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Space Telescopes Term Paper

… Space Telescopes

Ever since its launch in 1990, the Hubble telescope has been orbiting the Earth at 600 kilometers above, bringing valuable information and photos from space. Its history goes back to 1977, when the Congress approved the project funds. However, operations didn't take off until 1981, when the Space Telescope Science Institute was founded, designed especially for the production and research of the Hubble Space Telescope.

In 1990, on April, 25th, the telescope was deployed into orbit. Several problems appeared during the first years of use. An aberration in one of the mirrors was soon discovered and needed to be changed later in 1993. A new computer was installed in 1999 and the telescope was placed in "safe mode" after "the failure of a…. [read more]

Space Show Museum of Natural History Essay

… space show museum of natural history.


The Space Show at the Museum of Natural History in New York is truly an entertaining, enlightening show that provides visitors and viewers a unique experience. The Space Show is one of the primary attractions at the Rose Center for Earth and Space's Hayden Planetarium. The show takes place within a huge hemispheric dome, which is approximately 67 feet in width, and which utilizes a variety of media including sound effects, visual reproductions, as well as sensory vibrations to simulate a number of scientific occurrences that have and will continue to take place in outer space. The scientific processes involved in many of the films that audiences have and will be able to see are extremely authentic,…. [read more]

Space Program Term Paper

… It cannot, however, be denied that nearly all of these achievements could have been accomplished at a fraction of the cost that was spent on "manned" flights into space if the policy objectives had been to scientific benefits only.

Supporters of "manned" flights, on the other hand, argue that the human dexterity and ingenuity cannot be matched by robots. For example, the Soviets brought back samples of the moon's surface through cheaply-built unmanned "Luna" spacecrafts in the 1970s. Astronauts of the Apollo missions did the same. The difference is that geologically trained astronauts were able to select the most representative, interesting, and/or exotic samples while the Luna samples were scooped up at random by the robotic probes. (Spudis) Other tasks and field experiments carried out…. [read more]

Objects in Space Essay

… Another method of prevention of the strike following its identification is breaking of the object by NASA into smaller objects. This is effective in the achievement of two objectives: burning of the objects on the planet and diverting the course of the objects away from striking the planet. Another preventive measure is the application of solar power to divert the course of object against striking the planet. This is through exerting pressure on the near-earth object thus diverting its course (Simonov et al. p. 583).


Near-earth objects are very delicate towards the development and growth of the planet earth. This is because of the past and future/projected effects or implications of the strike of the planet by the large objects. It is ideal for…. [read more]

Space Manned vs. Unmanned Term Paper

… A second disadvantage in regard to man on flights to space is the fact that men do not have the same longevity as unmanned situations may offer. Because man is mortal, he may not make it alive to a far off location. The Hubble craft for instance is still going strong after decades of use and it never once asked for a lunch or dinner break. A third disadvantage is the fact that man may make more mistakes than a programmed process or robot. Man may make a decision that at the time seems like the right thing to do but it may in fact be ac completely illogical judgment based on panicking.

Pros unmanned

Robotic flight has a clear advantage over manned in the…. [read more]

Hubble Space Telescope Term Paper

… After much discussion among the scientists and engineers, NASA "discovered a major flaw in the giant mirror, (for it) was too flat on one edge by 1/50th of the width of a single human hair" (Stathopoulos, Internet). In technical terms, the primary mirror was suffering from spherical aberration which meant that the mirror had been ground incorrectly. The curve at the center of the mirror did not match the curve at its edge which meant that the mirror was incapable of reflecting light into a tiny point of encircled energy or core. Instead, it spread out the light over a large area; the center of the mirror, however, focused well but the edge was out of focus, creating a large halo of light.

On June…. [read more]

Computers in Space Science Term Paper

… These are only a few of the literally thousands of technologies and advances created by NASA computers and technology ("Spin-offs"). Therefore, computer technology in space often ultimately leads to people living better lives as the technology makes its way into everyday living. Today we take items like microcomputers and Velcro for granted, but we really have NASA to thank for many of the technological advances we enjoy in our lives every day. Without computerized technology, the space program would probably still just be a dream, and all of the advances that have come along with it would just seem like so much science fiction.


