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Feminism How Sports Reproduce Research Paper

… For instance, it is easy to realize that all sexual orientations can engage in one sporting event like playing rugby, soccer, and/or football (Brace-Govan, 2010).

Racial norms

Sporting activities have emerged and cut on racial lines. The world soccer slogan is directed at eradicating cases of racial differences and negative perceptions that have been generated because of such differences. For instance, sporting activities have changed the phase of the world in regards to seeing different races in the world. The world soccer has staged enough fights in trying to eradicate cases of racism in sport. For instance, the UEFA champion's league is one of the global soccer events that try to kick racism out of soccer in the world. The notion behind the slogan used…. [read more]

Sports and Gender Discrimination Term Paper

… The reasons for the gender testing are applicable but it is suggested to complete the procedure of the athletes before they enter the competition in order to minimize the burden and unfair publicity.

Cultural And Social Assessment

Feminist theory states that women will be given equal rights in sports and media however this equality doesn't exist and there exist a problem for women's full exposure in media. Masculine homogeny also fails to be maintained through media and sports.

According to Gramsci's (1971) concept of hegemony was examined with social classes. Hegemonic masculinity supports hierarchical male dominance which places women below men. Sports is considered as a primary force that cultivates hegemonic muscularity in the western societies along with negative ideals and differences of women who…. [read more]

Gender in Sports Research Paper

… Gender in Sports

In the opinion of this author, in the sports of modern society, the status of male and female should be equal. To support this position, we well examine the history and development of male and female sports and then contrast it with the status of males and females in sports in modern society. The reasons for this status will be examined including genetics and sports technology, government input and commercial input into the sports field. This evidence will support the author's opinion that Now, female's status is fast approaching the male's because their ways of training and playing sports are becoming closer.

Contrary to popular opinion, there are ancient models for the equality of men and sports in the ancient world. In…. [read more]

Sports in American History Term Paper

… However, over time, sports would become a significant arena in the battles that were against segregation and racial refinement.

The Negro National League had been discovered in 1920 by Rube Foster, and this organization was like a hub for blacks going through racism on the field. This league did survive for a while but racism in this recreation of baseball went on for a very long time. The Negro Southern League operated consecutively from 1920, usually at a lower level. Up until, until 1946 professional baseball in the United States was performed in two racially separated league organizations, both that were on each side of the so-called color line. During a lot of the time there were two high-level "Negro major leagues" that were having…. [read more]

Gender and Sexuality Define Term Paper

… 8. What does gender at the intersections mean? Give an example to explain.

Gender at the intersections mean that identity of a person cannot and is not solely the gender but gender forms a significant part of a greater whole composed of influences of race, religion, age, ethnicity, etc. Therefor gender in itself is an incomplete expression of one identity. In one or more instances, gender can be a source of identity such as when attending 'ladies night' at the club.

9. Describe Fennels use of gendered division of labor.

Labor means work and Fennels explains that the work is assigned and divided among society based on their gender. Based on genders, men are assigned the labor of breadwinning whereas women are assigned the labor…. [read more]

Sports and Education While Research Essay

… Put another way, it may not be that sports actually improve a student's academic performance, but rather than a student must already have decent grades in order to play sports. While one may suggest that these requirements encourage students who wish to play sports to try harder in school, this is entirely different from the argument that playing sports itself is beneficial to academic performance, because the effects of the former case could be achieved with an academic requirement for any sufficiently attractive activity. The distinction here is crucial, because the reported academic benefits of sports are put into question if these preemptive academic requirements are not taken into account. Thus, in the extant literature, one may confidently acknowledge the positive correlation between non-athletic extracurricular…. [read more]

Pay Discrimination at Workplace Between Men and Women Thesis

… Gender Pay Discrimination in the Workplace

This work will examine gender pay discrimination in the workplace specifically in relation to the concepts of treatment discrimination and comparable worth policy. This is in terms of the definition of each concept in the discussion regarding gender pay discrimination in the workplace.


"Gender Pay Gap Nothing to do with Discrimination" states that instead of making things better for women "equal pay and anti-discrimination legislation may in fact be counter-productive..." (Other Views, 2008) for women and men between the ages of 22 and 29 the average gap in full-time pay if "now less than one percent." (Other Views, 2008) Research findings show that men "tended to work longer hours and put in more overtime than women,…. [read more]

Discrimination in Workforce Gender Essay

… , 1997). The feminist theory has also proved that harassment creates a hostile environment in which it becomes very difficult for a woman to work with concentration and leads to negative professional outcomes in them. These sexual harassment acts include unwanted sexual-based jokes, inappropriate and unwanted touching or offensive comments on clothing (Willie & Vert, 1995).

