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Sports Marketing Peer-Reviewed Journal

… Sports Marketing

Evaluating the Match-Up Effect and Athlete Endorsers

For Sport and Non-Sport Brands

In the peer-reviewed article "To Catch a Tiger or Let Him Go: The Match-Up Effect and Athlete Endorsers for Sport and Non-Sport Brands" the authors cite and through empirically-derived research, clarify analysis of the fit between products and celebrity vs. non-celebrity endorsers. The first study is based on the hypothesis that a sport celebrity will be more effective promoting a sport brand, with the majority of benefit being to the celebrities image and name awareness. The second study matched an anonymous model that is identified as an athlete with a sport and non-sport brand. In this second test, the anonymous model that is positioned as an athlete is more effective promoting…. [read more]

Athletic Ethics and Morality Athletics Term Paper

… Athletic Ethics and Morality

Athletics Ethics and Morality in Classical and Modern Times

Thousands of years separate Classic times from modern ones. One would think that those thousands of years would dramatically change the face of major society and the values that go with it. When looking at the field of sports, however, the status of athletes and all the rewards which accompany that status have remained strikingly similar. When comparing Ancient Greek and Roman athletes to our modern day athletic superstars, one can see how thousands of generations have solidified the athletic mythos rather than evolving it into a completely different institution. The prizes of athletic prominence have varied with the changing technology of society, but the internal moral structure centered around popular athletics…. [read more]

Athletic Scholarships Providing Term Paper

… I do not know if this is envy or not, but the high-level coaches have worked hard to earn their salaries and recognition, just like any other highly paid television figure. Non-athletic professionals have made proposals stating their prejudicesses against athletes. A couple of years ago, "a 28 member commission of current and former university presidents, other university officials, and private citizens, produced a report recommending shorter playing seasons, removing commercial logos from uniforms, requiring that at least half of the players on the team must graduate to be eligible of championships" (n a, December 2001). When discrimination or childishness like this take place on a professional level, it becomes mandatory for school athletic programs to do their own fundraising, because scholarship programs are effected.…. [read more]

Celebrity Endorsement Strategy: An Investigation Essay

… (Source:

What you have here than in short is the first stage where no definite action is taken and the company cursorily becomes acquainted with the celebrity and decides whether or not to move forward. Frequently, the process tops just where it is with company and endorser parting on friendly, but non- businesslike terms.

In the second stage, the company cautiously proceeds to test whether celebrity may be a good fit, whether celebrity is interested; negotiations are casually mentioned; and objectives and measurements are tentatively formulated.

The last stage is the most serious of all, when the company actually hires the celebrity and conducts serious and drawn out negotiations regarding goal objectives, the contract, measurements to assess outcome, and results are conveyed to stakeholders.…. [read more]

Sports Management. I Learned About Sports Purely Term Paper

… ¶ … sports management.

I learned about sports purely from a spectator's perspective. Although I also love to play a variety of sports, I found myself increasingly drawn towards the business aspects of games whether that be NHL hockey or MLB baseball. Sports management also appeals to me because it allows me to combine by business acumen with my greatest passion in life.

The importance of sports marketing to the overall success of a professional sports organization as well as to athletic excellence.

Key Points


Although the economic recession has adversely impacted the willingness of some sports organizations to take risks and invest in new merchandising opportunities, merchandising remains an important aspect of the marketing mix. Sports merchandising can be viewed within the overall…. [read more]

Sports Endorsement Sports Celebrity and Product Research Proposal

… Sports Endorsement

Sports Celebrity and Product Endorsement From a Consumer Perspective

Marketing as a science and as an art form relies heavily upon impression building, an understanding of the psychology of one's consumers and the ability to communicate a desired image with the aid of emotionally evocative cues. When an advertising agency constructs the print, radio, television or internet item that will carry these characteristics, a great deal of thought and discussion will typically be invested in discussion the intended presentation of the client. This discussion will touch on such matters as the visual response sought by the client; the verbal phraseology which is likely to tow the difficult balance between compelling and safe; and the human subjects which will be used to endorse the…. [read more]

Brand Loyalty Research Proposal

… Kunkel, Funk, and King (2009) investigate sport team brands, and specifically as these are associated with league brands. Brisbane and Sydney (developed locations) were the specific investigation locations.

