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Sport Drink Facts and Fictions Research Paper

… Results: Compared to placebo (water), ingesting glucose are regular intervals during the steady state portion of the task significantly improved performance; however, the addition of caffeine did not improve performance significantly compared to glucose alone. Conclusions: The sample size was small and incompletely randomized. Another weakness in the study was the use of water as a placebo, which would not taste the same as the other two beverages. In addition, the cyclists were all caffeine users, so the effectiveness of caffeine would depend on how much caffeine the cyclists typically consumed. Despite these limitations the authors were able to show glucose supplementation increased performance by 4.6% compared to water alone. When caffeine and glucose were combined, the average performance improvement was 9.0%, but statistically the…. [read more]

Sports Medicine Research Proposal

… Sports medicine specializes in preventing, diagnosing and treating injuries related to participating in sports and/or exercise, specifically the rotation or deformation of joints or muscles caused by engaging in such physical activities. Because of the competitive nature of sports, a primary focus of sports medicine is the rapid recovery of patients, which drives many innovations in the field (Sports Medicine).

Three General Areas of Sports Medicine

Sports medicine can be divided into three general areas: clinical sports medicine, sports surgery, and the physiology of exercise.

Clinical sports medicine

Clinical sports medicine includes the prevention and treatment of athletic injuries and the design of exercise, improvement of performance and nutrition programs for maintaining peak physical performance. It includes the study of the effects of different levels…. [read more]

Sports Science and Sports Medicine Term Paper

… (Patrick, 2003) This is known as neuromuscular training, these programs seek to enhance balance, body/joint awareness, movement technique and muscle strength, a mixture of biomechanics and physiotherapy. (Patrick, 2003)

When pro-basketball player/coach Korie Hlede tore an ACL five years ago, she began an ACL injury prevention routine that she follows religiously so as to prevent the injury from recurring. (Patrick, 2003) These routines are also followed by many professional and college teams, NCAA Division I women's college soccer players, Norway handball teams, all with significantly improved ACL injury statistics. (Patrick, 2003)

Another area that has developed increasingly in sports science is exercise physiology. It is specifically the study of how people respond to acute and chronic exposure to physical stress in a variety of environmental…. [read more]

Sports and Steroids Thesis

… Sports and Steroids

Steroids and Their Effects

Steroids or anabolic steroids are drugs containing hormones or similar substances, which are used to increase strength and grow muscles (Donald & Talmadge 1998). When first developed in Europe in the 30s, they were used to treat under-nourished patients and induce their healing after surgery. It was in the 50s that competitive weightlifters discovered steroids to improve athletic performance. Athletes of other sports took after them, so that gradually, at least one out of15 male high school seniors in the U.S. has used the drugs. Some of them just want to increase strength and size, while others want to grow up faster to catch up with peers. Anabolic steroids can be bought over the counter in some countries,…. [read more]

Sports and Gender Discrimination Term Paper

… The reasons for the gender testing are applicable but it is suggested to complete the procedure of the athletes before they enter the competition in order to minimize the burden and unfair publicity.

Cultural And Social Assessment

Feminist theory states that women will be given equal rights in sports and media however this equality doesn't exist and there exist a problem for women's full exposure in media. Masculine homogeny also fails to be maintained through media and sports.

According to Gramsci's (1971) concept of hegemony was examined with social classes. Hegemonic masculinity supports hierarchical male dominance which places women below men. Sports is considered as a primary force that cultivates hegemonic muscularity in the western societies along with negative ideals and differences of women who…. [read more]

Athletic Training Whether to Win Term Paper

… Football

Football is a sport of power, strength, speed, endurance and finesse. Of all the most popular team sports, the need for weight training in football is probably the most obvious, based on the demands of the sport and the visibly bulky condition of many of the athletes. Conditioning programs and exercises for football must be sport-specific (Football strategies, 2000). At whatever level a football player competes, the athlete who adds weight training and strength training to their regiment almost always demonstrates greater aptitude for the game.

