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Politics a Policy Issue in Education Term Paper

… Politics

A Policy Issue in Education: No Child Left Behind

Political Influences that Helped to Determine the NCLB Act

The publication of a Nation at Risk Report in 1983, put education into the political ring as the Reagan Administration determined that the state of education was a national security risk (Reutzel, 2009). This report caused the public and politicians everywhere to begin looking at education and the state of reading readiness of the kids in the United States in a different light. President Bill Clinton started the path of uniting the National Governor's Convention with legislation entitled Goals 2000: Educate America Act, in 1994. This legislation was the start of countrywide testing in reading and math to show responsibility for public education. At the same…. [read more]

Empiricism Is a Theory of Knowledge Essay

… Empiricism is a theory of knowledge that posits that what we know arises from a series of sensual experiences that are evidentiary and part of observable phenomena. Of course, the philosophical views of consciousness date back to the very foundations of human societies -- most especially the views of the Ancient Greeks on human morality and ethics and the manner in which human thought translated into action. Within the modern era, that is after the Renaissance, for instance, Francis Bacon proposed not a specific philosophy of knowing, but a methodology of verifying truth. Bacon, for instance, believed humans should use inductive reasoning from fact to axiom to law- from induction to deduction as a process of finding truth.

According to the empirical view, for any…. [read more]

Education - Theory Adult Term Paper

… On the other hand, it is irrefutable that individual is a starting point of everything. The association between individual and social concerns in Humanist's view is adult education will become an agency of development if its short-time goal of self-improvement can be made companionable with a long-time, experimental but determined policy of altering the social order. It does not matter whether educational programs or an eagerness to learn something will benefit society. It is significant that those activities complete one's need, and create self-regard or self-respect. The consequence of doing what they love and interested in will benefit society itself, and lead to the inspiration as a whole (Galbraith, 2004).

One of the strongest reasons for supporting humanistic education is that, when completed successfully, students…. [read more]

Theory of Scholarship of Distance Education Thesis

… ¶ … Scholarship of Distance Education

Progressing from home study and correspondence courses to theories of both one-to-one and one-to-many-based models of distance instruction an analysis of the Theory of Scholarship of Distance Education illustrates how theories of distance education scholarship have significantly changed over the last eighty-two years. The first studies conducted by Noffsinger (1926) of distance education were based purely on correspondence courses that universities at the time piloted to see what long-term learning could be achieved. From an initial reliance on traditional mail delivery services progressing through the use of more interactive technologies including teleconferences and eventually the Internet, theories of scholarship relating to distance education have continually changed reflecting the immediacy of instructor and student communication.

Analysis of Key Points Made…. [read more]

Descartes' Meditations Essay

… Descartes' contributions to philosophy have established him and indeed, many agree that he is the first modern philosopher. In fact, in the history of philosophy, Descartes marks the moment of a fundamentally new philosophical perspective. His treatise, Meditations on First Philosophy, was published in 1641 and this is the work that he is most renowned for nowadays. Because what we experience rationally is what we consider real and we claim that such "activities" as dreaming are a different "state of affairs," Descartes sought to illuminate such claims which we base our knowledge on. His method may appear reductive at first, as he suggests to set aside whatever knowledge that is obtained without control, but thereon, he requests analytical judgement that is to be applied to…. [read more]

Gutek Theory of Education Thesis

… Authentic assessments are a progressive educational tool. Following in the progressive tradition outlined by Gutek, an authentic assessment is student-centered and highly pragmatic. Students are asked to apply their learning to a meaningful real-life situation or example. The teacher evaluates content acquisition based on how well the student applied course material to the authentic task (Mueller 2008). Whereas traditional assessments assume the absolute authority of the teacher or institution, an authentic assessment allows learners to determine how the course content best applies to them. A traditional assessment is likewise based on an absolute, authoritative curriculum whereas an authentic assessment is flexible. Authentic assessments are therefore one of the hallmarks of a progressive education program.

