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Sports and Anti-Trust Term Paper

… The Maurice Clarett Case

Regarding the NFL's position, they do not believe they are unreasonably restraining trade by insisting on monitoring and controlling the entry of players into the game. They are simply setting guidelines by which all players can have equal access to the game, and all teams within the league can have a fair and equal access to the annual crop of new players. According to NFL's executive vice president Jeff Pash, "We will move promptly for a stay in the Court of Appeals. We continue to believe that last week's ruling is legally erroneous and not in the best interests of the NFL, college football, or professional and college players. We are a long way from a final decision." (, online) Pash…. [read more]

Sports Management Facilities as a Sports Events Research Paper

… Sports Management


As a sports events organizers there is a lot of responsibility that is involved. First would be able to find out the condition of the facilities being used for the baseball game. It would be to look for the best baseball fields. It would be important to make sure that facilities and cleaned for the use and also that they are safe. For example, the benches that the fans will be sitting on have to be secure a clean it there is tall grass on the baseball field. Them it will be my job to make sure that Th baseball field is manicured. The next thing to do would be to make sure everything is prepared such as the preparation (for instance…. [read more]

Sports Law Essay

… These individuals have shown that they can effectively compete against men. (Women Still Setting Sights 2011)

However, there are still many events (such as: the Masters) that are for men exclusively. Moreover, no one woman has been able to play consistently on the men's tour. Instead, women have played with PGA and then returned to the LPGA at some point. In the future, some of younger women golfers are focusing on breaking these barriers. (Women Still Setting Sights on PGA Tour 2011)

This is showing how discrimination law is focused on giving women the same opportunities to compete against men. Over the course of time, more women are breaking through cultural and traditional barriers in the world of sports. Golf is one area where these…. [read more]

Sports Administration Research Proposal

… Sports Administration -- Sports Teams: Private or Public Administration?

The general perception is that sports is a field for the highly athletic elites, the people who then move on to representing the countries in international sports events, to keep the audience in awe and tension, and to bring them from agony to ecstasy. Yet, what is often overlooked is that, just like any other formation, the sports teams function in accordance to pre-established goals and plans; gather money and spend money. From this standpoint then, they ought to be run as private institutions, in charge of their funds and able to administer their resources as they see fit. On the other hand however, the sports teams are part of the national heritage and they represent…. [read more]

Sports Agents Term Paper

… edu). Lawyers may also represent persons holding an equity interest in the ownership of a team ( There are innumerable ways to become involved either primarily or incidentally in sports law matters ( Sports law is a broad legal discipline ( Lawyers and agents desiring to enter the field must know they face intense and sometimes unprincipled competition (

Fledgling sports representatives will likely have to augment their income with other legal work that will provide regular income unless and until the agent contracts with several successful clients ( A customary method of obtaining clients is by using personal contacts, friends and other athletes to meet professional athletes ( The more sports figures you know, meet and represent, the better the chance of engaging some…. [read more]

Sports and Gender Discrimination Term Paper

… The reasons for the gender testing are applicable but it is suggested to complete the procedure of the athletes before they enter the competition in order to minimize the burden and unfair publicity.

Cultural And Social Assessment

Feminist theory states that women will be given equal rights in sports and media however this equality doesn't exist and there exist a problem for women's full exposure in media. Masculine homogeny also fails to be maintained through media and sports.

According to Gramsci's (1971) concept of hegemony was examined with social classes. Hegemonic masculinity supports hierarchical male dominance which places women below men. Sports is considered as a primary force that cultivates hegemonic muscularity in the western societies along with negative ideals and differences of women who…. [read more]

Mega Sports Event to a Hallmark Assessment

… ¶ … Mega Sports Event to a Hallmark Sports Event: The Olympics and Wimbledon on London