The weight rooms of high schools, colleges, and professional arenas are filled with football players year-round because of the efficacy of strength training. Coaches and trainers recommend that players use both an off-season strength/weight training program and a…. [read more]

Sport Psychology the Evolution Research Paper

… There were no significant differences in perceived psychological well-being among the sports groups themselves." (Edwards & Edwards, p. 9)

Paradigm Shifts:

The increased emphasis on mood regulation and other methods of self-directed emotional control is evidence of a general paradigm shift in the way that sports psychology is pursued. This is to be expected the text by Johnson (2006) indicates given the relative newness of the field in general and the continued advancement in the discourse on cognitive psychology as a discipline. For many paractitioners in the field, this would contribute to a merging of the theoretical and the functional as the field evolved. According to Johnson, "in the mid '90s, expectations about the future of sport psychology were diverse. While some researchers claimed that…. [read more]

Sports-Related Concussion and Statistical Study Essay

… Tactical Responsibilities

According to De Salvo et al. (2007) statistical techniques are not only used to assess players performance but the results and conclusions of these analyses are used to design and develop position conditioning and player's individual training plans. It is a contemporary sports science practice to use manual as well as technological tools to gather quantitative data and analyze the data using mean, percentage, standard deviation, and probability components of statistical techniques (Szymanski, 2003). The increased usage of these techniques has modified the applicability of traditional game planning practices. A position coordination analysis is also performed using computerized match analysis system. Match analysis techniques are also applied to opponent teams to assess their strengths and weaknesses.

Advantages and disadvantages

There are advantages and…. [read more]

Intercollegiate Athletics Program Guarantee Essay

… Other critics of intercollegiate athletics programs point to the lack of transparency involved in how these programs are funded and administered. In this regard, Nelson and Watt (1999) emphasize that, "Activity fees constitute a steady source of income for athletic departments regardless of the success of the football team. The distribution of such monies on many campuses is hidden from students, that they do not often know what exactly they are paying for, and that they would be reluctant to fork over the money so readily if they did" (39). To be truly successful from the perspective of all stakeholders over the long-term, Nelson and Watt (1999) maintain that the invisible hand should dictate what college students want from their athletics programs, if anything at…. [read more]

Athletic Coach I Have Garnered Term Paper

… "A pronating foot rolls toward the inside. A supinating foot rolls toward the outside. A Morton's foot is a combination of these two abnormalities." (Levy 199).

A pronating foot can result in knee problems from the joint being repeatedly twisted. I have found that most people with a pronating foot can be treated with a simple arch support, but naturally, this is not the right answer for everyone. I have learned that, "For 10% of runners, an arch support provides too little lift, and for another 10% an arch provides too much lift. These 20% of runners need a custom-made shoe insert, or orthotic device." (Levy 200). This is why -- for my distance team -- although I require every member to use an arch…. [read more]

Flow States and Sport Essay

… It is also essential to note the tendency of relationship between hypnotherapists to gain significant personal performance regardless of the competition within the sporting arena (Flaymonville et al., 2006). Unconscious mind is the driving force between most of the beliefs and behavior of individuals. This makes it ideal for the technique, which elicits change at unconscious level to be highly effective. This is an indication that hypnosis is a critical technique that offers the drive for the development of positive change in the sporting performance and the concept of flow. Hypnosis is essential in enhancing the ability of athletes to overcome performance anxiety and jitters before the competitions thus gaining optimum performance. This is because of the ability of the technique to facilitate the acquisition…. [read more]

Racism in Australian Sports History Essay

… The Girri Girii Sport Academy enters the academy with high self-efficacy. Generally it has been believed that students with positive-identity are possibly to be associated with the success of the school and in order for the school to attain a positive self-identity then the students have no option except perceiving value in schooling.