Authentic assessments reflect the progressive philosophy of education also because they…. [read more]

Business of Education Term Paper

… for-Profit Education vs. Non-Profit Education












Opinion of students in for-profit institutions

Quite Agree

Quite Disagree

I believe that my education has helped me in recognizing and acting on my civic responsibilities towards my society and country

I believe that the government needs to increase the total financial aid expenditure allocated for education without decreasing the percentage of funds assigned to non-profit institutions

I believe that my choice to study in a for-profit institute will help me get a higher pay scale and widen my work spectrum

I believe…. [read more]

Culture Diversity in Early Childhood Education Sex Roles and Gender Bias Term Paper

… Diversity in Early Childhood Education

Qualitative research reveals that gender inequity remains one of the major problems in early childhood educational practice and in early childhood educational training. Through interviews, observations, and self-reports, teachers in early childhood education programs demonstrated an acute awareness of gender inequities. However, the studies also show that aspiring teachers lack the theoretical framework with which to entertain postmodern theories. The current teacher training programs in place throughout colleges, universities, and professional development programs focus on socialization theory and theories of childhood development. While robust, socialization theory may not offer future educators the tools with which to effectively address gender inequities and other social injustices in the educational system.

Postmodern perspectives, including feminist post-structuralist theory, may better help educators and students…. [read more]

Teacher Education in Nigeria Term Paper

… Thus, private donations and federal support in the form of research grants are of utmost importance. At the same time, the public is demanding that tuition costs be reduced and that higher education provide better services for the cost ADDIN ENRfu (Matthews, 1999).

Both countries are experiencing teacher shortages. In Nigeria, this is blamed on the lack of focus on teaching for Nigeria. In the United States, there is an aggregate over-supply of elementary teachers in most states, but a shortage of special education teachers and teachers in the sciences and mathematics. Urban areas with rapid population growth face shortages (Laitsch, 2001).

U.S Problems and Solutions

Teacher education in the U.S. is also in a difficult position (LPA, 2003). After many years of reform and…. [read more]

Albert Einstein, a Famously Mediocre Term Paper

… This is not an exhaustive list of elements that could be included in a student's portfolio, but it is a start. You need to consider the concept and build components into it that are appropriate for you and your students. (Ashe, 11)

Although a certain degree of leeway is always afforded teachers that wish to innovate, it often is difficult for these teachers to adopt sweeping changes. In certain respects, this is preferable: the interaction between parents associations in the community and school administrators has traditionally kept teachers in check as this insures that the ultimate authority over the welfare of students lies in the hands of their parents. Although this process is at odds with European systems that favor the national co-ordination of education…. [read more]

Othello as a Tragedy Defined by Aristotle Research Paper

… Othello as a Tragedy Defined by Aristotle

Shakespeare's play, Othello, defines tragedy in many ways for modern audiences and ancient audiences alike. When we hold the play up to the definitions of tragedy defined by Aristotle, we see that it meets all the criteria. These criteria include an aspect of realism, a hero of high renown, a move from good fortune to bad, and the hero finally realizing his error. Othello presents us with a fantastic character in Othello in that he is the source of many emotions - love, hate, jealousy, and sorrow. Othello is also a great warrior, which is what attracts Desdemona to him; it is also what makes him a target in Iago's eyes, for he had the power to promote…. [read more]

Higher Education Fiscal Responsibility Term Paper

… Higher Education Fiscal Responsibility

Aside from a Governing Board/Board of Trustees/Board of Regents; a college or university's President; Chief Academic Officer; Chief Business Officer, and Chief Student Affairs Officer, various other members of any higher education administrative team also have significant, even if sometimes smaller and/or less complete fiscal responsibility. These additional higher education administrative team members usually include a chief or head foundation officer; division deans; department and/or program chairs; and (depending on various factors like size, student enrollment, etc.) others with titles like (or equivalent to) "assistant chair"; "lead faculty," etc. Each of these positions carries with it, or should carry with it, some fiscal responsibility, even if only for a small part of an overall operation (Whalen, 1991). I will describe the…. [read more]

Leadership Skills Impact International Education Term Paper

… However, many people do not understand what leadership is and how it applies to the school environment. In their 1997 study of visionary companies, James Collins and Jerry Porras define leaders as people who "displayed high levels of persistence, overcame significant obstacles, attracted dedicated people, influenced groups of people toward the achievement of goals, and played key roles in guiding their companies through crucial episodes in their history."