Author not Available. "Computers at NASA." NASA. 1994. 29 Oct. 2003.

Barber, Jennifer Lauren. "Close Encounters on Your Desktop."…. [read more]

Advances in Telescopes in Recent Years Reaction Paper

… ¶ … advances in telescopes in recent years and how they have helped unveil cosmic mysteries such as the shape of dwarf galaxies and the missing satellite problem. It shows how previous beliefs based on the cold dark matter (CDM) model might not be true. Dwarf galaxies, originally thought to have a central group of stars enclosed by auras of dark matter have shown instances of supernovas, according to supercomputer simulations. Astronomers have managed to get closer to the origin of dwarf galaxies using the Hubble Space Telescope. However astronomers intend to probe deeper into the cosmos by developing stronger tools such as James Webb Space telescope (expected to be launched in 2014) and the Thirty Meter Telescope (after 2018). Galaxies are expected to have…. [read more]

Astronomy Keck Telescope Book Report

… Astronomy- Keck Telescope

Overview of the telescope

A telescope according to the Webster's dictionary is referred to as "an optical instrument used in viewing distant objects and heavenly bodies."

The telescope has over the years gone through a series of modification up from the tiny manual device to a now fully automated and digital telescope. However, in all this transitional development these two properties: the light collecting power which allows one to detect fainter and distant objects and the angular resolution which allows one to view the smaller and fainter images better have mainly been important. The optical accuracy has thus been maintained throughout these developments.

The keck telescope

From W.M.Keck observatory, both keck I telescope and its twin, keck II were funded; the project…. [read more]

Optical Revolutions How the Telescope Essay

… Optical Revolutions

How the Telescope was a More Significant Invention to the Microscope

Advances in optical technology made it possible for early modern scientists to explore both the vastness of the universe and the minute complexities of the microbial world. However, while the invention of the microscope has transformed medicine and, ultimately, the lives of virtually every living person on Earth, these advances took decades to play out and were initially considered trivial. In contrast, the telescope may have had a less profound impact on everyday life, but, through its influence on a seminal figure, sparked an explosive revolution in early modern European thought, challenged the intellectual hegemony of the Church, and, ultimately, shifted our sense of the universe and our place in it.

The…. [read more]

Is NASA Still Needed? Research Paper

… ¶ … National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has provided the United States with some of the most captivating moments in our nation's history. It has inspired generations of bright minds to think beyond the confines of the planet we live on. It has expanded our knowledge of the known universe, and through that knowledge, has imparted to us a deeper understanding of the planet we live on.

As a race, we would only know a fraction of what we know about the universe if it were not for NASA. We would not be able to predict natural disasters, broadcast information to remote areas, or talk on cell phones. However, the real value of NASA extends far beyond small conveniences. In the period before NASA,…. [read more]

United States Should Continue Space Research Paper

… Michael D. Griffin, who served as Administrator for NASA, made a point that is often overlooked in times of recession, layoffs and home foreclosures -- when taxpayers are bitterly questioning the cost of space exploration -- and it bears repeating: America needs to continue to be the kind of country that "…inspires others to want to cooperate as allies and partners rather than to be adversaries… [and] this is NASA's greatest contribution to our nation's future in the world. We beat swords into plowshares to fulfill one of the oldest, strongest, and most persistent dreams of mankind: To know and experience what lies beyond the horizon" (Griffin, 2006, p. 393).