The targeted employee of harassment must complaint about the harasser and it is the responsibility of managers and supervisors to take care of the cases of harassment with in the office environment and take prompt and serious actions against these issues to make sure that these issues will not happen again in future. If the manager or supervisor neglects the compliant or in cases in which the supervisor himself…. [read more]

Sports Management Women in Sports Management: Trends Term Paper

… Sports Management

Women in Sports Management: Trends and Implications

While some observers might suggest that there is still a "glass ceiling" in place in many industries that continues to restrict American women's ability to achieve upper management positions, the fact remains that there are more females in management positions in the United States today than ever before, and some of these women have achieved significant success in previously male-dominate fields (Watt, 2003). One field of particular interest today is sports management, where females are now making significant inroads on this once-primarily male occupation. According to one authority, these trends are fairly recent: "With the exception of a few athletes, women making a living in sports was never considered a career option a generation ago" (Feehan,…. [read more]

Gender Inequality in Hong Kong Essay

… For that reason, women in Hong Kong are over-represented in lesser revenue sectors and unplanned labor. Further, the gender hole in wage has improved in current years and women appear to be much more susceptible when it comes to poverty (Merry, Stern, Deveaux, & Inoue, 2006).

Even though Article 25 of the Basic Law provides that all Hong Kong residents are supposed to equal before the law no matter the situation, many women in Hong Kong do not always feel this way (Kwong, 1999). Additional, article 1 of the Bill of Rights delivers that the rights which are recognized in the Bill can be enjoyed without dissimilarity of any kind, counting sex (Kwong, 1999). Hong Kong has also passed a Sex Discrimination Ordinance that forbids…. [read more]

Race and Gender in Sports Influence of Family Dynamics and Getting a College Education Term Paper

… Sports, Race, And Gender


Sports, race, gender and sociology

Sports, race, gender and sociology

"The 10,000-hour rule has become a cliche. This is the idea, first espoused by K. Anders Ericsson, a psychologist at Florida State University, that it takes about 10,000 hours of practice before any individual can become an expert. The corollary of this rule is that…differences in talent reflect differences in the amount and style of practice, and not differences in innate ability…The differences between expert performers and normal adults are not immutable, that is, due to genetically prescribed talent. Instead, these differences reflect a life-long period of deliberate effort to improve performance" (Lehrer 2010). However, in regards to sports, particularly in regards to minority performance in sports, immutable characteristics like…. [read more]

Gender and Society Sexism Term Paper

… Additionally, men's sports are traditionally considered in a "more superior manner" (Armstrong & Hallmark, 1999).

Tuggle (1996, 1997) reports that ESPN's "SportCenter" and even CNN devote much less than "five percent of their coverage to women's sports" (Armstrong & Hallmark, 1999). Of the coverage that women are offered, team sports are often ignored in favor of individual events such as golf and tennis (Armstrong & Hallmark, 1999). Women's sports are often portrayed in the media as "less important than men's athletic competition" (Tuggle, 1997:19). This only emphasizes the idea that male sports are more supreme and competitive in nature. The lack of coverage of women competitors also suggests that women's sports are less important and less aggressive than male competition.

A study of NCAA Division…. [read more]

Gender and Sexuality Term Paper

… Gender and Sexuality

Prior to 1942, which five countries in Latin America had granted female suffrage?

Ecuador in 1929

Brazil in 1932

Uruguay in 1932

Cuba 1934

El Salvador in 1939

From one of your readings, what three aspects of democratic governance were analyzed with respect to their implications for gender equity?

First, democracy was viewed as only existing if those that are governing were there because those who were being governed agreed with their being there. Second, democracy was seen as a system where everyone was able to express their ideas as well as their concerns in order to dictate their own individual likings. Third, democracy entails giving different individuals the chance to govern over the people.

Name and describe the single-most important piece…. [read more]

Sports Law Essay

… These individuals have shown that they can effectively compete against men. (Women Still Setting Sights 2011)

However, there are still many events (such as: the Masters) that are for men exclusively. Moreover, no one woman has been able to play consistently on the men's tour. Instead, women have played with PGA and then returned to the LPGA at some point. In the future, some of younger women golfers are focusing on breaking these barriers. (Women Still Setting Sights on PGA Tour 2011)

This is showing how discrimination law is focused on giving women the same opportunities to compete against men. Over the course of time, more women are breaking through cultural and traditional barriers in the world of sports. Golf is one area where these…. [read more]

Football and Society A- Sports Term Paper

… e. The observer is looking and recording behaviors, without the notice of the subjects under observation (techniques, 2004). This type of direct field observation has kept me aloof from becoming an active participant of the game itself and has helped be to record unbiased observations. Further, this form of direct observation has suggested a more detached and separate perspective of the subjects in concern. Moreover, this form of direct observation is more focused, precised and subject-oriented than a participant observation, in which I have to become the part of the match to obtain some physical data. I am simply observing the football match and the behavior of the players than trying to become immersed in the game. This method is less time consuming and less…. [read more]

Discrimination and Affirmative Action Essay

… Women are often viewed as the weaker sex in intelligence, physical ability and emotion. This bias against them is often used in the workforce and sometimes used by women against women in competing for a higher position or promotion within the same organization.