The study found that brand association literature could be usefully applied to promote an understanding of sport league associations. Attributes, benefits, and attitudes were factors that linked strongly to professional football leagues. League identification and peer group acceptance, on the other hand, could not be proven as particularly important for league brands. Commitment showed the strongest correlation. Once again, the fact that this study was conducted for developed world participants provides a strong basis for application to the American market. Contrasting factors can then be identified for the Kenyan market as well, which makes this study useful…. [read more]

Sports Marketing History Essay

… ¶ … Sports Marketing History

There have been many important instances in the modern era in the sports world that have shaped the industry of sports marketing to a huge degree. Athletes in certain sports -- especially boxing and, centuries prior to that, jousting/sword fighting -- had long been popular, built was not until mass media and massive sports leagues formed that modern sports marketing could have evolved. Without a doubt, one of the most important events in the history of sports that created the need for modern sports marketing was the beginning of the modern Olympics at the very end of the nineteenth century. This was the first major international sporting event, combining multiple sports, athletes of both genders, and by 1912 athletes from…. [read more]

Women in Sports Research Proposal

… ¶ … women in sports, how it is changing, and how women in sports have impacted our lives and society. Women have participated in sports for centuries, and yet, sports have historically featured men, especially in more modern professional sports settings. While women have made great strides into many professional and exhibition sports, they are still largely absent from the big professional sports franchises, such as Major League Baseball and Football. Until women gain true equality in all sports, women in sports will continue to be unequal with the male-based and biased world of professional sports.

Historically, sports have always been a part of life, even back to ancient times. The Greeks invented the Olympics before Christ was born, and even then, sports were male-dominated.…. [read more]

Sports Management Recommendations for Nike Research Proposal

… Sports Management

Recommendations For Nike

In as study, recommendations may be positioned in two categories, according to David S. Walonick, Ph.D. (2005) in the journal publication, "Elements of a research proposal and report." This section of the study relates the first type recommendations to basically relate actions the researcher asserts need to be take, based upon the data he study notes. The second type recommendations address other researchers and typically present ways a study may be refined or improved. These also point out changes the researcher would make if conducting the study over again. From the data in this study, the researcher asserts that NIKE could benefit from addressing the following four issues:

Increase in Research and Development (R&D) budget

Enhanced attention to reliability of…. [read more]

Celebrity Marketing Companies Today Spend Term Paper

… Or, bad boy Robbie Williams could cross the line of acceptability by making antiwar statements that inflame the public.

And, there are many more risks associated with celebrity marketing. A celebrity's ability to break through the clutter of advertisements may become limited if the celebrity takes on too many endorsements. Perhaps Beckham decides that he wants to rake in all the money while he can and endorses beer, sports clothing, cars, and a fast food chain to boot. The impact of Beckham reduces as the number of brands he endorses increases. In converse, the brand can be overshadowed by the overwhelming presence of the star. Showing Williams singing for a product could cause the audience to be so consumed with the artist and his performance…. [read more]

Brand Management Nike Essay

… From the initial endorsements on the products Nike already had a leadership position in to the use of endorsements to break into new markets, Nike successfully uses celebrity endorsers to strengthen their brand first. This is difficult to do well as the majority of endorsement deals benefit the celebrity first and the company endorsing them last (Collins, 2003).

Nike realizes that the brand of the celebrity needs to be in alignment to their specific product messaging as well. They have learned this through the attitudinal and persona research completed (Anana, Nique, 2010). With football being such a profitable sport for them, they have signed the most reputable, respected athletes in this sport including Tim Tebow, Quarterback with the New York Jets, Victor Cruz, Marshawn Lynch…. [read more]

Octagon Sports Marketing Plan Research Paper

… Octagon has managed to build and maintain strong relationships with many media outlets domestically and internationally. The teams are involved in drafting and editing press releases, write company bios, update athlete and executive bios, and develop client pitches.