This definition is very much in line with the definitions currently used for school leaders, although this definition has changed in recent years (Education Week, 2004). Until recent years, most research assumed that leadership did not have to come from the school principal (Riordan, 2003). The realization that improving instruction requires shifts in the behavior of school…. [read more]

Mathematics Learning Essay

… " (p. 1) The teacher as an instructor has the intended outcome for students of "skills mastery with correct performance." (Ernest, 1991. p. 1) Whereas the role of the teacher as an explainer has the intended outcome of "conceptual understanding with unified knowledge." (Ernest,, p. 1) Finally, the teacher as a facilitator has the intended outcome of "confident problem posing and solving." (Ernest, 1991, p. 1) Swan (2006) speaks of the traditional method of teaching mathematics and states that when it is reversed it is "builds on the knowledge that students already have" and additionally "exposes and discusses common misconceptions" and "uses higher-order questions." (p. 169) Swan additionally reports that traditionally teaching utilizes small group work and encourages "reasoning rather than 'answer getting' and uses…. [read more]

Compare and Contrast the Differing Definitions of Critical Term Paper

… ¶ … integrating critical as well as thinking. But several earlier conceptualizations try to concentrate primarily on the process of thinking and avoid its important qualifier, i.e of critical. Hence they tend to give over importance to the process of thinking and reduce the importance of critical aspects. Encouraging and facilitating the process of critical thinking of students is now being considered as an increasingly significant objective for higher education. Analyzing the element of critical thinking of students is important for estimating its progress. (Cheung; Kwan; Yue, 2002) Those whose education have not trained them to deal critically with issues as well as conflicts are in fact not being enabled to interact efficiently with other people, whether be it be the same or varied from…. [read more]

John Dewey and Education Theory Term Paper

… John Dewey and Education Theory

John Dewey - Review and Analysis of his Theories

Biographical Information on John Dewey

Born in Burlington, Vermont in1859 (October 20), John Dewey was the third of four sons; his parents, Archibald Sprague Dewey and Lucina Artemesia Rich suffered through the death of their first-born son, then sent the three surviving sons to public school and to the University of Vermont.

While at the university, John Dewey had his eyes opened up to deep philosophical thought when he studied evolutionary theory; the theory of natural selection made an impression on him that stayed with him throughout his life.

Dewey was a high school teacher for two years following the completion of his undergraduate degree; then, he attended Johns Hopkins University,…. [read more]

Physical Education Teacher Burnout and PE Teacher Concerns Literature Review

… ¶ … Aaker (1991, p13) it is the general aim of all researchers not only to discover new information but as much as possible to build on what other people have already done in the field. This is particularly important as these works whether published or unpublished can serve as a cheaper source of mobilizing data. It also helps the researcher to put the issues under consideration into the right perspective. This researcher was not an exception. This part of the research examines the work of other researchers in order to broaden the frontiers of knowledge. In all instances adequate and due references are given for the purpose of future studies and subsequent verification of the facts.

Background of Research

Alliance for Excellent Education has…. [read more]

Different Preferences in Learning Between American and French Learners in a Multinational Corporate Setting Dissertation

… ¶ … Preferences in Learning between American and French Learners in a Multinational Corporate Setting

The way training is delivered in a corporate environment has a tremendous effect on results. This study investigates the role of culture in the learning styles of adult French and American students enrolled in online training programs at an international university. Using Kolb's learning style inventory, the learning style preferences of respondents in both cultural groups will be classified as divergers, convergers, accommodators, and assimilators, reflecting their general tendencies toward learning environments as conceptualized by Kolb (1985). The assumption is that Americans prefer to learn from action-oriented methods and are more comfortable learning from activities that are not job related, such as role plays and games, than do their French…. [read more]

Positive Outcome in the Educational Term Paper

… Third, there is a growing awareness that rapid technological change and our nation's economic competativeness will compel workers to adapt existing skills and learn new ones to optimize performance.