According to (Craven, 1989)), the aspiration of evaluated Indigenous students as well as the results based on the self-concept indicates that of course indigenous students do have lower self-concept as derived from the academic facets of self-concept. Other researchers have associated identity to vocational education and illustrate that individuals tend to connect to the practices of their communities by valuing place and its learning impacts. There suggestion is on effective programs in…. [read more]

Legal Issues That Follow Sports Injuries Research Paper

… Sports Injuries

Legal Issues in Sports Injuries


In the context of sports injury, especially in competitive team contact sports, mere negligence is not sufficient to warrant legal liability (Sawyer 1997). Courts have recognized that in the course of enthusiastic play, inadvertent rule violations and other cases of negligence are bound to occur, and that the expectation of such negligence is a part of the assumption of risk each voluntary participant in the sport takes on (Lazaroff 1990). Instead of using a simple negligence test for liability, a reckless action or intentional action standard has been adopted by most jurisdictions as the test for liability in sports injuries that arise out of competitive play (Sawyer 1997). This has different implications for different types of injuries,…. [read more]

Psychology in Sports Thesis

… Sports Psychology

Athletes can often be seen and heard giving themselves positive affirmations concerning how they are going to perform. This scenario often happen before and even during competitions. The purpose of such murmuring is to prepare the mind and the psyche for the task ahead. The topic of sports psychology has garnered a great deal of attention in recent years. Athletes and trainers alike recognize that being successful in the sports arena involves more than physical strength. It also involves mental strength and stability. The purpose of this discussion is to explore psychology in sports and the impact that the techniques utilized in sports psychology have on athletes and their ability to perform at an optimal level.

Psychology in Sports

Sports Psychology is defined…. [read more]

Career of an Athletic Trainer Term Paper

… The most respected and accepted educational facilities are accredited according to standards created by the Commission on Accreditation for Allied Health Education (CAAHEP), a division of the American Medical Association (Hibberts). Many students major in exercise science with a specialty in athletic training. In most cases, they also need to obtain a state license or National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA) certification in order to work as an athletic trainer and "to become certified, trainers must complete 1500 hours of athletic training, and pass the National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA) certification exam" (AHEC). Training includes many different factors, including nutrition, psychology, human anatomy and physiology, exercise physiology, first aid, therapy, injury prevention, administration, and many other aspects of sports psychology, medicine, and management (Hibberts).

There are…. [read more]

Sociology of Sport Term Paper

… Firstly, the overall values will be discussed.

It has been argued that what is valued in sport reflects what is valued in society, with American society valuing competition in sport because of its history as a society based on capitalism. Importantly, this model of business success is one based on achieving and succeeding, rather than achieving a greater purpose. While it may be argued that a business operates to provide for the people's needs, in reality a business is not going to continue unless it makes profit. Businesses therefore focus on succeeding and on beating competitors who are also trying to serve the same market. This is almost exactly what occurs on the sports field, two teams compete for one trophy. In the business world,…. [read more]

Sports Management Term Paper

… This indicates that sport can be advantageous not only through involvement of people in it, but also through other types of participation and therefore recommends that the necessity for a broader evaluation of the influence on involvement and participation on sport, post games. (Literature Review: The impact of major sporting events)

The quality of service has been analyzed in the field of business management for years since the market is more competitive and marketing management has shifted its concentration from inherent performance like production to outward objectives like satisfaction and customers' perception of service quality. But the term service quality has only focused in the field of sport and recreational literature during the last twenty years. SERVQUAL that indicates the conventional disconfirmatory model was considered…. [read more]

Steroid Use in Sports Term Paper

… ¶ … steroids in sports. The author works to explore the topic and brings to light several cases in which it has been a problem. Steroid use in sports is not just a problem in the professional circuit, but has crept its way into high schools and colleges across the nation. The author explores the use of steroids in that environment as well and suggests solutions to the problem.

Children across the nation are conditioned their entire lives to want to excel in sports. Watching their parents watch them from the stands encourage children to try even harder the next time. They hear their parents brag about their last game over dinner, or at a party and they learn that excelling at sports gets their…. [read more]

Philosophy of Sports Term Paper

… Philosophy of Sports

But it's good for you!"