Olympic Action Sports

Olympic & Action Sports have been part and parcel of Octagon from the early days of representing snowboarders to the first time swimmers. Enjoying the support from the company's global resources, it always maintains a committed team of personnel who concentrate exclusively on the Olympic and Action Sports space, (Richmond, 2013). The team has been evolving continually in order to develop market strategies and platforms for its clients within the current new and rapidly-changing sports business landscape.


Octagon Tennis has dedicated all their…. [read more]

Personal Philosophy of Sport & Career Term Paper

… For others, sport is an opportunity to exploit athletes for financial gain. This is what happens in college sports. Basketball players and football players at American Universities will bring in billions of dollars year round by the athletes themselves will see none of that. Meanwhile, they are expected to attend classes and get good grades in order to be eligible to play. They are also expected to be at practice, which is basically a full-time job. They are like employees of the school and the entertainment service they provide to fans brings in a lot of revenue for the school. The focus is all on winning titles and championships and it has gotten so competitive that teams are paying athletes to come play for them…. [read more]

Marginal Revenue and Over Paid Athletes and Celebrities Term Paper

… Marginal Revenue and Over-Paid athletes and Celebrities

Celebrities both on the screen, entertainment and sport are revenue yielding business attractions. They are recognized as potential revenue creators. The law itself recognizes the rights with regard to the revenue for celebrities. The special economics that centre on the celebrity who has a great public following offers a venue for the celebrity to market the following. The Supreme Court of the United States deciding on the publicity right recognized the importance in terms of fiduciary equations, the celebrity as a marketing proposition. "In Zacchini v. Scripps-Howard Broadcasting," the court examining the right to publicity gave the opinion - "State's interest in permitting a 'right of publicity' is in protecting the proprietary interest of the individual in his…. [read more]

Marketing Communications and Sports Increasingly Marketers Term Paper

… Marketing Communications and Sports

Increasingly marketers are turning to professional sports to strengthen their brands by associating them with exceptional athletes, as is the case with Buick aligning itself with Tiger Woods on the PGA (Fitzgerald 2002) or Phil Mickelson with his Accenture-branded golf hat (Stogel, 2004). The same holds true for both commercially-oriented and consumer brands sponsoring NASCAR teams. Take for example the sponsorship of driver Tony Stewart by Home Depot over the last few years and the double-digit growth in ladder sales whenever he wins a race and climbs up a Home Depot ladder when he accepts the trophy to see everyone on the infield (Ferriss, 2005). Advertisers are seeing significant return on investment (ROI) from sponsorships in the NBA, major league baseball…. [read more]

SWOT Nike Air Max 2012 Women's Running SWOT

… ¶ … SWOT

Nike Air Max 2012 Women's Running Shoe

Situational and SWOT Analysis




Nike Corporation is one of the consistently most profitable and innovative providers of athletic apparel, accessories, footwear and ancillary products globally, generating $20.8B in revenues in their latest fiscal year, generating $9.8B in profits. As of the close of fiscal year (FY) 2011, Nike is organized into six divisions including China, Eastern and Central European Operations, North America, Western Europe and the newest division, Emerging Markets. Nike is organized also by product areas with over two dozen business units operating today across a wide spectrum of business, consumer and government markets. The company is well-known for its ability to quickly transition new product concepts from Research…. [read more]

Developing and Managing Products Research Paper

… Marketing

Nike has long been a master at marketing. The company has sold its products on a platform of differentiation, driven by minor technological changes and through the endorsement of celebrity athletes. The company has sought, over the course of the past few decades, to create a mystique about its brand that appeals to a wide range of different consumers. In recent years, Nike has also been at the forefront of the trend towards increasing specialization in athletic apparel. Nike is also known to rely heavily on word of mouth and buzz marketing (Moudoukoutas, 2012).

Nike's comprehensive approach to marketing is expensive, but it also delivers results. For most consumers of athletic apparel there are strong associations with the Nike brand. In recent years, Nike…. [read more]

Kamp's Claim Soccer: A Creepy Essay

… The entire sports industry had incentive to make soccer a different kind of good, not one that would compete with the preexisting sports. At the same time, American culture has become more litigious and thus, careful with players' bodies. It was a perfect storm of elements combining to create a new, calmer version of sport.

