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Sociology Theories How Do Berger Term Paper

… Sociology Theories

How do Berger, et al., address the question "How is social reality possible?"

The best way to address the issue of social reality ("human order" according to authors Berger/Luckmann in the Social Construction of Reality) is to attempt it on two levels. On one level there is the concept of "world openness" - i.e., the natural world outside of humankind boundaries - which has an impact on human activities but is trumped by what humans do in their societal dynamics. The second level is of course is a kind of "world closedness" because it closes out the natural world and creates an artificial world for humans.

Because mankind is inherently unstable, there has to be some kind of a social order, the authors…. [read more]


Classical Theorists Essay

… Classical Theorists

Over the decades, a number of different theories have been presented which are designed to highlight the way everyone in society is interacting with each other. This is having a profound impact upon how people think and view the world around them. Two of the most important philosophers from these areas are Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim. To fully understand the main ideas of each one requires: providing an overview of these ideas and comparing / evaluating the different theories. Together, these elements will highlight the strengths and weaknesses of them.

Karl Marx's Theories from Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844

Karl Marx (2012) believed that the landowners continually exploited everyone for their own benefit. This gave them an unfair advantage, which helped…. [read more]


Holocaust the Sheer Scale Term Paper

… During the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth century, pseudo-scientific theories of eugenics, based (somewhat tangentially) on the work of Charles Darwin began to emerge, promoting an ideology of "racial domination" like that discussed above, except with the addition of an explicit argument in favor of the notion that genetic inheritance determined practically all aspects of a person's personality, physical health, and social worth (Cullen 2005, p. 406). In a sense, theories of eugenics were the socially-constructed reinforcement and justification for the somewhat natural tendency to view members of different races or ethnicity with suspicion or even hostility, because they essentially attempted to argue (retroactively) that Europeans' and Americans' subjugation of other races was due not to an inequitable society or repressive…. [read more]


Leadership Skills Impact International Education Term Paper

… However, many people do not understand what leadership is and how it applies to the school environment. In their 1997 study of visionary companies, James Collins and Jerry Porras define leaders as people who "displayed high levels of persistence, overcame significant obstacles, attracted dedicated people, influenced groups of people toward the achievement of goals, and played key roles in guiding their companies through crucial episodes in their history."

This definition is very much in line with the definitions currently used for school leaders, although this definition has changed in recent years (Education Week, 2004). Until recent years, most research assumed that leadership did not have to come from the school principal (Riordan, 2003). The realization that improving instruction requires shifts in the behavior of school…. [read more]


Pedagogic Model: Teaching Technology in Special Education Dissertation

… " (Dougiamas, 1998) Such trivial constructivism, though, is the bedrock from which Glaserfelds more radical constructivism springs. He continues to state that because knowledge is constructed by the learner, and because no two learners are the same, knowledge itself is not absolute. There is a degree to which knowledge is an illusion, and every individual constructs their own conception of reality which (while susceptible to the demands of "real" or normal reality) does not necessarily align with the normal paradigm. Constructivism does embrace this relativistic and existential approach to reality, but it also holds as a primary value the idea of constraint which enables the thinkers to participate in social interaction and mainstream reality. (Glasersfeld)



One interesting area of constructionist theory is…. [read more]


Friedberg 2001 Thesis

… ¶ … limits to behavioral freedom for an adult educator within an organization?

When an adult educator must work within the confines of a specific organization, there are naturally going to be limits on what that person can do from a behavioral standpoint. Some of these also extend out to the community, as people who are in charge of others, especially in the education field, often find that they are held to a higher standard than the people who are not in charge of other individuals in that same type of way. There is a lot of bureaucracy in many organizations, and when this is the case it is often difficult for a person to 'be themselves.' He or she has to limit things like…. [read more]


Mental Retardation This Work Examines the Case Term Paper

… Mental Retardation

This work examines the case study of a Taiwanese Family in which one of the children, Po-Sheng, 23 years of age, has mild mental retardation. This family is experiencing frustration and angst because Po-Sheng feels that he should be allowed more freedom and independence than his parents allow. This work takes a look at the values and principles in the social worker's practice that are relevant in view of this particular family which is the focus of this case study. "Social work knowledge is based on a range of perspectives and content areas derived from various schools of thought. Hepworth, Looney and Larsen (1997) note that the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) categorized the knowledge base for social work practice into five…. [read more]


Organizational Structure Critically Essay

… The scenario is indeed brief and certainly not exhaustive of the causal factors that may be involved, but it does nonetheless transcend subjectivism and evince the indispensability of analytical dualism. 'Organizational culture' is thus not merely about increasing productivity or designing company logos! Cultural items do not remain at the gates of all organizations. Again, it is only in virtue of a stratified reality that analytical dualism is possible. Pace Bryant (1995), theorizing the relative interplay of generative structures (which may remain unexercised or exercised but unperceived) is not to embroil oneself in an ineluctable regression. Rather, it provides a much more robust analytical grip on S-C dynamics, eschewing the twin nightmares of empiricism and positivism.

The main impetus behind this paper has been to…. [read more]


Family Ecology Term Paper

… Family Ecology

The family is considered the basic unit of the society. It is where a person acquires his/her basic characteristics and habits. They say that the personality of an individual is very much affected by the family background. Since ancient times, the family has been an important organization in the society. The family, among the oldest and most fundamental of human institutions, consists of a man and a woman, who are generally expected to produce children, care for them, and help train them in the ways of their culture. This simple family, known as the conjugal, elementary, or nuclear family, is present in virtually all known societies (Lexicon Universal Encyclopedia, 1994). The precise definition of "family" is difficult to attain. Once classical definition is…. [read more]


Women in Leadership the Characteristics and Advantage Research Paper

… Women in Leadership: The Characteristics and Advantage of Women

Women in Leadership

Women in Leadership: Obstacles to the Characteristics and Advantages of Women

The issue of women in leadership has been a focus of debate and discussion across many disciplines in recent years. This debate is also linked to topics such women's rights and gender inequalities in modern society. These issues have been engendered by the fact that there is a gross disparity in terms of gender when it comes to leadership roles in modern corporations and organization. The contention that underlies this debate is the marginalization of women and the prejudiced perception of gender. Many critics note that these disparities are a direct result of perceptions and stereotyped that emanate from a male-centered and…. [read more]


Cultural Diversity Impact on Small Multinational Companies in Global Markets Research Proposal

… Cultural Diversity Impact on Small Multinational Companies

At times, in their ignorance of another country's cultural values, business leaders of one company operating in other countries may crash head-on with leaders and employees. Ruth Benedict (1887-1948), U.S. anthropologist, stressed that along with cooperating with the existing culture, to avoid head-on collisions in business, company leaders need to possess an intelligent understanding of any country they engaged in business with, as well as that country's ways of life (Columbia World..., 1996). The impact of culture and diversity in emerging markets, now as in the past, routinely challenges a company's success, simulating a barrier to be broken (U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) Office of Advocacy, 2007). In today's global marketplace, to more effectively manage a small multinational…. [read more]

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