Impact and Issues of a Mega and Hallmark Sporting Event

Festivals and special events are organized in destinations, places, and regions to celebrate, offer a feast, boost economy and regional cooperation. Hallmark events are large special events with limited time, lower risks of congestion, environmental degradation, and financial investment related to issues like building permanent facilities like the Wimbledon or the European Capitals of Culture (Akerlund 2008). Mega or major events are events of extraordinary significance, reputation, and scale like the Olympic Games or the World Trade fairs. The commercial and political aspects of sports have expanded into domestic and international events like the Olympics and Wimbledon sports. These…. [read more]

Cornell Sports Marketing Strengths Term Paper

… Customer Base: Far broader, drawing on a much larger non-Cornell base. Also more of a focus on marketable men's games and spectator sports, as opposed to less popular female and boutique sports, like crew and lacrosse.

Reputation: Depending on team and sport, reputation for giving 'better game' in professional sports, overall, Ivy League athletes, fairly or unfairly, looked upon in a dim fashion.

Financial Position: More leeway to experiment, as profit margin higher.

Business Strategy: Marketing of high profile sports, teams, and professional athletes The most important strengths we possess and the best opportunities we face are:

First: There is a heightened disillusionment with professional athletes, given recent doping scandals, and a heightened interest in amateur and less popular sports, given the recent Summer Games.…. [read more]

Has the Use of Performance Enhancing Drugs of Professional Athletes Negatively Impacted Athletes and Sports? Term Paper

… Sports - Steroids in Sports


Pharmaceutical performance enhancement in sports and military combat has existed about as long as recorded history. In many cases, ancient athletes and warriors used some of the same stimulants and medicinal herbs commonly at issue today in connection with professional sports. In principle, it is immediately obvious why drugs taken immediately before competition to provide a momentary advantage would be anathema to the spirit of athletic competition (Bettman 2008; Stern 2008). Likewise, it is perfectly understandable to prevent irresponsible drug use by minors.

It is not immediately apparent, logically, why professional athletes should be prohibited from using drugs that enhance performance only indirectly, such as in conjunction with long-term training. It may be that the…. [read more]

Sports Have Graduated Term Paper

… Sports must be recognized as the big money industry it is; it cannot hide forever behind the mask of fair play and cheap entertainment. Sport "is a commercialized amusement business." (Tygiel, 109).

The social consequences of this history of sports are rather powerful. Essentially, the lessons that were inherent to the original conceptions of sports -- fair play, competition, learning of skills -- have been replaced with the necessity to win. This trend stretches down from professional sports to grade school. Because sports are seen as a path by which to achieve the dream of economic freedom, parents and coaches continually push children to win at all costs. Steroid use is one visible consequence of this more broad social trend: "High school students easily obtain…. [read more]

Law School Personal Statement Research Proposal

… Law School Personal Statement

I have gone through enormous challenges in my lifetime, some brought about by external factors and numerous by my own indecisions and bad decisions in life. However, every time I have managed to come out on top and focusing on work seems to have always been the right instrument to pull my through a personal crisis. Despite my Bachelor Degree in Business Administration, obtained in the Fall of 2008, I have always felt that time and life challenges have never given me the appropriate time to spend with my academic career and with learning in general -- at least not to the degree that I wanted to allocate as much time as possible for this segment of my life.

With my…. [read more]

Sports Law: Octagon Football Research Paper

… When it comes to the identification of specific individuals, organizations, or enterprises, trade names are used. For organizations like Octagon that are routinely engaged in athlete marketing, the subject of trade names cannot be avoided. The names of players, including their nicknames (if they are deemed to be well established) can be trademarked. Indeed, within the last few years, the number of athletes seeking to secure trademark registrations from the federal government for their images and names has gone up (Goins, 2012). When developing service marks or trademarks for sporting events, Octagon Football must, therefore, at all times ensure that such marks are distinguished from those of entities it does not have special arrangements with. On the other hand, the organization must also take deliberate…. [read more]