As noted, interest in thinking and problem solving has been renewed, but traditional approaches to teaching these skills have met with very mixed results (Nickerson, Perkins, & Smith, 1986). It now appears that the efficacy of these efforts was determined by at least three interrelated factors: First, instructional designers often failed to appreciate the importance of domain-specific knowledge in effective thinking and problem solving (Chi, Glaser, & Farr, 1988). Programs that emphasize the use of generic reasoning and problem-solving heuristics may be theoretically general across situations, but they usually lack power in any specific situation (Anderson,…. [read more]

Parent's Selection for Supplementary Tutoring Dissertation

… Diversity can also be discovered in the ages and experiences of tutors. In a lot settings, secondary school students were able to learn a little money by tutoring primary school children, and likewise university students tutor would do the same for those for the secondary students. A lot of the parents in Hong Kong approve of that fact of getting tutored by older people, many of tutors were retirees that had wished that they still to contribute to society and earn some extra money. Among these two excesses of age are others who deliver tutoring on a full-time or part-time foundation, and who may or may not have official training. Again this picture really contrasts with normal schooling, in which teachers are estimated to be…. [read more]

Nietzsche and Nihilism Term Paper

… Nietzsche and Nihilism

"The world itself is the will to power -- and nothing else. And you, yourself are the will to power, and nothing else!" F. Nietzsche

Friedrich Nietzsche was a 19-century German philosopher and classical linguist. Despite his modern reputation as being pro-Nazi or fascist, he was quite critical of all social control, and wrote extensively on religion, morality, culture, and science. Nietzsche's writings were, in fact, quite influential in numerous disciplines in both the humanities and sciences. In fact, with his continual questioning of the validity of truth and reality surrounding key ideas about the death of God, eternal recurrence, and the will to human power, many see him as the epitome of post-modernist thought and a prime example of nihilism.

Much…. [read more]

Comparison of American and Japanese Early Childhood Education Term Paper

… American and Japanese Early Childhood Education


Public education provides for many things in one's life, such as improved social standing, an educated electorate, and a greater opportunity for citizens of a democratic society. Education is a marker for career achievement and serves as an indicator of social equality or inequality. In most areas, education is seen as a prerequisite for professional advancement and related economic levels. Lack of education commonly receives blame for such social problems as inequities in employment, social aspirations, and perception. Equalizing education, therefore, has many dimensions that go beyond just the system of education.

Originally, most education systems centralized as a conscious effort to provide more education to more people and to improve the quality of that education. The expansion…. [read more]

Mathematics Z-Model Framework in Middle School Thesis

… This unique framework has 4 domains, and while this study investigates the Z-model's use in the mathematics curriculum, this framework is focused on improving and enhancing students' achievement in any course of study.

The four domains involved in the Z-model create a comprehensive educational understanding and framework for use in improving educational progress. They are:

  1. Brain development, and efforts in the classroom which can enhance/promote brain development.

  2. How project-based learning can be utilized in order to fully engage the student in the learning community.

  3. Data-Driven instruction (the second half of the breadth - vs. - depth debate). The students must be held accountable to learn a specific knowledge base of facts, figures, and formulae. Without objective measurement of the educational progress,…. [read more]

No Child Left Behind Act Research Paper

… In addition, the results show wide variation in effectiveness among teachers. The immediate and clear implication of this finding is that seemingly more can be done to improve education by improving the effectiveness of teachers than by any other single factor." (p. 63)

Whether we are dealing with NCLB or other programs, the simple realities of contemporary society are that diversity abounds. For society to continue to evolve, not only must diversity be celebrated, but children (and parents) of all needs should be exposed to alternatives. Just as ghettoization was found to limit the opportunities of racial and ethnic minorities, segregation of children with special needs would only serve to enhance their differences. In addition, depending on the level of social or intellectual ability, segregation…. [read more]