Fifty years ago -- May 25, 1961 -- President John Kennedy told a joint session…. [read more]

Is Space Exploration Necessary? Research Paper

… ¶ … Against Deep-Space Exploration

In April 2010, U.S. President Barack Obama announced his intention to support continued space exploration as a fundamentally valuable human endeavor. More specifically, President Obama reiterated his belief that the nation should commit itself to putting a man on Mars much the way the nation did in connection with the effort to land a man on the Moon in the 1960s. Several prominent retired former NASA astronauts support the President's view, most notably, retired U.S. Air Force Colonel "Buzz" Aldrin. Meanwhile, other retired astronauts (including Neil Armstrong, who commended Aldrin's historic Apollo 11 Lunar Mission in 1969) believe that the nation should first commit more resources to returning to the Moon instead.

Still others question the need to continue deep-space…. [read more]

Physcical Science Procedures Essay

… The things that we know now about science are giving some kind of thanks to the tools invented in order to obtain better answers about the unknown. Much of the knowledge that we have about our solar system and universe would not had been discover if it wasn't for the invention of the a telescope. The telescope is an optical instrument designed to make distant objects appear nearer. It contains an arrangement of lenses or mirrors or both that gathers visible light, permitting direct observation or photographic recording of distant objects. (Lacki, B.C. 2011). With the use of telescopes we have been able to learn a lot more about the planets in our universe. It has helped us understand about some of the history of…. [read more]

Positives of the Movies Film Review

… ¶ … positives of the movies followed by a candid examination of the weaknesses. The first positive element of the movie was the narration by Whoppi Goldberg. Whoppi is not one of my favorite artiste but I find her performance in this piece worthy of mention. Through her narration the movie is made fresher and more enjoyable, it is very much like adding a bit of lime juice to a dish it freshens it up a bit. Even though her voice is a bit raspy it complements the smooth journey through the various constellations quite well. It was as though the contrast between what she was saying and the moving images provided a natural connection. I however did not care for the use of the…. [read more]

Cold War and the Conquest of Space Thesis

… ¶ … Cold War and the Conquest of Space

On July 20, 1969, the United States accomplished the impossible. It was on this day that Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins set world history. On this day, this crew landed on the moon, finally proving once and for all that America led the world in technology and achievements. In the beginning, there were only two contenders in the race. However, recently, others are beginning to enter into the picture. In order to understand this fascination with the great beyond, one must understand the original race for space and the two superpowers that duked it out.

After WWII, the European powers were in disarray with no clear leader. The U.S. And the Soviet Union used…. [read more]

Stars Sun and Moon Research Paper

… Sun, Moon and Stars

Data and results from your diameter of the sun activity:

Image diameter: .93 cm

Distance from pin-hole to image: 100 cm

.95 cm x 150000000km / 100cm

Calculated diameter of the sun: 1425000 km

How does your calculated value for the diameter of the sun compare with its actual value?

My calculated value for the diameter of the sun was larger 1,425,000km, which is larger than the actual diameter of the sun, which is 1,391,978km (Cain, 2012).

If the values are different, describe possible reasons for the difference.

There is a huge difference in order of magnitude between the figures I was using to calculate the distance and the total distance. This difference of 33022km is actually a very small percentage…. [read more]

Astronomy Term Paper

… Astronomy

Please answer all questions show your work and explain your reasoning in a short to the point answer.

Comet Halley has an orbital period of 75 years and when it enters the inner Solar System, it passes within a few AU of the Sun.

Determine the average distance of Comet Halley in AU.

The relation of the orbital period to the semi-major axis is given by the equation P2=a3, where P. is the orbital period and a is the semi-major axis. P is given as 75 and taking the cube root of both sides leaves 752/3=a, or a=17.78. The average distance of Comet Halley (assuming "a few AU" can be interpreted as close to 0) is thus about 18 AU.

Right now, Comet Halley…. [read more]

Astronomy the Electromagnetic System Is the Range Essay

… Astronomy

The Electromagnetic system is the range of frequency for electromagnetic radiation. It ranges from radio waves, to microwaves, to infrared, the visible region, the ultraviolet, X-rays, and finally, Gamma rays. Not all properties of all the bands in the electromagnetic spectrum are the same, their properties depend upon their frequency. Light is a member of this spectrum, represented as the "visible region." Light is next to both Infrared and Ultraviolet waves. The Sun radiates most intensely in the Ultraviolet band. Stellar Spectra is referring to the classifications of star based on measurements of the wavelengths emitted, all categorized by color.