In conclusion, the point of sporting is to serve as a catharsis. Millions of years ago, humans rose from the primordial ooze. Within our brain is an older, more primal brain that reflects our violent past. To keep those impulses and emotions at an emotional level, rather than let them come out as behaviors, they are subjugated into sport that the whole nation watches. None of this is true of…. [read more]

Michael J. Jordan Term Paper

… Michael Jordan

In March 2005, a Harris Poll revealed that Michael Jordan is once again America's favorite sports star even though he has been retired since 2002 (Michael pp). No athlete today seems to transcend the game as Jordan once did, and his reign at the top of this year's list speaks to the absence of big stars among this generation's athletes (Michael pp). Michael Jordan is the best-known player in the history of professional basketball (Michael1 pp).

Jordan is not only the best-known player in the history of basketball, he is considered the best-known athlete in the world (Michael2 pp). Born in Brooklyn, New York, and raised in Wilmington, North Carolina, he accepted a basketball scholarship from the University of North Carolina and as…. [read more]

International Business Adidas' Global Market Repositioning Research Proposal

… International Business

Adidas' Global Market Repositioning

Adidas is a massively successful footwear and sports apparel company that has enjoyed penetration of global markets. In the major European markets, Adidas has parlayed its historical reputation for affiliation with professional football and athletic competition into a vaunted status. And its acquisition of Reebok in 2006 would poise it to remain atop its perch there. However, the United States remains the world's largest and most lucrative footwear and sports apparel market. This is the core focus for Adidas, and indeed for the case study here provided.

The study details the struggles which Adidas has experienced in pinning down the interest of American consumers, indicating that though it has had some markedly encouraging success as with the Tracy McGrady…. [read more]

Sports Marketing Nike's Marketing Strategy Thesis

… Nike's Marketing Strategy

Nike, the world's largest athletic wear company, has developed a sophisticated marketing strategy that supports its vision of inspiring athletes. At the core of their strategy is the concept, developed by co-founder Bill Bowerman, that "if you have a body, you are an athlete." Much of Nike's marketing strategy flows from that statement, and the mission to inspire "athletes."

The company develops inspiration through the development of high-end products. They have built a diverse line of complementary products to maximize the value of their brand. Nike products are available through many different channels. The promotional programs are comprehensive, cultivating and reinforcing Nike's positioning.

Nike has adopted a differentiation strategy. To do this, they have placed significant emphasis on their product. This emphasis…. [read more]

Advertisement Analysis Selling Women Term Paper

… This connection between the power which enabled Hatshepsut to take the throne and the power of addiction which links women to their cigarettes could also be construed as something of a false analogy. This ad appeals to penis envy, in a very Freudian sense, falsely suggesting that the phallus of a cigarette can replace the phallus of a penis which women may wish they have. To understand how obvious this phallus imagery is, one needs only follow the obvious links -- the mention of women needing to know their place and that this place is to become (a male gendered) king by taking on a new length to be enjoyed.

Ironically, there is also a red herring sort of argument going on in this ad.…. [read more]

Casual Argument Essay

… ¶ … Youth and the Media: The Harmful Relationship

Imagine Christina Aguilera scantily dressed in a nurse's uniform, as a schoolgirl, or clad in leather and wielding handcuffs. No, this is not a scene from a male fantasy. Instead, it is a series of advertisements, not for Christina's newest album or some sort of provocative product, but for shoes, gym shoes. According to the pop culture blog, Air Massive, the advertisements were part of a Fall 2004 campaign called "Naughty and Nice," that featured Aguilera in a series of poses that "illustrate fetishistic male sex fantasies" (Kid). Through an exploration of this advertisement's negative portrayal of women, in addition to its inappropriateness as advocate for the product it is trying to sell, one can easily…. [read more]

Media Plan for Retail Chain Steve and Barry Thesis

… Business - Advertising


Background and History of the Steve and Barry's Business Model: Partners Steve Shore and Barry Prevor were childhood friends who opened their first retail casual clothing store near Detroit, Michigan in 1985 as both were completing their undergraduate studies (at Tulane University and the University of Michigan, respectively). Initially, Steve and Barry's sold only university and college logo apparel; consequently, their main customer base were college-age consumers (Steve & Barry's LLP 2008).