Sports and Society Term Paper

… Violence in American Sports Today

Participation in amateur athletic events has grown tremendously over the past few decades in terms of their scope, power, and economic status. In fact, in the United States alone, amateur athletics involve the lives and athletic experiences of people from their childhood through high school and college and beyond. Not surprisingly, then, high school and college sports are one of the most popular, and according to some observers, important aspects of academic life today. The camaraderie and fellowship that can emerge among sports players can last a lifetime, and practically all participants and spectators derive a great deal of entertainment from these events. The economics, too, of many high school and collegiate sporting events make these important components of the…. [read more]

Sports Management Term Paper

… This indicates that sport can be advantageous not only through involvement of people in it, but also through other types of participation and therefore recommends that the necessity for a broader evaluation of the influence on involvement and participation on sport, post games. (Literature Review: The impact of major sporting events)

The quality of service has been analyzed in the field of business management for years since the market is more competitive and marketing management has shifted its concentration from inherent performance like production to outward objectives like satisfaction and customers' perception of service quality. But the term service quality has only focused in the field of sport and recreational literature during the last twenty years. SERVQUAL that indicates the conventional disconfirmatory model was considered…. [read more]

World Cup Unifying the Globe Research Paper

… Sports

World Cup: Unifying the Globe

In almost every country of the world, the way that the national pastime is played is seen as a guide to national character and identity. For nearly 100 years, soccer has united a divided world. Soccer was invented in England in the mid-19th century, and rapidly spread to Europe and South America. Soccer's world cup draws an audience larger than that for the Olympics. According to Franklin Foer's How Soccer Explains the World (2004), American hostility toward soccer is attributed to globalization, feared by many because it forces us to accept other people's cultures (Szymanski and Zimbalist, 2005

In every sport it is easy to find a player, a team or a nation that is on the edge of…. [read more]

Sports Marketing & COVID-19 Effect on NBA Article Review

… e., through social media influencing (Leder, 2019). Each of these goals is important for the company. First, customer retention allows the company to bond with its consumers over a sense of shared values. When the company shows it has the same values as the customer, i.e., the customer’s best interests, at heart, the customer is more likely to be loyal. Second, happy customers tell their friends about the company, which increases sales for the company. Third, repeat customers decreases the need to market to new customers, which saves the company on costs. Finally, social media influencing is free advertising.

Importance of Social Media to Sports Marketing

Social media is the most important marketing tool of any organization in the 21st century because it…. [read more]

Sports and Drugs Illicit Essay

… However, the tradition of informing just the doctor after two positive tests should be rethought and the team owner should also be brought into the loop. This can help in dealing with a player more effectively as is proved in the case of Travis Tuck, when he was found unconscious due to a drug overdose in a hotel room. The club president, Jeff Kennett, claimed that if he had known about the first two tests he would have been able to help Tuck and keep a closer eye on him. Tuck was found to suffering from depression which was something a club president should know (ABC 2010).

Also there is no provision in the rules about players who are taking medicines which might contain banned…. [read more]

Effects of Drugs Coming Over the Border on Law Enforcement Research Paper

… ¶ … Drug Trafficking Across the Border on Law Enforcement

Over the last several decades, the amount of drugs smuggled across the American borders has rapidly increased. One reason this has occurred is the high level of profitability the American illegal drug market offers. Increased competition in Mexico, amongst Mexico and Columbian drug cartels has resulted, as they both compete for control of the lucrative East and West coast American markets. Demand, profitability and competition have all been factors in the dramatic increases in the quantity of illegal drugs coming across the borders, including: Crystal Meth, Cocaine, Marijuana, Ecstasy and Heroine ("Drug Trafficking," 2004). To better understand this problem, this paper presents drug trafficking and prevention statistics. This is followed by an overview of the…. [read more]

Oppression by the Law Essay

… Law as a Means of Oppression

Over the years, there have been trends observed across the globe where the laws passed in many law making bodies are geared towards or directed at suppressing the poor of that society. Despite the fact that the poor in these societies are the majority, the few rich people often use their influence over the law makers to ensure that laws that are passed are meant for the oppression of the poor of the concerned countries.