Refracting Telescopes use lenses to directly form an image. Reflecting Telescopes use mirrors in order to acquire an image. A telescopes F-number is its…. [read more]

Galaxies Can Grow Fat Black Holes Term Paper

… ¶ … Galaxies Can Grow Fat Black Holes," Shobita Satyapal, one of the lead researchers at George Mason University in Farfax, Virginia, relates that NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, launched from Cape Canaveral on August 25, 2003 and primarily designed to detect infrared energy from cosmic sources with extremely short wavelengths, has recently found "plump black holes where least expected," being skinny or thin galaxies which in the past were not suspected of containing black holes, areas in space with gravitational fields so powerful that not even light can escape from them once it has entered what is known as an event horizon, similar to the edge of a physical hole. For many years, research scientists and astronomers believed that every galaxy "except the slender, bulgeless…. [read more]

Astronomy the Moon Research Paper

… ELEVEN: Venus orbits the Sun (inside Earth's orbit) so because it never goes outside the earth's orbit it can never be more than 47 degrees above the horizon at sunset (law of physics). Venus is an inferior planet because its orbit is between earth's orbit and the sun.

TWELEVE: The Seasons on earth are caused by the tilt of the earth on its axis and by the fact that as the earth orbits the sun different hemispheres receive less direct rays from the sun; for example, when it is summer in Australia it is winter in North America, and vice -- versa.

THIRTEEN: Kepler's 3 laws of planetary motion: a) planets move around the Sun in ellipses and the Sun is at one focus; b)…. [read more]

English System of Measurement Is so Complicated Essay

… ¶ … English system of measurement is so complicated to some people is that it has a different basis for different measurements. For most things, the metric system is used and is based on powers of 10, in other words decimalized. This has been the preferred European and scientific method of measuring since the late 1700s, and is not part of a standard system known as the International System of Units. In general, since the metric system is based on decimalized, or powers of 10, then units based on 10s would be more aligned in math, this might be conceptualized in the different between the need for 2 calculations versus 1: If George needed a desk that was 5 ' X 4' feet wide, how…. [read more]

Solar Flares Affect Planet Earth March 13 Thesis

… ¶ … Solar Flares Affect Planet Earth

March 13, 2009 marked the twenty-year anniversary of solar flares that impacted the earth. The sun may not seem like a place with weather phenomenon but the Earth's closest star does experience frequent storms and the occasional flares that radiate to Earth. NASA defines a solar flare as "a sudden, rapid, and intense variation in brightness" that "occurs when magnetic energy that has built up in the solar atmosphere is suddenly released," ("What is a Solar Flare?"). In a recent Scientific American article, Adam Hadhazy describes what took place twenty years ago and how solar flares generally affect planet Earth.

In "A Scary 13th: 20 Years Ago, Earth Was Blasted with a Massive Plume of Solar Plasma," Hadhazy…. [read more]

NASA Budgetary Analysis Payroll Forecast Essay

… Expenditure Forecast

After drastically reducing its budget for the operation of its iconic Space Shuttle fleet, from $556 million in fiscal year 2012 to just $70.6 million this year, this major expenditure is scheduled to come off of the books in fiscal year 2014. Perhaps concurrently, NASA's expected budget for its involvement with the International Space Station will increase slightly during each of the next five years, moving from $2.8 billion in fiscal year 2012 to $3.2 billion in fiscal year 2017. Another major expenditure that NASA is planning to absorb during the next five years is the controversial James Webb Space Telescope, which is tentatively expected to launch in 2018. Having garnered negative attention due to a regrettable series of scheduling mishaps and cost…. [read more]