Gender discrimination in the workplace has been a significant issue that has been well observed by the Equal Pay Act of 1963 and in Title VII, Civil Rights Act of 1964. Patterns of gender discrimination, especially as related to upward mobility for women, have remained in the workforce since the mid-1980s despite social, demographic, and legal changes. Sex categorization can bias workplace relations and conserve inequality by forcing gender-labelling of jobs, contributing to employers' discriminatory preferences, and mediating willingness to settle for…. [read more]

Discrimination and Affirmative Action (Glass Essay

… It is not a fact of stepping up to the plate and saying, 'I want to see change.' It is how we will strategies and will drive the change. It is also the realization that this could take years to overcome but it is achievable. To eradicate this vice or reduce it, the solution will have to come through a lot of factors. First and foremost, women are the first people who should be in the starting line to advocate for change. They should demonstrate that they can work in all fields especially in scientific fields like KBR. It is up to the women to accept the change, and eliminate myths labeled against them especially that they are weak I some areas. A woman can…. [read more]

Gender-Based Wage Disparities Essay

… Australian women in public sector jobs (particularly low-level positions) no longer seem as fully susceptible to these expectations in part because there is a growing consensus that the data being used is more reflective of the realities that women experience.


Baron, JD & Cobb-Clark, WA (2009). 'Occupational Segregation and the Gender Wage Gap in Private- and Public-Sector Employment: A Distributional Analysis.' The Economic Record, vol. 86, no. 273. pp. 227-246.

Bertrand, M. (2010). 'New perspectives on gender.' Handbook of Labour Economics. Vol. 4b. DOI 10.1016/S0169-7218(11)02415-4. 1545-1592.

Cobb-Clark, D. And Tan, M. (2010). 'Noncognitive skills, Occupational attainment, and relative wages.' HILDA. Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research.

Coelli, M. (2011). Occupation differences and the gender wage gap in Australia: a detailed re-assessment. HILDA.…. [read more]

Title IX: Negative Effect on Men's College Athletics Essay

… ¶ … Boost for Women's Athletics but a Bane for Men's Athletics?

"No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving federal financial assistance." -- Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972

Although there is no doubt that when first enacted into federal law in 1972 (as part of the Educational Amendments of 1972), Title IX was viewed as a long-overdue boost for women's sports in colleges and universities. For many years, university men's sports -- in particular football and basketball, which bring in millions of dollars for big time Division I schools -- were the only game in…. [read more]

Women in Sports Essay

… Women in Sports

Sports, as well as other areas of social reality like politics or labor, have been viewed as a man's world for many centuries. As it has happened in politics or human rights, women have always found not only the strength but also the leadership to take things to the next level and create positive change in the way they are seen both by men and by other women.

Women in the times of the ancient Olympics were not only denied access as contestants but were not even allowed to be spectators, sports being considered a show for men. Later, as the Heraea Games appeared, every four years girls and young women had the opportunity to race in various competitions in the same…. [read more]

Gender Reflection: On Identifying Essay

… For example, when men go out drinking, being able to consume large quantities of alcohol is considered manly, and someone who does not is looked down upon. Because I try to stay physically fit and love to play sports, the drinking and partying lifestyle is not compatible with my personal goals. But many of my male Russian friends do not understand this.

As a straight man, it was interesting for me to see the video "Dude, you're a fag," in which the author Dalton Conley noted that the epithet 'fag' was not about same-sex desire but about not being appropriately masculine. While this may be true in the United States (and based upon my experience in the U.S., I am inclined to agree with the…. [read more]

Gender Gap Wages Essay

… Public Administration

Gender Gap Wages

When economists talk about the gender gap nowadays, they usually are speaking about systematic differences in the outcomes that men and women attain in the labor market. These dissimilarities are seen in the percentages of men and women in the labor force, the kinds of professions they choose, and their relative incomes or hourly wages. The gender gap in U.S. labor force contribution has been wearing away progressively for at least 110 years. "In 1890, 15% of women in the United States aged twenty-five to forty-four (all marital statuses and races) reported an occupation outside the home. This figure increased to 30% by 1940, 47% by 1970, and 76% by 2000, when it was 93% for men in the same…. [read more]

Gendered Experience in the Workplace Sexual Discrimination Term Paper

… Gendered Experience in the Workplace

Sexual discrimination is a reality in the workforce. Despite many recent and well- publicized advances of individual women in business, and some prominent examples of female leadership of once male-dominated corporate entities, in the everyday experience of most workers, common workplace relations remain 'gendered' in terms of leadership. Gender constructs that favor promoting males to positions of leadership still affect the perceptions of managers, and their employees. I know this from my own personal experience, even though I am male.