Law has often been used, not as a means of insuring that justice is served, but as a means of segregating and oppressing certain groups of people.

The drug war

One of the apparent uses of the law in suppressing the poor people was…. [read more]

Women and Health Agenda Essay

… These are demographic structures, patterns of disease and risk factors. Lower mortality rates among children below the age of five years and declining fertility rates characterizes the demographic transition. The outcome is an ageing populace. There is a decrease in the aver-age number of children borne by each woman in global perspective, from 4.3 during the early 1990s to 2.6 by 2002 -- 2010.

The reduced birth rate is the high usage of the contraception. The epidemiological transition indicates a shift in the major causes of death and diseases. This is in contrast to infectious diseases, such as diarrhea and pneumonia, towards non- communicable diseases for instance, cardiovascular disease, stroke and cancers. The risk transition is featured by a decline in risk factors for infectious…. [read more]

Violence in Sports Research Paper

… Violence in College and Professional Sports

The pressure to win is so strong in college and professional sports than many players will do whatever it takes to succeed. Often, these methods are simply out and out malice. In addition, athletes are not always protected by the law, due to state and federal statutes. Cases from college and professional sports will be referenced to show this. Fights and brawls are completely inappropriate to the sports arena; violent behavior is criminal and should not be part of the game. Sport law, in its efforts to reinforce the fair play of sport contests, must continue to examine violence in sports in order to keep players safe and preserve the entertainment value of the games.

Sport violence can be…. [read more]

Steroid Use Controversies of the Sports World Term Paper

… Steroid Use

Controversies of the Sports World

Tough Choices: A Book about Substance Abuse

Use of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids in Adolescence: Winning, Looking

Good or Being Bad?

Athletes and Steroids: Playing a Deadly Game

Anabolic Steroid Abuse

Admissions before BALCO grand jury detailed

Romanowski: I broke RB's finger, took steroids, damaged brain

The Demonization of Anabolic Steroids I: What Makes These Hormones

So Evil?

What are Steroids?

Types of Steroids

Who Uses Steroids?

Reasons for Steroid Abuse

Performance Enhancement in Sports

Increasing Muscle Size

Problem Behavior

How Are Anabolic Steroids Used?

The Effects of Steroid Abuse

Masculinization in Women

Effect on Men

Cardiovascular Diseases

Liver and Skin



Telltale Signs of Steroid Abuse

Use of Anabolic Steroids in Baseball and Pro-Football

Jason Giambi

Bill Romanowsi…. [read more]

Women's Sports Women's Participation Term Paper

… "The controversy is whether the end justifies the means, and that's the battleground where this is being fought."

Miami State University's sports program is large, with 22 varsity teams; however, its revenue sources are limited (Suggs, 1999). Even though it has 11 women's teams, the university has not even come close to meeting proportionality standards. Women make up 55% of Miami's undergraduate student body but only 45% of campus athletes. To meet "substantial proportionality" mandates, at least 50% of athletes must be women. Thus, the school is faced with dropping certain men's sports teams to make room for new women's teams.

However, a representative from the Office for Civil Rights insists that institutions like Miami have options besides proportionality. "The beauty of Title IX is…. [read more]

Ticket Prices and Athlete Salaries Research Paper

… 167). Although there remains a paucity of timely and relevant studies in this area, these findings are consistent with the studies to date that have shown that the increase in athlete salaries has affected professional sports negatively because they contribute to the growing perception of these players receiving inordinately excessive and even exorbitant sums in return for their efforts, placing their tickets at levels that are no longer affordable for many average consumers (Jozsa & Guthrie, 1999). For instance, these analysts report that, "Escalating ticket prices may have contributed to lower attendance" (Jozsa & Guthrie, 1999, p. 80). In support of these assertions, Jozsa and Guthrie cite the following:

1. NFL ticket prices averaged $36 in the 1996 season; at $25 a seat, the New…. [read more]

Ancient Greek Olympics and Their Influence on Sports Today Term Paper

… Ancient Greek Olympics and Their Influence on Sports Today

Most of Greek history has been recorded and printed in great numbers. However, no authentic historic records illustrate Olympic activity before 776 B.C. Nonetheless, it is worth noting here within the contests in Homer's Iliad, clear indications have been given to these competitive games. The Olympic activity had been carried out mainly in the honor of their god Zeus. Games took place in the great city of Olympia for 4 consecutive days, and sometimes even 5 days, after every four years.