Existence of God the Philosophical Essay

… It may be argued that if an all-good God designed the world, he surely would not have allowed evil. The problem of evil is generally regarded as the most important argument against theism. (Mavrodes, 1995)

The argument from morality, like the cosmological argument, is really a family of arguments (Hick, 26-27). First, there is the argument from the existence of objective moral laws to a divine lawgiver. Second, there is the argument from the existence of objective moral laws to a transcendental Ground of Values. Third, there is the argument from the fact of human conscience to a divine "voice of conscience." Finally, there is the argument from the acceptance of moral obligation to the postulation of a transcendental Ground of Values. Religion and morality…. [read more]

Autonomy Metaphor: Men as Leaves John Locke Term Paper

… Autonomy Metaphor: Men as Leaves

John Locke's Moral Theory

Leaves of Grass & Autonomy

The concept of Autonomy in "Paradise Lost"

Aeneid and Free Will


The idea of freedom in Nature

Autonomy and Liberty in the Literary Context

The concept of Practical Freedom in the philosophy of Kant

Equality and Freedom

The evolution of the idea of autonomy:

Within the conceptual framework of traditional philosophy, it is indeed very difficult to understand how freedom and non-sovereignty can exist together…Actually it is as unrealistic to deny freedom because of the fact of human non-sovereignty as it is dangerous to believe that once can be free…as an individual or as a group…only if he is sovereign..Under human conditions…freedom and sovereignty are so little identical that they…. [read more]

NCLB No Child Left Behind: The History Thesis


No Child Left Behind: The History, Status, and Implications of an Impossible Educational Plan

This paper provides an overview of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, which was enacted as an amendment to the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. The No Child Left Behind Act received strong support for its focus on equalizing achievements between all students in the country, and by improving educational achievements in certain core subjects deemed to be especially necessary to continued success. A history of the No Child Left Behind Act is provided, tracing the roots of its purported philosophy from Brown v Board of Educations through findings of a 1983 Department of Education report detailing school inequalities. The current impacts of the legislation, however,…. [read more]

Steps to Improve Inclusion Especially for Profoundly Retarded Students Term Paper

… ¶ … school inclusion with the goal of showing how an inclusion program, when implemented and understood correctly, can work to benefit all students involved, both special and regular education. This paper is aimed at a New York City middle school where the student population is comprised of both general and special education students, including profoundly retarded and autistic students.

Recently, the school district has implemented a policy that requires inclusion efforts to be made. The typical situation is that a special education student is pushed into a general education course, such as math, literacy or science, where they are accompanied by their paraprofessional. The paraprofessional will provide materials for the special education student, thus the general education teacher does not provide any instruction to…. [read more]

Editorial Distance Education Theory Thesis

… Distance Education Theory

Moore opens his discussion with two important conceptual clarifications: that of distance learning and transactional distance. He begins by exposing the weakness of what the term "distance learning" denotes as he states, " [it] is troublesome since it suggests actions of one person, i.e. The learner, that are independent of the actions of teachers" when in fact a distance learning program is dualistic in nature as it involves both teaching and learning experiences (par. 3). In order to substantiate this claim, he drew upon the transaction literature which proves the existence of the interplay of multitude of factors in the education setting as "the teachers and learners, [transacts] in an environment that has the special characteristic of separation of one from another,…. [read more]

Autism Spectrum Disorder Is a Serious Affliction Term Paper

… Autism spectrum disorder is a serious affliction that has increased in prevalence in recent years. It is estimated that one out of every 150 children born in the United States is autistic. It is unclear whether the disorder is diagnosed more often or if the rate of occurrence has actually increased dramatically. Whatever the case, autism has emerged as a serious health issue. The purpose of this discussion is to Compare and contrast two theoretical models of intervention in Autism.

Behavioral model of Intervention

Behavioral interventions designed to treat autism are amongst the most studied and best tested interventions for those suffering from the disorder. According to a book entitled, Autism Spectrum Disorders this particular type of intervention results in a broad range of benefits.…. [read more]

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