An overview of American Sports -- collective and individual anxiety about just having fun

One of the reasons that the ancient Greek ideal of sports came into being is no doubt the individualistic nature of Greek physical excellence, as embodied by the first Olympic Games. Ancient Olympic, Greek athletes competed in sports such as boxing, horse and foot races, wrestling, and the events of modern track and field, including the contemporary Olympic pursuits of the shot-put and the discus. Even the modern ideal of national excellence was absent from the first, Greek games, "The ancient Olympics were rather different from the modern Games. There were fewer events, and only free men who spoke Greek could compete, instead…. [read more]

Equine Sports Medicine Polo Research Proposal

… Equine Sports Medicine

Polo is one of the sports that rely heavily upon horses. The sport has developed from ancient times, and is growing in popularity in the United States, as well as other Western countries. According to Paul Wollenman, 40% of polo ponies in the United States are Argentine Thoroughbreds, while 60% are American. Polo players require more than one horse -- up to as many as seven -- during a game.

The game is played by four players on each team, and consists of six 7-minute periods, or chukkers. Usually a different horse is used for each chukker. Because so many horses are required for each game, the investment requirement is rather large, despite the fact that polo ponies are generally cheaper than…. [read more]

How Can Sport Affect Health? Research Paper

… ¶ … citizens in the United States are suffering from mental or physical health problems, scientists agree that the practice of sports on a regular basis is the key to a healthy body and lifestyle. According to a recent survey, sports is a really effective way to prevent against obesity (Department of Health and Human Performance, University of Houston, 3855) which is a major concerned in the United States. Many scientists seek to answer the question: In what way the practice of a sport will best prepare the body to face different diseases, nutrition and mental problems? In this paper I will argue that even if sports can lead to serious injuries such as head injuries, bone fracture, and anterior cruciate ligament; Sports not only…. [read more]

Why Does Gender Matter in Sport? Research Paper

… ¶ … Gender Matter in Sports?

There may well be reasons that gender should not matter in sports. However, sidestepping questions of morality or justice, gender does currently matter in sports for several reasons. Gender definitions have traditionally created and perpetuated differences that make gender matter in sports, though these gender definitions are being challenged. In addition, studies have found gender differences in injury, specifically regarding concussions among high school athletes. In any event, due to current circumstances in sports, gender matters.

Gender Definitions

Development of a masculine identity is psychologically fundamental for males (Messner, 1989). Furthermore, a public masculine identity is fundamental for males within society (Messner, 1989). The actual content of any individual's identity comes from that person's choices in areas such as…. [read more]

Has the Use of Performance Enhancing Drugs of Professional Athletes Negatively Impacted Athletes and Sports? Term Paper

… Sports - Steroids in Sports


Pharmaceutical performance enhancement in sports and military combat has existed about as long as recorded history. In many cases, ancient athletes and warriors used some of the same stimulants and medicinal herbs commonly at issue today in connection with professional sports. In principle, it is immediately obvious why drugs taken immediately before competition to provide a momentary advantage would be anathema to the spirit of athletic competition (Bettman 2008; Stern 2008). Likewise, it is perfectly understandable to prevent irresponsible drug use by minors.

It is not immediately apparent, logically, why professional athletes should be prohibited from using drugs that enhance performance only indirectly, such as in conjunction with long-term training. It may be that the…. [read more]

Marketing Plan a Sports Enterprise Essay

… The engagement of the sports center representatives in public relations through the granting of interviews in the local media and the hosting of conferences to promote the benefits of a sports center, and also the offer of their sport center.

The delegation of representatives to schools in order to promote the offer of the sports center. In this effort, it is important to also ensure that the information is passed on to the parents, through, for instance, the issuance of printed materials for the children to take home and show their parents.

