory of social development of society, viewed through the prism of material conditions and through the contradictions that appear because of the existing mode of production. This theory was developed by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels in the second half of the nineteenth century. Its place and its role in the history of sociological thought is determined by the concept that functioning of the society, consciousness and behavior of people who live in…. [read more]

Edr What Is Environmental Design Essay

… American National Standards Institute (ANSI)

Voluntary standards for building accessibility (visually and physically handicapped)

National Fire Protection Association Life Safety Code, 1976

Conclusion: EDR = Basic and applied (research + application in law)

3. Goals, Values, Orientations

EDR is Value Explicit = make a values check, admit that values are impacting research

Different from value-free, which assumes that research is conducted regardless of any values

Eg. Important to study crime slums, poverty, worker productivity because these things have value

Problem with diverse objectives of an institution eg. Prison (is a prison to rehabilitate or to punish? That will affect design….) or School (is a school for discipline and learning or social engagement? That will affect design)

Goals of Environmental Design Research = Improving Quality of…. [read more]

Study Between Adolescence and the Medias Effect on Body Image Thesis

… ¶ … Media Exposure on Adolescent Body Image

Background and History of the Study of Human Psychological Development

During the 20th century, psychology evolved into a field in which different theorists introduced several conceptual approaches to understanding the development of personality in the individual. Erickson conceived of personal psychological development as largely dependent on issues of internalized identity and identity confusion attributable to environmental influences. Piaget focused more on the transition from the preoperational stages of moral thought and responsibility to the formal operation stage that characterized normal adult psychological perspectives. Freud introduced an entirely different conceptual model that viewed the evolution of personality as primarily attributable to foundational influences and to the specific frustrations and conflicts repressed into the subconscious very early in life…. [read more]

Durkheim One Interesting Thesis

… If, in their imaginations, "they will be met by two angels," and, if men, "married to forty virgins and live forever in Paradise" then, without many prospects of a fulfilled life, they are almost guided into the act of suicide (Holden, 2005).

Thus, the complex and often terrifying world of someone who is born in a refugee camp, who almost always has relatives or friends who have been executed by an opponent, who lives in poverty, in anguish, and in fear -- when taken together, this becomes a society that is ill. To solve the situation, then, it is not about putting Band-Aid's on individuals who might be predisposed to such rash action. Instead, as was the overall "diagnosis" for Durkheim, and clearly still true,…. [read more]

Stratification and What Evidence Essay

… Researchers, such as Kahneman and Tversky, demonstrated that rationality was reducible to mental heuristics, and prejudice came to be considered as an inevitable outcome of cognitive schemas (namely cognitive structures that guide information processing). This cognitive approach -- still cited in standard psychology textbooks (such as Weiten, 2007) as source for stereotypes and prejudice) is the theoretical basis that underlies prejudice-associated interventions. Many sociologists and psychologists believe that prejudice is a product of evolutionary heuristics that cause us to stereotype in order to separate our group from another.

Political power

In another way we can explain the above with the Marxist and Weberian theory of political power where the dominant class -- which happens to be White in Australia -- holds political power due to…. [read more]

Structural Violence Framework in International Assessment

… 8).

Whenever a group or sector of society is prevented from meeting basic needs, there is opportunity for conflict, and often for violence. The relationship between structural violence and actual or direct violence is robust. Like most attributes of social systems, structural violence occurs along a continuum. At the lowest end, is domestic violence; at the highest, war. Importantly, the unit of analysis for structural violence varies depending on the type of structural violence being investigated. Research on structural violence can focus on an individual, as in an ethnographic case study, or it can examine the society of a nation.

Not all structural violence occurs directly. Much structural violence is insidious, happening subtly, but to entire classes or groups of people. As James Gillian (1983)…. [read more]

Depression Theories Various Research Paper

… In a study, any patient who admitted thoughts of suicide, immediately denied, retracted, or justified such a statement, making it hard for an examiner to determine whether the patient was truly depressed. [13: Cheung, R. (2010). Culture Different and Treatment of Depression: An International Approach to Depression and Mental Health is Needed. Retrieved April 11, 2011, from ] [14: Cheung, R. (2010). Culture Different and Treatment of Depression: An International Approach to Depression and Mental Health is Needed. Retrieved April 11, 2011, from ]

Another example of cultural norms relating to discussing depression is often found in immigrant communities, where mental illness is immediately thought to make one "crazy" and remain undiscussed subjects. Chinese immigrants to the United States, for example, will display…. [read more]

Sigmund Freud With George Herbert Mead Compare Term Paper

… ¶ … Sigmund Freud with George Herbert Mead

Compare and Contrast Max Weber and Karl Marx

Nature of an individual is a concept we are all at least familiar with regardless of the fact whether how much we actually understand it. Though different branches of knowledge have attempted to explain this concept in the light of their respective fields, the Psychology has earned a reputation for extensive work in this arena. Today we shall briefly discuss the nature of an individual from the perspective of two eminent names in psychology; they are Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) and George Herbert Mead (1863-1931).