No, I did not face some sort of "Disclosure"-like scenario, as dramatized in the (very) fictional film with Michael Douglas and Demi Moore. Penned by Michael Crichton, the film showed a man discriminated against by his female boss because she…. [read more]

Discrimination Against Women in Morocco Only Response to CEDAW Term Paper

… Discrimination agaisnt women in Morocco only (response to CEDAW)

Discrimination against Women in Morocco

Women have been discriminated against since the beginnings of time and the process is far from being eliminated. The only thing that has changed is the degree and gravity of discrimination - whereas in some countries the husband still has the right to decide whether his wife lives on, in other countries the women are discriminated against in the meaning that they register lower salaries.

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women was implemented by the United Nations in 1979 and its aim is to protect women against discriminatory policies and actions and to establish equality between genders. In order to best understand how the CEDAW…. [read more]

Gender Discrimination Still Continues Unabated Term Paper

… But today, 38 years later, women are still paid less than men -- even when we have similar education, skills and experience," [Rasheeda Bhagat]

In a study conducted on a sample of 807 institutions within the country having 40,878 administrative staff, it was found that women held 43% of the jobs. But the glaring fact is that, most of these women were employed by institutions that were of lower caliber. Because of the inverse relationship between women and the nature of the institutions that employ them women tend to get paid much less. Qualification, experience and other factors being equal, women only managed to earn $40,000 per annum while men with similar position earned $53,600. So we see that women are economically affected because of…. [read more]

Gender Inequality Research Paper

… Similarly if men want to enter fields like fashion, arts or designing they face a tough time. Friends, family and society don't exactly put a stop to this dream but to some degree these men are made fun of for liking something so feminine.


The worse off an economy, the more chances there are of gender inequality in favor of men usually. This is because the society holds the view that women were meant to help raise kids. At the same time, it believes that men are the major, provider of the family, and have no other roles and responsibilities which demand their attention to this great an extent. Therefore, the job market turns in favor of men when the economy is not doing…. [read more]

Women Discrimination Thesis

… Discrimination Against Women in California Health & Medical Contexts

Gender Discrimination: "ED medications are for men only; prescription birth control is for women only. Legislators who permit health plans to operate under a double standard are engaging in gender discrimination against women."

Gender Inequality in California Health Issues

In how many areas of healthcare in California are there disturbing injustices for women? The answer will be the basis for this research effort. This paper will review and analyze several of examples of unfairness to California women in healthcare matters, and reference critics who have challenged the policies that lead to a lack of fairness.

Insurance discrepancies give women the shaft: The California National Organization for Women (CANOW) sites the fact that "women pay much more…. [read more]

Gender Discrimination Term Paper

… Gender Discrimination

This report aims to prove that the hiring and promotional policies in Company X are discriminatory towards females. We are prepared to present expert testimony that details and outlines evidence of rampant illegal discrimination in the company Human Resource policies over the course of many years. This information will and should be used to receive remedy from this court of law for the female plaintiffs to rectify this practice of blatant Company X glass ceiling policy implementation. Nowhere in our highly industrialized nation have women been able to enjoy what we would consider equal status to their male counterparts. However, the labor market has extremes and Company X falls into this extreme category.

Although sexual inequality in employment avenues seems to be a…. [read more]

Gender Stereotypes and the Ontogenetically Term Paper

… The courts are eliminating training programs that discriminate in providing equal opportunity for promotional and job opportunities. This is especially the case when completing these training opportunities is required for advancement. Much of the tensions here come about because individuals view training as instrumental in helping them achieve advanced opportunities, and thus they are concerned when they feel programs are not made available. Some believe that as organizations have a greater need for workers, these difficulties will diminish; others are not as confident.

The Glass Ceiling Effect

Barriers to advancement and increased compensation for women and minorities in the workplace have been described as the "glass ceiling effect" (Federal Glass Ceiling Commission, 1995). The glass ceiling refers to any artificial barrier that limits promotion and…. [read more]

Gender Studies -- the World Term Paper

… On page 91, Rosen reviews the actions that created a backlash against the feminist movement. In general, some of the backlash against NOW and the feminist leadership was because radical actions by militant women got the most coverage on television, and the average person was turned off seeing women chopping off their hair, and sitting down on the floor at an all-men's bar, waiting to get arrested. America was going through -- or had been through portions of -- the Civil Rights upheaval, the anti-Vietnam War chaos, and this seemed a little too much for many middle class Americans, that women would not demand to be equal with men. What was America coming to, after all, if a woman could demand -- and receive --…. [read more]

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