5. Implementation and control

A final issue which has to be addressed at this stage is represented by the actual implementation of the sports marketing process, which could be completed as revealed below:…. [read more]

Gender in Sports Research Paper

… Gender in Sports

In the opinion of this author, in the sports of modern society, the status of male and female should be equal. To support this position, we well examine the history and development of male and female sports and then contrast it with the status of males and females in sports in modern society. The reasons for this status will be examined including genetics and sports technology, government input and commercial input into the sports field. This evidence will support the author's opinion that Now, female's status is fast approaching the male's because their ways of training and playing sports are becoming closer.

Contrary to popular opinion, there are ancient models for the equality of men and sports in the ancient world. In…. [read more]

Starting a Sports Program at a Newly Built High School Research Paper

… Starting a Sports Program at a Newly Built High School

The new high school which has been opened in the region is in dire need of a sports program. In the creation and implementation of the needed sports program, a multitude of elements have to be addressed. At a most primary level, logistics considerations have to be resolved, such as the location of the sports center or the equipments it will integrate. Secondly, it would be important to identify the staffing needs for the sports program and to pin point to the specific employees which are required.

The modern day society is market by a dynamic rate of evolution and rapid change. In this context, people are continually under pressure, work long hours and do…. [read more]

Sports on Self-Esteem: An Investigational Term Paper

… The study is limited because of the small sample size and amount of time allocated to conducting the study. The study did also show that even among students who did not report participation in sports, a high level of self-esteem exists. Thus the researcher may conclude that while sports participation may relate to an overall sense of wellness and high self-esteem, a number of factors probably contribute to this rather than one factor. Additional studies will have to be carried out to determine the exact relationship that exists between sports participation and self-esteem.


Interview Questions Athletes

1) Do you believe your involvement in sports has impacted your self-esteem in a positive manner?

2) Do you feel pressure to act a certain way or behave…. [read more]

World Cup Unifying the Globe Research Paper

… Sports

World Cup: Unifying the Globe

In almost every country of the world, the way that the national pastime is played is seen as a guide to national character and identity. For nearly 100 years, soccer has united a divided world. Soccer was invented in England in the mid-19th century, and rapidly spread to Europe and South America. Soccer's world cup draws an audience larger than that for the Olympics. According to Franklin Foer's How Soccer Explains the World (2004), American hostility toward soccer is attributed to globalization, feared by many because it forces us to accept other people's cultures (Szymanski and Zimbalist, 2005

In every sport it is easy to find a player, a team or a nation that is on the edge of…. [read more]

Sport Medicine Clinic Business Proposal

… Electronic Health Records (EHR) -- Pharmacy

Sports Medicine Clinic

This is a plan to develop, open, and operate a sports medicine clinic in Scranton, Pennsylvania, the Scranton Sports Medicine Clinic, serving the Scranton region with "urgent care" for sports medicine injuries, outpatient surgical treatment and rehabilitation.

Market Opportunity

The population of Scranton is estimated at about 72,485 (Scranton, Pennsylvania, n.d.). It is the largest city in the Lackawanna valley region of Pennsylvania, with surrounding communities including Wilkes-Barre, Carbondale, and Pittston. The Scranton-Wilkes Barre, Pennsylvania Metropolitan Statistical Area has an estimated population of 549,430 (Wilkes-Barr, Pennsylvania, n.d.). The region shows healthy economic status and growth prospects. In the past five years, Scranton has added approximately 6,950 jobs (Keystone Edge, 2010).

Together, Scranton and Wilkes-Barre communities have…. [read more]

Sports Injuries Competitive Sports Participation Term Paper

… Therefore, adults should take a positive approach, set reasonable expectations of their children's physical and psychosocial abilities and learn to control their emotions.

It is imperative for parents to remember and emphasize children's motives for sport participation (having fun, being with friends, learning skills, improving health and fitness, etc.) and not to substitute them with their own motives (winning, earning social prestige, pursuing sport career, etc.)

Organization / Administration

Sport administrators should have a thorough understanding of structural and functional differences that exist between children and adults and design sport programs that are safe in both training and competition.

Special education / certification programs (clinics, seminars) have to be organized and systematically implemented for coaches working with the children of the defined age group.

Not…. [read more]

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