Due to their deep-rooted and extensive history, Olympics held a very prestigious place amongst the Greeks. A variety of games were played, which comprised the Isthmian at Corinth, the Pythian Games at Delphi, as well…. [read more]

Title IX and Its Impact Research Paper

… One ever present point of contention which is raised relentlessly by detractors of Title IX is the highly controversial three-pronged test which is used to measure a university's compliance. Originally formulated by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW), a now-defunct sector of the federal government which published its Intercollegiate Athletics Policy Interpretation in 1979 to amend Title IX, the three-pronged test relies requires collegiate athletic programs to meet one of three conditions. When a university can "provide opportunities that are proportionate to the student enrollment, demonstrate continual expansion of sports opportunities for the under-represented gender" or achieve "full and effective accommodation of the interests and abilities of the under-represented gender" (Roberson, 2011) they are found to be in compliance with the major directives…. [read more]

Ethical Effects of Steroids in Baseball Sports Research Paper

… ¶ … baseball policy and federal law in the United States of America have been violated by especially by players in Major League Baseball who have been for a long time involved in the wide spread of illegal anabolic steroids and other types of performance enhancing drugs (PEDs). During the evaluation of players, it has always been a routine by club officials to scrutinize all possibilities of such substance use. Most of the players who have illegally used this substance range from those who had brief careers in the major league to Baseball Hall of Fame potential members. These players include position players and pitchers, who have diverse backgrounds as the major league players.

In the past few years, many baseball players have achieved an…. [read more]

Antitrust Exemptions Essay

… 83). Throughout the1970s and 1980s, the National Basketball Association, National Football League and National Hockey League all faced lawsuits from free agents and organizers of rival associations claiming their practices amounted to unfair competition and restraint of trade. In the Powell cases of 1988-89, the 8th District Court upheld the labor exemption for an indefinite period, even in cases where union contracts had expired or had failed to be negotiated at all.

Curt Flood sued major league baseball in 1972, arguing that its reserve system was illegal under the Sherman Antitrust Act, but the federal courts ruled against him in Flood v. Kuhn, but recommended that Congress examine baseball's exemption from antitrust laws (Spengler et al., 2009, p. 246). In the Brown case of 1996,…. [read more]

Real Estate Eminent Domain Thesis

… Constitutional Law: Real Estate Eminent Domain in Los Angeles, California

The objective of this work is to find one legal case from which an eminent domain event occurred in Los Angeles, California, within the past five years. Furthermore, this work will locate two articles that are no more than one-year-old that directly relate to this topic. This work will critically analyze the legal case and current event.

Eminent Domain is defined as the power held by a government, either federal, state, country or city and to include school and hospital district and other agency to secure private land for public use and this may be with or even without the permission or approval of the owner of the property. It is provided in the Fifth…. [read more]

When Media Treads on Thin Ice Term Paper

… Media Law

A Post reporter found on a dirt road in Iraq some maps and documents created by the U.S. military relating to military action in the war. Because the Post is a responsible newspaper, it calls and asks a high-ranking military commander to explain the materials and put them in context. The next day, the Government goes to court to keep the Post from publishing documents.

What is the legal name for what the Government is seeking?

What is the standard the judge will use to determine if the Government will succeed?

Where does the standard come from?

The government is seeking an injunctive equity remedy since preventing the Post from publishing the documents is the action that is needed and requested. The court…. [read more]

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