Life on Mars Term Paper

… Life on Mars

The 16 August issue of the Science magazine published an article by a group of scientists led by David Mckay on the discovery of evidence of primitive bacterial life on Mars. This article is based on the examination of a meteorite found in Antarctica and supposed to be from the planet Mars. The reasons to publish such an article were 1) the presence of hydrocarbon similar to breakdown products of dead organisms on Earth, 2) Mineral phases considered to be byproducts of active bacteria and 3) carbonate globules of tiny size, which could be microfossils of primitive bacteria. All these were found in a very small diameter distance. A chronology of dates dating back to about 4.5 billion years gives details about…. [read more]

Gravity Is the Force Responsible Essay

… Gravity is the force responsible for the fact that dropped objects fall to earth and also for the orbital motion of the planets and all the stars in the solar system. Early man observed the motions of the planets and believed that they could be explained by the fact that the earth was the center of "God's" universe and that all the heavenly objects necessarily revolved about the earth. Religious authorities especially liked that explanation because it did not contradict biblical scripture and denounced theoretical models that suggested that the earth and the other planets in the solar system orbited the sun instead of the earth and that the earth was not the center of the universe at all.

By the time of the invention…. [read more]

Galileo His Discoveries and the Conflicts With the Church Term Paper

… Galileo's Discoveries And Conflicts With The Church

Galileo was an Italian astronomer, mathematician and physicist, who originated the scientific revolution of the 17th century, in Italy. Prior to Galileo's work, physics and astronomy were intertwined with traditional philosophy. Galileo, instead, linked mathematics with these sciences. Galileo's major contribution to science includes: the correct definition of uniform acceleration, the setting of laws of falling bodies, the development of the mathematical theory of projectile motion, the expression of numerous ideas regarding sound, light and heat, the determination of the relationship between mathematics and physics, the role of experimentation, and the challenges of infinitesimals in the analysis of matter and motion (Drake).

Yet, it would be his support of Copernican astronomy and his theory that centered on an…. [read more]

Meteorite Offers 2-Billion-Year-Old Glimpse of Mars Sindya Research Paper

… ¶ … Meteorite Offers 2-Billion-Year-Old Glimpse of Mars

Sindya Bhanoo, New York Times, 3 January 2013


The article covers a study led by the University of New Mexico that happened upon a meteorite in the Sahara Desert. The study was ran by planetary scientist Carl B. Agee. The object in question was a 0.7 pound meteorite fragment from Mars. It becomes one of about 100 other known meteorites that also came from the planet Mars. Most Martian meteorites found are roughly 200 million years old. The method used to discover the object was searching and surveying in the Sahara Desert at the point at which it was found. Like other meteorites found in the past, it was studied to ascertain its water content…. [read more]

Astrophysical Object Phenomenon Thesis

… Astrophysical Object

Pluto's Demotion: From Fully-Fledged Planet to One of a Hundred Dwarfs

My Very Educated Mother Just Served Us Nine Pizzas" (Greene 2006). For years, every school child memorized this mnemonic device, to better recall the order of the planets in the solar system: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. However, all of this changed in 2006. Then, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) met in Prague to more clearly define what constituted a planet. The Union decided that a planet must fulfill three criteria. Firstly, it must orbit the Sun, secondly it must be large enough to have a spherical shape, and thirdly, "it must have cleared out the other objects in its orbit" (Cain, "Why do some scientists think…. [read more]

Article Was Kepler's Supernova Unusually Powerful Essay

… Kepler's Supernova

Keplers Supernova

Before plunging into the points of discussions regarding Keplar's Supernova, it is essential to known about Supernova. Supernova is an advanced form of nova i.e. white dwarf star which could be explained as more energetic than a nova. The radiations emitted by a supernova are far rich in energy and comprises almost as much energy as estimated by the sun throughout its entire life. Although no supernova has been observed since 1650 and it appears once in every 50 years. Now moving towards Keplar's supernova that was befallen in the constellation Ophiuchus. This being a point of discussion was so obvious in front of the naked eye and was at the extreme of its brightness at night sky. Johannes Keplar was…. [read more]

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