From the start, Steve and Barry's implemented a business model that emphasized providing quality merchandise that is comparable to that of leading brand-name retailers at a much lower price. To do so, the company established pricing that dramatically undercut the prevailing retail prices by…. [read more]

Jordan Shoes Celebrities Article

… Shoe Blog

Brand Stewardship Blog: What's in Your Jordans?

Other than the occasional Hanes commercial, we really aren't seeing too much of Michael Jordan these days. After his record-shattering career spanning several decades in college and professional basketball -- and trying his hand at a few other sports and a fondly remembered blockbuster movie (anyone else have a hankering to watch Space Jam again?) -- one can hardly blame the man for wanting a bit of relaxation. But if you think we're just sitting back and relaxing, too, you've got another think coming.

Air Jordans might have been the perfect shoe when they were first introduced, but like the Master of the Air himself we here at Nike keep on striving to improve upon perfection.…. [read more]

Manager Employee Staff Nike Term Paper

… Casual sneakers are among the more popular type of athletic footwear, with 28% of consumers purchasing casual footwear each year (MRC, 2000). The population breaks down as follows:

Chart 2:

Data Information Source: MRC, 2000. Consumer Buying Behavior Patterns.

The market growth for sales in athletic shoes is expected to grow to 44 billion in the year 2004 (MRC, 2000).

Consumers will typically "scan the environment, via the media and any other means available" in an effort to obtain information about products not available in their area (Porter, 2003: 6, Ibid, 51). Nike has made their product information and materials very accessible and ready for such scanning.


Nike first surpassed Adidas in 1980 becoming the number one athletic shoe company with sales of 270…. [read more]

Business Strategy Report for Nike Research Paper

… Nike manufactures and markets sports apparel and equipment on a global scale. They operate in 160 different countries, and have revenues of $18.6 billion. Yet, they are a growth company. Without any significant acquisition, they have consistently grown revenues and profits over the past several years by shifting emphasis on brands they own in growth sectors.

Nike's marketing strategy revolved around two concepts - premium positioning and everyone with a body is an athlete. These concepts drive their strategies, including endorsements from the world's most popular athletes, and the development of products for both the serious athlete and the mass market.

Financially, Nike is strong. They are liquid and are on a steady growth trajectory. They are, however, underleveraged. The company derives significant strength from…. [read more]

Amusing Ourselves to Death Media Term Paper

… Spindler (1995) agrees with Postman and writes "Television is the medium that has so far made the most dramatic impact on our social structure. Cultures and even nations appear defenseless to its influence." We know from experience that we take certain important subjects lightly only because a good looking people are used to comment on them. Similarly our choices of goods and services are heavily dependent on the way they are advertised. If a celebrity endorses it, we are more likely to opt for it too without really questioning its quality or utility.


Neil Postman, "Amusing Ourselves To Death," Penguin Books 1986

James Davison Hunter: Culture Wars: The Struggle to Define America. Publisher: Basic Books. Place of Publication: New York. Publication Year: 1991.

Brian…. [read more]

Nike and Reebok Term Paper

… Another statistic states: "Digital billboards are making headway nationally. More than half (55%) of travelers have noticed a digital roadside billboard in the past month and nearly one-third (32%) have noticed one in the past week" ("Zinc LED screens solutions," 2009). It just affirms that digital billboards are the way to go for companies like Nike in promoting and effectively marketing their products.

This leads into Nike's pricing strategy. Nike uses Price Leadership strategy and value-based pricing. They do this in order to satisfy pricing objectives. Their pricing objectives may encompass consumer price elasticity and price points; and the resources they readily have available. Nike spends a lot of money on advertising. This is because they want to establish their brand as a top of…. [read more]

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NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.