Freud saw the nature of individual through the spectacles of unconscious domain; that is he considered unconscious state of person as instrumental in forming nature…. [read more]

Jealousy Among Men and Women Term Paper

… Jealousy among men and women has long been a topic of study in many sciences, such as psychology, sociology, and even anthropology, because jealousy is an emotion almost all humans feel at one time or another. This intense rush of emotion known as jealousy is one of the prime issues in many marriages and relationships. In fact, it is estimated that 20 to 30% of all murders involve jealousy (White and Mullen, 1989). Additionally, it is estimated that a third of all couples in marriage counseling have issues with jealousy (Brehm, 1985).

It has been argued by some theorists that men have evolved to be more jealous then women, because jealousy promotes the male's genetic fitness. This paper will first examine jealousy as a whole,…. [read more]

Classroom Behavior Management Policies Research Paper

… Classroom Behavior Management Policies

Title suggestions:

Bridging the Gap Between Systems Theory and Elementary Classroom Management

An Evolution: Systems Theory and Classroom Management


Systems Theory by the Three B's

Robert Freed Bales


Living systems theory

Social entropy theory

Entropy management in organizations


Ludwig von Bertalanffy

The concept of the whole

GST and integrative studies

Science and society

The importance of the individual

A Comparison of the Three B's




Theoretical similarities


Annotated Bibliography

Classroom management definition and challenges

Strategies and methods

Techniques and training

Self-efficacy and beliefs

Culturally responsive classrooms

Evidence-based strategies

Theory -- and model-based strategies

Comparison to Bertalaffny

Top recommended classroom management strategy





Sociology and the study of social systems has taken many…. [read more]

Social Psychology - Prejudice Research Proposal

… Social Psychology - Prejudice


Prejudice is a predictable human tendency that exists in myriad forms in virtually all social cultures. Typically, prejudice derives from some of the same atavistic and xenophobic natural impulses that played some protective role in evolutionary times, much like aggressive impulses. In modern society, the aggressive impulses are largely kept in check by secular laws, but still find expression in various ways.

To a large extent, overt prejudice and so-called "benign" prejudice derive from the exact same sentiments although that view may conflict with popular sentiment. In reality, the primary difference between overt and benign (or "passive") prejudice may relate to different levels of aggression more than any fundamental differences between them.…. [read more]

Sexual Promiscuity the Sociology of Female Thesis

… Sexual Promiscuity

The Sociology of Female and Male Sexual Promiscuity

Promiscuity is a sexual behavioral trait which has often been induced with a distinctly negative connotation. As sexual promiscuity tends to contrast the value systems of many culturally religious traditions, as well as related standards of moral turpitude as they relate both to such traditions and to mainstream social imperatives, it has traditionally been characterized negatively. Concordant to this characterization, those engaging in behavior which may be perceived as promiscuous have been often characterized as possessing either conditions of psychological distress or social maladaptivity. A more empirically grounded discourse on sexuality and sexual desire, however, requires us to exact greater balance in coming to understand the subject.

Certainly, biological factors and social context have become…. [read more]

Sociobiology Assessment

… This may be true from a strictly biological tendency paradigm in that early humans likely had to fight for food, dominance, and to survive. However, modern humans have a large cerebral cortex, which allows for reasoning, creatitivy, emptahy, compassion and the formation of culture. Societies then, can control and choose whether to be hyper aggressive or hyper passive -- or something in between. A number of sociological and anthropological studies now believe it was the proto human ability to cooperate, not compete, that led to the eventual formation of society and culture (Baumeister and Bushman, 2009).

Can culture and ethnicity be adequately understood along psychological lines? Culture transcends individuals -- it is large and broad. Culture is a capacity for symbolic thought, as well as…. [read more]

Institutions Essay

… Ljiphart (2000) states that assessment of the rarity of changes electoral systems indicates the locked in situation of institutionalism. Yet, changes maybe more common than Lijphrfart thinks them to be particularly if one considers them to occur incrementally and unobtrusively rather than suddenly and spontaneously. Absolute monarchy, for instance, has often been considered as a fixture on the African continent. Indeed some African nations, such as Brunei, Oman, Qatar, Swaziland, and Saudi Arabia still demonstrate some form of absolute monarchy. But others have changed due to change in social norms, usually brought about initially by one or more 'entrepreneurs'. In Tonga, for instance, the king had absolute control until 2010. Morocco recently moved towards a constitutional monarchy, whilst in Bhutan the monarchy became constitutional in…. [read more]

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